原标题: 济南中医药附属医院妇科咨询中国门户
China#39;s state-controlled grid operator is proposing to invest roughly 0 billion on technology to transmit electricity over long distances─presenting President Xi Jinping#39;s administration with an important test of how it treats China#39;s biggest government-controlled companies.中国政府控制的电网运营商提出投资约1,000亿美元用于研发长距离输电技术。此举给习近平为首的新一届政府出了一道重要考题,外界可以从中看出新一届政府将如何对待中国最大的几家政府控制的企业。The infrastructure project, among the most expensive ever proposed in China, has stirred debate among energy experts. State Grid Corp. of China says building a nationwide network of ultrahigh-voltage transmission lines will reduce power losses when transporting electricity over long distances. That will enable power producers to place dirty, coal-burning power stations nearer to mines rather than cities, cutting urban air pollution. The lines will also allow China to tap renewable wind and hydro resources in remote regions.这一基础设施项目可以算是中国迄今提出的成本最高的一个项目,同时也在能源专家中引发争议。中国国家电网公司(State Grid Corp. of China)说,在全国范围内建设一个超高压输电线路网络能够在长距离输电时降低功率损耗。这样发电厂就能将污染严重的燃煤电厂建在离煤矿较近的地方,而不是靠近城市,这能减少城市空气污染。这样的超高压输电线路还能令中国利用偏远地区的风电和水电等可再生能源。But skeptics question the project#39;s viability and its high costs. Others criticize the plan because they say a big state investment would strengthen State Grid#39;s position when many want it broken up as a precursor to making electricity pricing more market-oriented.但怀疑者质疑该项目的可行性及其高昂的成本。其他人批评这一计划则是因为在他们看来,政府进行这样一大笔投资会进一步巩固国家电网的地位。眼下很多人希望分拆国家电网,以此作为电价定价市场化程度提高的前奏。The project could have repercussions abroad. The company has spent heavily on assets in Australia, Portugal and Brazil in recent years, and company executives are eager to apply expertise in ultrahigh-voltage transmissions to other emerging economies, such as Brazil, that may choose to transport electricity over long distances.该项目可能在国外产生反响。国家电网近年来在澳大利亚、葡萄牙和巴西的资产上投入巨资,该公司高管渴望将其在超高压输电方面的专业技术应用到巴西等其它新兴经济体上。这些新兴经济体可能选择长距离输电方案。Analysts say whether the government fully embraces rolling out State Grid#39;s proposed ultrahigh-voltage network will send a signal about the approach of China#39;s new leaders toward state monopolies, which have been instrumental in building China#39;s economy rapidly but are widely considered to be rife with corruption and inefficiency. State Grid supplies power to 1.1 billion people, and it has more than 0 billion in assets and 1.9 million employees.分析师说,无论中国政府最终是否会完全认可国家电网提出的超高压输电网络方案,此事都将释放出一个信号,即中国新一代领导人会如何应对国有垄断企业。在中国经济快速增长的过程中,国有垄断企业发挥了作用,但普遍认为此类企业腐败盛行且效率低下。国家电网向国内11亿民众供电,其资产规模超过3,500亿美元,员工数量为190万人。Whether Mr. Xi seeks to overhaul State Grid #39;will be a test of the new government, whether their reform agenda actually goes into the energy sector or whether they think it#39;s too difficult technically or politically,#39; says Philip Andrews-Speed, who researches China energy governance at the National University of Singapore.新加坡国立大学(National University of Singapore)研究中国能源治理的安德鲁斯-斯彼得(Philip Andrews-Speed)说,习近平是否打算改革国家电网将成为摆在新一届中国政府面前的一道考题。从中可以看出其改革议程是否真的打算涉足能源业,也可以看出他们是否认为这一改革在技术上或政治上难度过大。Discussions are under way to introduce greater competition and improve the performance of China#39;s most important state-owned enterprises more broadly in the economy as well.目前正在讨论的内容包括,引入更多竞争,更广泛地提升中国经济中最重要的国有企业的绩效。Then-Premier Wen Jiabao last year criticized the lack of rivals for China#39;s state-controlled banks. In March Chinese leaders announced a shake-up of the country#39;s troubled railroads and eliminated the railways ministry. Breaking up the once-powerful ministry, which had sagged beneath heavy debt and been stung by corruption allegations, was seen by analysts as a step toward introducing greater competition in the sector. The government also has taken modest steps to liberalize a telecommunications industry long dominated by three state-run providers. Beijing says it will require the carriers to lease out services on their networks to private companies.