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2019年10月18日 15:34:57|来源:国际在线|编辑:ask资讯
BEIJING — Ji Wanchang strolled through a Beijing luxury mall one recent morning with an eye out for luxury coats. 北京——最近的一个上午,纪万昌在北京一个豪华购物中心漫步,他在仔细挑选奢华大衣,But at one store, a clerk told him a fur-collared Moncler and other coats were sample sizes and not for sale.但一家商店的售货员告诉他,那里的一件带毛皮领子的盟可睐(Moncler)羽绒及其他大衣都是尺码样品,不出售。A second clerk, selling a wolf fur-lined Yves Salomon, said the coat was reserved.另一位出售伊夫萨露蒙(Yves Salomon)牌的狼毛皮衬里装的售货员说,大衣已被人预定了。Mr Ji sighed. 纪万昌叹了口气。In both cases, the fur wouldn’t match their labels, he suspected — and the clerks knew selling a fake to Mr Ji, who is well known on sight in many of China’s shops, meant big trouble.他怀疑这两件皮大衣都与它们的标签不匹配,而且店员也知道,把它们卖给纪万昌意味着会有大麻烦,他在许多中国商店里都能被人认出来。Ma’am, I don’t want to make things difficult for you, he told a sales clerk, who nodded and bowed. 女士,我不想给你制造麻烦,他对一名售货员说,售货员点着头,向他鞠了个躬。I’ve found problems with your clothes, so please correct them.我发现你们卖的衣有问题,所以请你们自行改正。Mr Ji is what is known in China as a professional counterfeit hunter. 纪万昌在中国从事所谓职业打假的工作,他有点像拉尔夫#8226;纳德(Ralph Nader),也有点像赏金猎人。Part Ralph Nader, part bounty hunter, Mr Ji rummages for fake or substandard goods in shops. 纪万昌在商店里搜寻假商品或不合格的商品。Then, using China’s consumer protection laws, he collects tens of thousands of dollars from the companies that make or sell them. 然后,他利用中国的消费者保护法,从制造或销售这些商品的公司那里索取数万美元的赔偿。The laws are part of China’s growing effort to weed out the fake clothes, electronics, food and furniture that swamp its stores and frustrate companies and consumers alike.消费者保护法是中国不断努力清除假冒商品的行动的一部分,中国的商店里到处都是假牌子的衣、电子设备、食品和家具,让厂家和消费者很无奈。But Mr Ji’s livelihood is now under threat. 但是现在,纪万昌的生计受到了威胁。Some government officials say Mr Ji and the unknown number of others like him abuse a law that was meant merely to empower consumers to report fakes. 一些政府官员表示,纪万昌和像他这样的数量不详的职业打假者在滥用消费者保护法,该法律原来只是为了赋予消费者举报假货的权利。If proposed new government rules get accepted, people like Mr Ji will no longer be able to go pro.如果政府新起草的规则得到通过的话,像纪万昌这样的人将不再能以打假为职业。Even as China grows and matures, and moves to protect brands and ideas, it still struggles with how to get rid of fakes. 即使中国在发展成熟,也开始更加注重保护品牌和创意,但在如何摆脱假货的问题上,情况依然不容乐观。Overseas governments, overseas companies and even its own increasingly choosy consumers complain that China’s counterfeit products hurt brand names and common people alike. 外国政府、海外公司,甚至日益挑剔的消费者自己也抱怨说,中国的假冒产品损害了品牌和普通人的利益。Chinese leaders have stepped up efforts to cull them, in part to protect homegrown companies that are starting to produce their own innovative products. 中国领导人已经加大了打假力度,目的之一是保护正在生产自主创新产品的中国公司。Last year, China’s courts handled about 120,000 intellectual property cases, up 9 percent from 2014, according to official media.去年,据官方媒体报道,中国法院处理了大约12万件知识产权案件,比2014年增长了9%。One anti-fake effort was intended to empower the consumer. 一些打假活动旨在赋予消费者权力。In 2009, the government promised consumers that if they found a product that flouted food safety laws, they could win 10 times the value of that product in compensation. 2009年,政府向消费者承诺,如果发现违反食品安全法的产品,他们可以获得该产品10倍价值的赔偿。