去年,时任中国总理的温家宝曾批评中国国有缺乏竞争对手。今年3月,中国领导人宣布陷入困境的铁路系统进行重大人事调整,并撤销了铁道部。在分析师看来,分拆曾经权力巨大的铁道部是朝在铁道系统引入更多竞争的方向迈出了一步。铁道部背负了沉重的债务负担,同时深受诸多腐败问题困扰。中国政府也已经采取温和举措放开长期以来被三大国有运营商把持的电信业。北京表示,它将要求运营商对民营企业出租其网络上的部分务。Questions over electricity supply and a potential overhaul of the power grid are particularly sensitive in China, where power-intensive industries are crucial to economic growth and a reliable power supply is a basic requirement for manufacturers of everything from clothing to iPhones.有关电力供应以及可能对电网进行重大改革的问题在中国尤为敏感。在中国,用电大户行业对中国经济增长非常关键,而可靠的电力供应对于各类生产企业来说都是一项基本要求,无论其制造的是装还是iPhone。During China#39;s annual parliamentary session in March, State Grid Chairman Liu Zhenya promoted ultrahigh-voltage technology as central to reducing hazardous levels of fine particulate matter in the air. The company and industry analysts say the network also would relieve the strain on railways, which carry coal from the less densely populated North and West to power plants in population centers of the East.今年3月全国两会召开期间,国家电网公司董事长刘振亚提出,超高压输电技术是降低空气中有害的细小颗粒物水平的关键。国家电网和行业分析师说,这一输电网络也能减轻铁路系统的压力。目前,火车将煤从人口密度较低的西北部地区运至东部人口中心的发电厂。#39;Our national conditions require this kind of technology,#39; says Zhang Zhengling, deputy director of State Grid#39;s development-and-planning department.国家电网发展策划部副主任张正陵说,我们的国情决定我们需要这种技术。The company was formed in 2002 through the breakup of the former China State Power Corp. into separate entities responsible for either power generation or transmission and distribution. The company covers vast swaths of territory, from remote Tibetan communities in the Himalayas to manufacturing centers on the East Coast. A second company, China Southern Power Grid Co., controls transmission and distribution in parts of southern China.该公司于2002年组建,当时前中国国家电力公司一分为多个实体,分别负责发电和输配电。该公司覆盖大片地区,从偏远的喜马拉雅山藏区到东部沿海的制造业中心。另有一家公司中国南方电网有限责任公司(China Southern Power Grid Co.)控制着中国南方部分地区的输配电。State Grid over the past decade consolidated its dominant position as it extended its network to keep pace with breakneck economic growth and soaring power production. From 2010 to last year, China added around 180 gigawatts of power-generating capacity─more than Germany#39;s overall capacity in 2010.过去10年中,国家电网扩大网络规模,以便跟上中国飞速的经济增长和不断飙升的电力生产。从2010年到去年,中国新增发电容量约1.8亿千瓦,比德国2010年的总发电容量还要高。Ultrahigh-voltage transmission is one of State Grid#39;s most ambitious initiatives. The company began operating three ultrahigh-voltage lines in recent years and four others are under construction.超高压输电是国家电网最宏大的计划之一。近年来,该公司开始运营三条超高压输电线路,另有四条在施工建设中。State Grid is seeking approval for at least 14 additional lines that would require more than 350 billion yuan, or roughly billion, in investment. Overall investment in State Grid#39;s proposed ultrahigh-voltage network would top 584 billion yuan ( billion), it says.国家电网另有至少14个输电线路建设项目正在争取获得批准,总计需要投资逾人民币3,500亿元。国家电网说,该公司拟建的超高压输电网络总投资将达人民币5,840亿元。China isn#39;t the first country to experiment with ultrahigh-voltage transmission. The U.S., Japan and the former Soviet Union experimented with ultrahigh-voltage technology in recent decades. But a variety of factors, including stagnant power demand, meant lines weren#39;t rolled out as widely as has been proposed in China.中国并非第一个尝试超高压输电的国家。近几十年中,美国、日本和前苏联都曾尝试过超高压技术。但由于各种因素,包括电力需求停滞不前,这些国家超高压输电线路的规模都不及中国拟建的规模大。State Grid#39;s scale is widely credited as a reason China has been able to build its network so rapidly over the past decade and helps ensure that the power supply in manufacturing centers keeps pace with demand.国家电网的规模被普遍认为是过去10年中国能够迅速构建网络,保制造业中心的电力供应可以满足需求的原因之一。But as Chinese growth moderates, Mr. Xi#39;s government has a new priority. It wants to rebalance the Chinese economy away from a lopsided reliance on government investment and exports and toward greater domestic consumption. Ensuring that industrial and commercial electricity consumers are charged a fair rate is pivotal to that transformation.但随着中国经济增长放缓,习近平领导的政府有了一个新的首要任务。政府希望实现中国经济从严重依赖政府投资和出口到内需拉动的转型。确保对工业和商业电力消费者收费合理对实现经济转型至关重要。But linking grid fees more closely with coal prices is a challenge, analysts say. Chinese power generators#39; earnings have been squeezed in recent years by high prices for coal, their main feedstock. The companies have struggled to pass rising costs onto consumers as grid fees remain regulated.但分析人士说,将电价与煤价更紧密地挂钩是一项挑战。近年来,中国发电企业的收益因高煤价而受到挤压。煤炭是发电企业的主要原料。由于电价仍受到监管部门的控制,发电企业一直难以将不断上升的成本转嫁给消费者。Structural issues also have hampered pricing changes. Because State Grid has a monopoly on buying and selling electricity across most of the country, it is able to justify charging end users higher electricity prices by overstating its transmission and distribution costs, according to some analysts. They say regulators have struggled to ascertain State Grid#39;s true costs and profit as electricity moves through the grid.各种结构性问题也一直在阻碍定价的调整。据一些分析人士说,由于国家电网在中国大部分地区的电力买卖中占据垄断地位,它能通过夸大输配电成本为自己向最终用户收取更高的电价找到理由。他们说,由于电力在电网中传输,监管机构一直难以确定国家电网的真实成本和利润。#39;You can#39;t get a rationale pricing structure until you can force State Grid to unveil what its costs are,#39; says Arthur Kroeber, managing director of economic research firm GaveKal Dragonomics.经济研究公司龙洲经讯(GaveKal Dragonomics)董事总经理葛艺豪(Arthur Kroeber)说,除非能迫使国家电网公布其成本,否则无法得到一个合理的定价结构。State Grid says regulators sit in its Beijing headquarters and are aware of the company#39;s costs and earnings.国家电网说,监管人员就坐在其北京总部内,清楚其成本和盈利情况。Early signals from China#39;s new leadership suggest that a push for power overhaul is on the way. At the National People#39;s Congress, China#39;s government said it would merge the National Energy Administration with the State Electricity Regulatory Commission. Analysts say combining the regulators would strengthen the NEA as it seeks electricity-sector changes partially directed at State Grid.中国新一代领导人发出的早期信号显示,即将开始推进电力改革。在全国人大上,中国政府说,将把国家电力监管委员会并入国家能源局。分析人士说,目前国家能源局正寻求进行电力行业改革,部分是针对国家电网,将这两家监管机构合二为一有可能扩大国家能源局的权力。Concerns over power reliability continue to weigh on the government, says Lin Boqiang, who runs the China Center for Energy Economics Research at Xiamen University and advises Beijing on energy issues. The underlying fear is that too aggressive an overhaul could disrupt power supply, which in turn could threaten economic or social stability.厦门大学中国能源经济研究中心主任、在能源问题上为北京提供建议的林伯强说,围绕电力可靠性的担忧继续给政府带来重压;根本的担心是过于激进的改革可能会扰乱电力供应,进而可能威胁经济或社会稳定。#39;People know in general what needs to be done,#39; Mr. Lin says. #39;The point is, at this moment, it#39;s very confusing.#39;林伯强说,人们大体知道需要做些什么,但问题是目前的局面非常混乱。 /201306/243451

Huawei has given up its quest to conquer the market for telecoms network equipment in the US, where the Chinese company’s sales efforts have been blocked by security fears.华为已经放弃征美国电信网络设备市场的努力。由于美国方面的安全担忧,华为在美国的销售受到阻碍。“We are not interested in the US market any more,” Eric Xu, executive vice-president, said at the company’s analyst meeting yesterday. The world’s second-largest supplier of network gear by revenue has shifted the focus of expansion away from the US over the past year.华为执行副总裁徐直军(Eric Xu)昨天在公司的分析师会议上说:“我们已经对美国市场不再感兴趣。”过去的一年中,华为已经将扩张重心转移出美国。按营收计,华为是全球第二大网络设备供应商。US security officials and politicians have repeatedly identified Huawei as a threat to US national security – an allegation that the Chinese company has denied.美国安全官员和政治家一直认为华为对美国国家安全构成威胁,而华为否认这一指控。Although Huawei has done business with 45 of the world’s top carriers, it failed to get contracts from any leading operators in the US.尽管华为已经与全球45个顶级运营商开展业务,却没有与美国任何主要运营商达成合约。In October, a US congressional report officially branded Huawei and ZTE, its smaller Chinese peer, a threat to national security.去年10月,美国国会的一份报告正式给华为和中兴(ZTE)贴上“国家安全威胁”的标签。