In 2013, China bolstered an earlier consumer protection law by increasing payouts to buyers of other kinds of fake goods, while a decision from China’s supreme court was widely seen as supporting counterfeit hunters.2013年,中国通过增加对其他类型假货的买家的赔偿力度,强化了之前发布的消费者保护法,而中国最高法院的一个裁定也被广泛视为对职业打假人的持。Mr Ji and his peers have used these laws to their advantage, buying knockoffs in bulk — the more they turn in, the more they are paid — and filling their storerooms withcounterfeit products. 纪万昌和同行们利用这些法律来获益,他们大量购买仿冒产品——买得越多,获得的赔偿也越多——他们的仓库里装满了假冒产品。Mr Ji’s group, the Jinan Old Ji Anti-Counterfeit Rights Defense Work Studio, has a network of about 20 informers who report suspected fake products. 纪万昌的团队济南老纪维权工作室有大约20个线人,向他们汇报疑似假冒产品。He says his biggest success to date is collecting about 8,000 in compensation from a company that tried to pass off its blankets as pure cashmere.他说迄今为止,他最成功的一个案例是从一家公司那里获得了大约17.8万美元(约合人民币120万元)的赔偿,这家公司出售的毯子号称是纯羊绒的。China’s e-commerce boom has given counterfeit hunters a new front.中国的电子商务繁荣给打假者带来了新的阵地。The main purpose of suing them is to ask them to correct themselves, said Yu Fengsheng, 另一位职业打假人于凤星说,起诉他们的的目的是要他们整改自己。another counterfeit hunter, who chases merchants who sell fakes on online marketplaces run by the Alibaba Group, China’s largest e-commerce company. 喻凤生在中国最大的电商阿里巴巴集团经营的网上集市里寻找销售假冒商品的卖家。He became an e-commerce counterfeit hunter after he bought an item marketed by a merchant on Alibaba’s Tmall platform as a foot treatment and discovered that it was probably just makeup. 最初他在阿里巴巴的天猫超市购买了一款商家所谓脚部护理产品,结果发现它根本是假的,此后他就成为了电商职业打假人。In a statement, Alibaba said it was committed to fighting fakes on its platforms.在一份声明中,阿里巴巴表示将致力于旗下平台的打假。Among overseas companies, people like Mr Ji have fans. 像纪万昌这样的人在海外公司里也有粉丝。A lot of my clients would, in some circumstances, support the activities of these kinds of consumer warriors because ultimately they may be uncovering information that helps us do our job, said Scott Palmer, an intellectual property lawyer at Sheppard, Mullin, Richter amp; Hampton, which represents American corporations in China.美国盛智律师事务所(Sheppard, Mullin, Richteramp; Hampton)的知识产权律师彭明(Scott Palmer)说:在某些情况下,我的很多客户都会持这些打假斗士的活动,因为他们最终可能会发现一些信息,有助于我们做好工作。But government officials complain that the program is increasingly expensive and increasingly abused. 但政府官员也抱怨说,这个法律程序的成本越来越昂贵,遭到滥用的时候也越来越多。Even some foreign business groups complain. 甚至一些外国商业团体也有怨言。Counterfeit hunters often profit from complaints that target minor product labeling errors instead of true quality or safety issues, said James Zimmerman, chairman of the American Chamber of Commerce in China, in emailed comments.中国美国商会主席吉莫曼(James Zimmerman)通过电邮说,职业打假人通常会从小产品的标识错误,而不是真正的质量或安全问题投诉中获利。Proposed government rules released in August and under official consideration said that payouts for fakes would not be available to those who sought them for commercial purposes.政府8月发布了一个拟议的规则,目前处于正式考虑阶段。规定说,为了商业目的而购买这些假货的人不会获得赔偿。Mr Ji, defending his work, says he has to recoup his legal fees, which he incurs when the companies he accuses of selling fakes fight back. 纪万昌辩解说,如果他指控售卖假冒产品的公司进行反击,就会产生法律费用,他需要收回这些成本。He says he makes about 8,000 a year but his take-home pay is only about ,000 to ,000 after expenses.他说自己每年赚大约14.8万美元,但是付了这些费用之后,只有大约3万到4.4万美元的入账。