Despite its success in other markets, including the UK, Huawei has struggled in the US for years because of concerns among politicians and security officials about the military background of its founder Ren Zhengfei, a former People’s Liberation Army officer.尽管在包括英国在内的其他市场获得了成功,由于美国政治家和安全官员对华为创始人任正非军方背景的担忧,华为在美国已经挣扎了数年。任正非以前是中国人民解放军的一名军官。In 2008, Huawei retracted a bid for 3Com, a US technology company, after it emerged that the proposed deal would not gain regulatory approval in Washington.2008年,华为取消竞购美国技术公司3Com,原因是交易无法获得华盛顿的监管批准。Two years later, Huawei bid for a multibillion-dollar contract to supply network infrastructure to Sprint Nextel, one of the top US operators, but lost after Washington intervened.两年后,华为参与一项为美国主要运营商之一Sprint Nextel供应网络基础设施的数十亿美元合约的竞标,在华盛顿干预下失利。In response to these and other setbacks, Huawei launched a US lobbying campaign. It also hired a number of senior executives from ailing rivals such as Nortel and Motorola, in an effort to build a massive US research and development presence and specifically target leading carriers such as AT and T, Verizon and Sprint. But October’s congressional report made it even more difficult for the company to do business in the US, Huawei executives say.为了应对种种挫折,华为在美国展开了游说活动。华为还从北电网络(Nortel)和托罗拉(Motorola)等境况不佳的对手延揽了多名高级管理人员,主要是为了在美国创建大规模研发队伍,并把目标对准AT and T、Verizon以及斯普林特(Sprint)等主要运营商。但华为高管表示,美国国会去年10月的报告使得华为在美国开展业务更加困难。Huawei also yesterday revised downwards the outlook for its enterprise business, its youngest but fastest-growing division. William Xu, the unit’s chief executive, said its goal of generating bn in revenues from the business by 2017 – a target set just last year – was “too optimistic”. The company is now aiming for bn.昨天,华为还下调了对企业业务部门的业绩预期,这是公司最年轻、也是增长最快的业务部。该部门总裁徐文伟(William Xu)认为,去年才制定的在2017年之前创收150亿美元的目标“过于乐观”。华为目前已经将这一目标调整为100亿美元。 /201304/236579

Startups devise some fairly clever tactics to sell investors on their business models, but Russian tech entrepreneur Dmitry Itskov#39;s newest venture sells itself: Invest in his new research and development interest and the payoff could be immortality. A new corporate entity that the Russian multi-millionaire will formally announce at an event in June will allow investors to bankroll research into neuroscience and human consciousness with the ultimate goal of transferring human minds into robots, extending human life indefinitely. Early investors will be first in line for the technology when it matures, something Itskov believes will happen in the 2040s.创业公司想出各种非常聪明的办法来向投资者推销自己的商业模式,但俄罗斯科技创业家德米特里?伊茨科夫的最新事业本身就是卖点:投资他的研发新项目,回报可能会是获得永生。这位俄罗斯大富豪将在今年6月的一次活动上正式宣布成立一家新的公司实体,为投资者提供机会,资助神经系统科学和人类意识的研究,最终把人的意识移植到机器人身上,从而无限期延长人类寿命。等到这项技术成熟(伊茨科夫认为这将在21世纪40年代实现)时,早期投资者可以优先使用。Over lunch with reporters last week, 32-year-old Itskov outlined a rough roadmap for the future of his 2045 Initiative, a multi-decade research and development push to understand human consciousness and ultimately how to transfer it from human bodies into robotic avatars. When Itskov first became serious about selling off his Russian Internet concerns to pursue what he calls ;the next evolutionary step for humanity; a few years ago, he had hoped to do so in a non-profit manner. But now, he says, he realizes that a business case is the best case for moving the project forward.上周,在与记者共进午餐时,32岁的伊茨科夫粗略描绘了他“2045行动”的未来路线图。这个持续数十年的研发项目旨在弄清楚人类的意识,最终找到将人类意识从人体移植到机器人化身中的办法。几年前,伊茨科夫第一次开始认真地考虑出售他的俄罗斯互联网公司,以便追求他所说的“人类下一个进化步骤”。当时,他曾希望通过非盈利方式来完成。但现在他说,他意识到商业模式才是推动这个项目发展的最好方法。;In the beginning I thought once we raised this question it would be obvious to people that this is possible and everyone would be interested,; Itskov says. ;It was naive thinking, I have to be honest. I understand now that I shouldn#39;t neglect those business aspects that I tried to avoid when I started thinking about this idea. We have to create business opportunities in this process or nobody will be interested over the next ten or twenty years, especially the entrepreneurs that could potentially afford to do this.;“起初,我们提出这个项目时我曾认为,人们显然会相信这有可能实现,所有人都会感兴趣,”伊茨科夫说。“但我不得不承认,这个想法太天真了。现在我已经明白,我不应该忽略我在开始构思这个项目时试图回避的那些商业问题。我们必须在这个过程中创造商业机会,否则没人会对今后十年或二十年感兴趣,尤其是那些有钱投资这个项目的企业家。”The 2045 Initiative is a complex and expensive research project, but its goals are fairly straightforward. First, by 2020 scientists will figure out how to control robots via brain-machine interfaces (: mind control). By 2025 the goal is to place a human brain into a working robot and have that person#39;s consciousness (memories, personality, and everything else that makes up the ;self;) transfer along with it. After that things tip very seriously over into the realm of science fiction, as the later stages of the project aim to create robots with artificial brains to which human consciousness can be uploaded (by 2035) and, finally, completely disembodied consciousness that is something like a hologram version of a person#39;s mind.“2045行动”是一向异常复杂、耗资巨大的研究项目,但它的目标相当明确。首先,到2020年,科学家们将解决如何通过脑机接口(也就是意识控制)来控制机器人的问题。到2025年,目标是把人脑移植到机器人身上,让那个人的意识(记忆,性格以及构成“自我”的其他所有东西)也一同转移。此后则进入了科幻领域。这个项目后期阶段的目标是创造具有人工大脑的机器人,接着把人的意识上传到人工大脑(到2035年),最后使意识彻底脱离肉体,就好比是个人意识的全息图。If this all sounds a little crazy, Itskov says, that#39;s because it is. But it#39;s certainly not impossible. He likens the initiative to the U.S. space program, whose ultimate achievements seemed impossible in 1939, three decades prior to the moon landing. And, as with the space program, Itskov sees the 2045 Initiative as an engine for technological and economic development, one that will drive discovery in neuroscience, robotics, artificial intelligence—even spirituality. When Itskov begins leafing through slides on his laptop highlighting very real, very sophisticated brain-machine interface technologies that aly exist in research labs today, the first phase of his project suddenly feels more realistic. The later phases of the 2045 Initiative still seem to border on the impossible, but Itskov is completely confident that technology will evolve to conquer these seemingly insurmountable challenges.伊茨科夫说,如果这听起来有点疯狂,那是因为本就如此,但并非不可能实现。他把这个项目比作美国太空计划。1939年,也就是登月前30年,美国太空计划的最终目标也似乎不可能实现。和太空计划一样,伊茨科夫把“2045行动”视为技术和经济发展的引擎,将推动神经系统科学、机器人技术、人工智能甚至灵学的进步。当伊茨科夫开始在笔记本电脑上翻阅幻灯片,展示如今实验室里已有的那些非常真实、非常先进的脑机接口技术时,这个项目的第一阶段突然之间显得更加可行了。“2045 行动”的后期阶段似乎仍然不太可能实现,但伊茨科夫完全相信,技术的进步将征这些看似不可逾越的挑战。 /201303/232054

While the concept of 6-year-olds texting one another from across the playground or placing calls from kindergarten cubbies may sound like a hilarious premise, it’s also a stunning inevitability of our burgeoning mobile age.6岁的孩子隔着操场互发短信,或是在幼儿园的小教室里打电话,听起来似乎是挺搞笑的一幕,但是随着移动时代的迅速发展,这一幕将成为不可避免的现实。The Swedish communications giant Ericsson has released a new mobility report claiming that, by the year 2020, 90 percent of the world’s population aged 6 years and over will have mobile phones. At that point, Ericsson estimates total smartphone subscriptions will number 6.1 billion; there are an estimated 2.7 million total smartphone subscribers today.瑞典通讯业巨头爱立信公司(Ericsson)近日发布了一份移动业报告称,到2020年,全球不低于6岁的人口中,90%都将拥有移动电话。据爱立信预测,届时全球智能手机用户总数将达到61亿人。而目前全球的智能手机用户为27亿。And the 6-year-olds in question aren’t merely inheritors of their parents’ defunct devices that exclusively run apps and games. The report’s executive editor, Patrick Cerwall, told Entrepreneur that the figure had been calculated by looking at active phones connected to a network.而那些6岁的孩子并非只是用从父母那儿“退休”的设备玩玩游戏和应用而已。该报告的执行编辑帕特里克o塞瓦尔对《企业家》杂志表示,这个数字是根据联网的活跃手机的数量计算出来的。The report was chock full of other eye-popping finds. The fastest areas of growth for new mobile subscriptions, Ericsson said, are India and China. Additionally, is the largest and fastest-growing segment of mobile data traffic, comprising 45 to 55 percent of all 4G-dominated networks.该报告还有很多其它惊人的发现。爱立信公司指出,智能手机新用户增长最快的地区是印度和中国。