When they encounter a fake product, more than 80 percent of Chinese people will just suck it up and not take it very seriously, as long as their lives are not in danger, Mr Ji said. 80%中国人忍气吞声,面对假货只要不危及生命就不很认真对待,纪万昌说。If there are more professional counterfeit warriors, the quality of goods will improve at once.如果有更多职业打假人,商品质量一下子就提高。Mr Ji never set out to be a consumer rights activist. 纪万昌一开始并没有想过要成为消费者权益活动人士。Born in the northern region of Inner Mongolia, he was so poor he could not afford to enroll in a university. 他出生在内蒙古北部,家里很穷,读不起大学。His jobs have included running a carwash, selling clothes on the street and operating a late-night food stall.他曾经开过洗车店,在街头卖过衣,还经营过夜间食品摊。In 2000, a friend of his bought a children’s educational compact disc that turned out to contain pornographic content. 2000年,他的朋友买了一张儿童教育光盘,发现里面有色情内容。Furious, he and his friends laid siege to the store where they had bought it, demanding compensation, Mr Ji said. 他和朋友们愤怒地围攻了出售这张光盘的商店,要求赔偿,纪万昌说道。At that time, I did not understand what defending your rights is, he said.当时不懂维权,他说。Later, Mr Ji bought a copy of China’s consumer law and a manual on how to tell fakes from genuine products. 后来,纪万昌买了一本中国消费者法律和一本关于如何辨别真假商品的手册。From that point, he had a new career.从那以后,他开始了新的职业生涯。On a recent week in October, Mr Ji traveled to four courthouses in five days across China, filing lawsuits against shopping malls, accusing them of fraud for selling substandard goods. 在今年10月的一周,纪万昌在五天时间里前往位于不同地方的四家法院起诉了一些商店,指控他们欺诈,销售不合格商品。Based in the eastern city of Jinan, he says he goes to court about 100 times a year.他住在中国东部城市济南,他说每年大约要去100次法院。Mr Ji’s work has earned him the enmity of counterfeiters and their thugs, who he says have beaten him up, bound his hands and feet, and telephoned him with death threats. 纪万昌的活动引来了造假者及其打手的敌意,他说这些人殴打他,绑住他的手脚,还打电话威胁说要杀了他。In 2007, police in the southern province of Fujian detained him for 37 days, charging him with extortion, but released him.2007年,南部省份福建的警方拘留了他37天,指控他敲诈勒索,但后来将其释放。Still, Mr Ji views the work as necessary. 不过,纪万昌还是认为这项工作必须有人来做。Every month, he says, he receives more than a hundred phone calls from people curious about how to get compensation from a fake product.他说自己每个月都会接到一百多个电话,来电者想知道买到假货后如何获得赔偿。On a recent afternoon, a man from the eastern city of Tai’an called Mr Ji, who was en route to check out a shopping mall in Beijing. 近日一个下午,一个来自东部城市泰安的男子给纪万昌打电话,当时他正在北京的一个购物中心寻找假货。How, the caller asked, could he emulate Mr Ji?那名男子问,要怎样才能仿效纪万昌的做法?Mr Ji told the aspiring fraud-buster that he could not just casually enter any shop and buy eight or 10 pieces and demand compensation. 纪万昌对这个想当打假者的男子说,你不能随随便便走进一家商店,买上十件八件假货,然后要求赔偿。His profession was built on navigating tricky relationships with local courthouses and police, Mr Ji said, adding that recently some thugs from Tai’an wanted my life, my arms and my legs.如何处理与当地法院和警方的棘手关系是他打假事业的基础,纪万昌说,最近一些来自泰安的暴徒想要我的命、我的胳膊和腿。Not everyone can be a counterfeit hunter. 职业维权人,不是说人家要干都能干的。This industry isn’t a gift that falls down from heaven, Mr Ji told the caller. 这个行业不是天上掉馅儿饼,纪万昌对那名男子说。You haven’t seen the hardships and suffering we’ve gone through. 我们辛酸的过程你们没看到,You’ve only seen our glorious side.你们只看到我们辉煌的一面。 /201612/481685