此外,视频功能是耗费移动数据流量最多、也是增长最快的部分,占所有4G网络的45%到55%。Finally, with the commercial deployment of 5G — the next generation of mobile standards — by 2020, subscriptions are bound to increase even faster, just as 4G caused a greater spike in subscriptions than 3G, Ericsson said.最后爱立信公司还表示,随着下一代移动网络标准——5G网络的商用,到2020年,移动用户的增长速度还会更快,就像4G用户的增长速度要明显超过3G一样。 /201411/344391Two stem-cell researchers have won this year#39;s Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their groundbreaking work in cellular reprogramming, a technique that unleashed a wave of advances in biology, from cloning to the possible treatment of diseases using a patient#39;s own cells.两位干细胞研究者因其在细胞重新编程方面的开创型工作,获得了今年诺贝尔生理或医学奖。细胞重新编程技术引发了一轮生物学进步浪潮,其中包括克隆以及有可能使用病人自身细胞来治愈疾病。Experiments by John B. Gurdon of the ed Kingdom and Shinya Yamanaka of Japan showed that mature cells taken from the body could be changed to an embryonic-like state in a laboratory dish, a head-spinning discovery that is the biological equivalent of turning back time.英国人格登(John B. Gurdon)和日本人山中伸弥(Shinya Yamanaka)的试验表明,取自人体的成熟细胞可在实验室培养皿中转变为类似胚胎状态的细胞。这是一项令人震惊的发现,在生物学上相当于将时光倒转。Their work #39;has changed the accepted dogma#39; that mature cells are condemned to exist in a specialized state, said Martin Evans, a British stem-cell pioneer who shared the 2007 Nobel Prize for medicine, in an interview.英国干细胞研究先驱、曾于2007年分享诺贝尔医学奖的埃文斯(Martin Evans)在接受采访时说,他们的工作改变了人们认为的成熟细胞只能存活于特定状态下的固有看法。Cellular reprogramming triggered the rewriting of biology textbooks and spawned thousands of new experiments in labs around the world. It led to the first cloned animal-a frog-and to the first cloned mammal, Dolly the sheep. It also paved the way for deriving embryonic-like stem cells without destroying human embryos, sidestepping an ethically contentious approach.细胞重新编程引发了生物教科书的改写,在世界各地的试验室里催生了成千上万项新试验。这项技术带来了世界上首只克隆动物──青蛙,进而又出现了首只克隆哺乳动物──绵羊多莉。此外,该技术还为在不破坏人类胚胎的情况下获取类胚胎干细胞铺平了道路,从而避免采用具有伦理争议的干细胞提取方法。Once cellular reprogramming is used to turn mature cells into embryonic-like ones, those cells can be further manipulated and turned into heart, nerve, muscle and virtually all other tissues types. This freshly made tissue-from an Alzheimer#39;s patient, for example-could be inexpensively grown and studied in a lab dish.一旦细胞重新编程被用于将成熟细胞转变为类胚胎细胞,这些细胞就可以被进一步培养成心脏、神经、肌肉等几乎一切组织细胞。例如,从患阿尔茨海默病的人身上新获取的组织可在试验室经培养和研究,且花费不多。Drug firms have aly started to test drugs on human tissue made through reprogramming. Next year, fresh retinal cells derived in this way will be transplanted into people for the first time, in a Japanese trial for patients with an eye disease known as macular degeneration.制药企业已开始对通过重新编程获得的人体组织进行药物试验。明年,用这种方法获得的新生视网膜细胞将首次被移入人体,在日本对患有黄斑病变眼疾的病人进行临床试验治疗。Scientists used to believe the fate of our cells was a one-way trip. We start as a fertilized egg; become an embryo consisting of immature, undifferentiated cells; then gradually develop into a body of specialist cells, including blood, bone, muscle and skin.科学家过去认为,细胞的生长是不可逆的。我们始于一个受精卵,然后成为由不成熟、未分化的细胞组成的胚胎,再逐渐发育为由专门细胞构成的个体,包括血液、骨骼、肌肉和皮肤。In 1962, Dr. Gurdon, while trying to understand how simple, undifferentiated cells became all the other cells in the body, performed an audacious experiment. He removed the DNA from a frog egg and replaced it with the DNA of a mature cell taken from a tadpole. The egg developed into a healthy, cloned tadpole. (The same approach would be used to create Dolly the sheep in 1996.)1962年,格登还在努力了解未分化的简单细胞是如何变成人体内所有其它细胞的,那时他就做了一项大胆的试验。格登从一枚青蛙卵子中移除DNA,再将从蝌蚪身上提取的成熟细胞的DNA放入这枚卵子内,后来该卵子发育成一只健康的克隆蝌蚪。(1996年克隆羊多莉的诞生也是用的这种方法。)The frog experiment was an effort to answer #39;a pure scientific question about how we came to be formed. There was no foreseeable therapeutic benefit,#39; said Dr. Gurdon in an interview. Now 79, Dr. Gurdon is a professor at the Gurdon Institute, part of Cambridge University.格登接受采访时说,那个青蛙试验其实是在努力回答有关我们是如何形成的纯科学问题,当时并没有可预见的治疗益处。如今,79岁的格登是英国剑桥大学(Cambridge University)格登学院(Gurdon Institute)的一名教授。Dr. Yamanaka, 50, was born in the year Dr. Gurdon did his frog experiment. Dr. Yamanaka would eventually ponder a related question: Could the Gurdon reprogramming trick be done without using eggs-which, in human cases, can be hard to come by?山中伸弥今年50岁,他出生的那年格登正在做青蛙试验,而他也终将思考一个相关问题:格登的重新编程技术能否在不用卵子的情况下完成?具体到人类试验上,这一点很难做到。Dr. Yamanaka had the answer a few years later. He demonstrated that by adding just four genes to a mature cell, he could turn it into an embryonic-like state. He first achieved this with mouse cells, and in 2007 he reported the same result for human cells. He transformed those cells, in turn, into heart, nerve and other human tissue in a lab.山中伸弥在几年后得到了。他向世人明,只需将四个基因引入一个成熟细胞,就可将该细胞转变为类胚胎状态。他首先用老鼠细胞成功做到这一点,然后在2007年又宣布用人类细胞成功完成了这一转变。他将那些细胞在试验室里依次培养为了心脏、神经和其它人类组织细胞。#39;Without [Dr. Gurdon#39;s] work we would never have started this risky project 12 years ago,#39; said Dr. Yamanaka, who is a professor at Kyoto University and affiliated with the Gladstone Institutes in San Francisco, in an interview.山中伸弥在接受采访时说,没有格登的工作,我们永远不会在12年前着手这项有风险的项目。山中伸弥是日本京都大学(Kyoto University)教授兼美国旧金山格莱斯顿研究院(Gladstone Institutes)高级研究员。 /201210/203212Apple and Samsung#39;s purported desire to create a ;smart; watch to pair with their smartphones seems to be an incredibly dumb idea. The two, usually wise, companies would be making a grave mistake entering the low-margin cellular accessory market, where the competition is fierce and the barriers to entry are incredibly low. Furthermore, the utility of such a device seems questionable, likely appealing to a limited subset of consumers of unfashionable geeks and pudgy weekend warriors.坊间盛传苹果公司(Apple)和三星公司(Samsung)要打造一个“智能”手表来匹配他们自己的智能手机。这个想法似乎是个蠢到家的主意。这两家一贯明智的公司如果进入低利润率的手机配件市场,那将是一个不可挽回的错误。因为这个市场竞争极其激烈,同时进入门槛低得出奇。再者,这个新玩意儿的实用性也让人怀疑,它很可能只会吸引一小部分不入流的技术极客和那些胖乎乎的周末健身族。Rumors that Apple (AAPL) is developing a watch to pair with its iPhone have been swirling around for a while now. The word on the street in Silicon Valley is that the company has about 100 designers working on the product. Nevertheless, there has been little in the way of substantive proof to back up the assertions—no leaked photos, just questionable Photoshop mockups.苹果正在开发一款和iPhone搭配的手表,这个传言已经流传了好一段时间。硅谷的街头巷议还传言说,苹果现在投入了100多位设计师开发这个产品。不过,还没有什么可靠的据持这个传言——没看到谍照,只有一些用Photoshop加工过的伪照。But that apparently isn#39;t stopping Samsung, Apple#39;s biggest rival in the handset market, from developing a smartwatch of its own to counter the phantom Apple product. Lee Young Hee, Samsung#39;s chief executive, told Bloomberg News in an interview that his company has been, ;preparing the watch product for so long,; and that Samsung was, ;working very hard to get y for it.;但很显然,这种情况并没有阻止苹果在手机市场的最大对手——三星开发自己的智能手表,以对抗传说中的苹果产品。三星移动业务执行副总裁李永熙最近接受《彭新闻》( Bloomberg News)采访时表示,三星已经“在智能手表开发准备了很长时间,”并“正全力以赴地为它做好各项准备。”It is unclear what a ;smartwatch; by either Apple or Samsung will actually do, but it doesn#39;t take the brainpower of 100 gifted Apple product engineers to figure it out. That#39;s because there are aly a bevy of ;smartwatches; on the market and they pretty much all do the same thing.苹果或三星开发的所谓“智能手表”到底有什么功能目前还不得而知,但它实在用不上100位天赋出众的苹果产品工程师为它绞尽脑汁地工作。因为市面上已经有很多“智能手表”了,而且它们的功能都大同小异。The watch, usually inlaid in a tacky plastic band, connects to a smartphone via Bluetooth to deliver notifications from your phone to its tiny screen. The watch will alert you if you have an incoming call, by displaying the name and number of the contact, and some even display text messages. The watch can also control some apps and the phone#39;s music player, as well. Oh, and they all can tell you the time, too.这种手表通常是嵌在一条俗气的塑料腕带里,通过蓝牙和智能手机连接,把手机上的各种信息传输到它的小屏幕上。比如,如果你有来电,它就会显示来电人姓名和电话号码,有些还能显示短信。这种手表还能控制一些应用和手机上的音乐播放器。哦,对了,它们还能显示时间。The idea of a smartwatch isn#39;t new. Microsoft (MSFT), the king of failed digital products, rolled out its ;SPOT; smartwatch to much fanfare in 2002 only to see it crater a few years later. The SPOT used FM radio signals to deliver real-time information to the watch, such as weather, traffic and sports scores. It didn#39;t link up with your phone. (Back then, phones were still dummies.)智能手表这种创意一点都不新鲜。比如,失败数码产品之王微软公司(Microsoft)2002年就曾经大张旗鼓地推出了它的所谓“SPOT”智能手表,但几年后这玩意儿就销声匿迹了。SPOT通过调频广播信号向手表传输实时信息,比如天气、交通和体育比赛的比分等等。它并不和手机连接(那时候手机还没现在这么智能)。;Imagine how handy it would be to have a travel alarm clock that, in addition to telling time very accurately and auto-adjusting to time-zones, could also wake you to your favorite WMA-encoded music, display information about road closures along your expected travel route, and deliver urgent messages,; Bill Mitchell, general manager of the Microsoft Personal Objects Group, said about the SPOT watch in 2002.微软的个人用品集团(Personal Objects Group)总经理比尔?米切尔2002年曾这么吹嘘了SPOT一番:“想想看,有这么一款旅行闹表该有多方便。它除了能准确显示时间和自动适应不同时区外,还能用你最喜欢的WMA编码音乐叫醒你,能显示你想走的旅行路线上的道路封闭信息,还能发出紧急信息。” /201303/232055

In Japan, the global leader in high-tech toilet design, the latest restroom marvel should come with a health warning for hypochondriacs - it doubles as a medical lab that can really spoil your day.作为高科技马桶设计方面的全球领先者,日本最新设计的一款马桶能为那些怀疑自己生病的人敲响健康警钟,不过这款兼有身体检查功能的马桶真的会让你郁闷一整天。Japanese toilets have long and famously dominated the world of bathroom hygiene with their array of functions, from posterior shower jets to perfume bursts and noise-masking audio effects for the easily-embarrassed.长期以来,日本在卫生洁具方面一直处于世界领先地位,其所设计的马桶因功能多样化而闻名于世,这其中包括背部淋浴喷头、香水喷洒装置以及掩盖人们在上厕所时发出尴尬声音的遮音工具等。The latest ;intelligent; model, manufactured by market leader Toto, goes a step further and isn#39;t for the faint-hearted: it offers its users an instant health check-up every time they answer the call of nature. Designed for the housing company Daiwa House with Japan#39;s growing army of elderly in mind, it provides urine analysis, takes the user#39;s blood pressure and body temperature, and measures their weight with a built-in floor scale.这款最新的;智能;马桶模型由知名卫具公司东陶公司制造,其功能上又有新突破,但不适合胆小者使用:因为这款马桶每次都会对如厕者进行一次即时身体检查。这款马桶是为房产公司大和房建设计的,考虑到日本日益壮大的老年人队伍,这款马桶兼有尿液分析、为使用者量血压和体温,并用其内置地秤为使用者测量体重等多项功能。;Our chairman had the idea when he was at a hospital and saw people waiting for health checks. He thought it would be better if they could do the health tests at home, ; says Akiho Suzuki, an architect at Daiwa House.大和房建的建筑师铃木明步说:;我们的老板在一家医院看见人们排队等待体检时产生了这一想法,他觉得如果人们能在家就做体检会更方便。;Toto#39;s engineers developed a receptacle inside the basin to collect the urine for sugar content and temperature checks, and an armband to monitor blood pressure. The out is displayed on a wall-mounted computer screen.东陶公司的工程师们在马桶上安装了一种尿液收集器,用于检测血糖和体温,并带有监控血压的臂带。检查结果会在安装在墙上的电脑屏幕上显示出来。;With the current model, your data is sent automatically to your personal computer, and then you can email it to your doctor,; said Suzuki. ;In the next generation model, the data will be sent automatically to family members or doctors via the Internet,; she said. The electronic marvel, called the ;Intelligence Toilet;, is capable of storing the data of up to five different people and retails for 350,000 to 500,000 yen (about 4,100 to 5,850 dollars) in Japan, she said. ;For now our customers are essentially middle-aged and senior people. But we hope the young generation will also become more health-conscious.;铃木说:;目前的模型能将你的数据自动传输到你的个人电脑上,然后你可以通过电子邮件发送给你的医生。下一代模型则能将数据自动通过网络发送给你的家庭成员或医生。;她说,这一被称为;智能马桶;的电子卫具能够储存五个人的数据,目前在日本的零售价格为每套35万到50万日元(合4100到5850美元)。;目前我们的顾客主要是中老年人。不过我们希望年轻人也能更加重视自己的健康。;The model is the latest advance in a string of sophisticated toilets, known as ;washlets; in Japan, which have become ubiquitous in recent decades.这一模型是日本高科技马桶系列卫洗丽的一款最新产品,近几十年来,卫洗丽产品在日本已经相当普及。 /201410/334003

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