China’s most coal-dependent province has moved to ease rising pressure on seven of its largest coal miners by extending the maturity on up to Rmb400bn (bn) in loans, in a sign of the severity of the bad-debt crisis gripping the country’s coal sector.中国最依赖煤炭的省份采取行动缓解省内七家大型煤碳企业日益上升的压力,延长多达4000亿元人民币(合600亿美元)贷款的期限,这个迹象突显席卷中国煤炭行业的债务危机的严重程度。The move by Shanxi province marks the first time a local regulator has asked banks for leeway on loans for a select group of companies. It is the latest in a series of tactics employed by the country as it tries to pare bad debt, which by some analysts’ estimates has reached epidemic levels.山西省此举标志着地方监管机构首次要求对一组挑选出的企业放一马。这是中国在试图削减坏账方面一连串战术的最新一例;一些分析师估计,中国的坏债已达到可怕的程度。The central government last year launched a Rmb4tn-and-counting programme that pushed banks to swap debt from many local government businesses for longer-maturity bonds. This year, Beijing announced a controversial plan in which banks would trade corporate debt for equity in companies.中央政府去年推出了一个4万亿元人民币甚至更大规模的计划,推动把众多地方政府企业的债务置换为更长期限的债券。今年,北京方面宣布了一个有争议的计划,要求把它们对企业拥有的债权置换为股权。Corporate debt is a concern across China but the situation is particularly desperate in Shanxi. A four-year slowdown in coal prices has left miners in the red and private companies unable to repay high-interest-rate shadow-banking loans that date back to a boom in coal prices a decade ago.企业债务在中国各地都是令人关切的问题,但形势在山西尤为严峻。持续四年的煤炭价格低迷使煤炭企业陷入亏损,同时民营企业无力偿付高利率的影子贷款,这些贷款可追溯到10年前煤炭价格繁荣的时期。A collapse in the chain of credit in the shadow-banking sector is reverberating through the province, which accounts for about a quarter of coal production in China, the world’s largest coal industry. The Shanxi branch of the China Banking Regulatory Commission will allow the province’s seven biggest coal companies to restructure short-term debt into medium and long-term loans, the state-run Xinhua news agency reported.影子业的信贷链在山西各地正纷纷崩溃。该省占中国煤炭产量约四分之一,而中国煤炭行业是全球规模最大的。据官方的新华社报道,中国业监督管理委员会(CBRC)山西监管局将允许全省七大煤炭企业把短期债务重组为中长期贷款。Shares in the seven state-owned companies soared yesterday — several by their 10 per cent daily trading limit — with a weekend report by respected business news magazine Caixin that Beijing was considering debt-to-equity swaps for the sector adding a tailwind.这七家国企的股价昨日飙升——其中数家触及10%的单日涨幅上限。受到尊敬的财经新闻杂志《财新》周末有关北京方面正考虑在煤炭行业进行债转股的报道,起到了进一步的提振作用。The CBRC did not immediately respond to a request for comment.中国银监会没有立即回应记者的置评请求。The move comes after the deputy provincial government led the seven coal miners on a roadshow to Beijing this summer in an attempt to convince investors to subscribe to their bonds. One company in May offered five-year bonds at nearly double the yield on comparative notes but the initiative on the whole showed few positive results.此举出炉之前,山西副省长今夏曾带着七大煤炭企业到北京路演,以求说投资者认购它们的债券。一家公司在5月份以接近两倍于可比债券的收益率发行五年期债券,但此举整体而言没有展现出什么积极成果。“Coal is an important industry to Shanxi, therefore the government has to step in to alleviate the problem,” said Fitch Ratings analyst Alvin Cheng, noting that companies kept on life support worsen China’s glut of coal and other industrial capacity.“煤炭是山西的一个重要产业,因此政府不得不介入,以缓解这一问题,”惠誉评级(Fitch Ratings)分析师成皓(Alvin Cheng)表示。他指出,勉强维持的企业加剧中国的煤炭和其他工业产能的过剩。At the end of last year, Shanxi’s seven largest coal groups had Rmb1.18tn in debt, almost as much as the province’s Rmb1.28tn gross domestic product in 2015, according to Everbright Securities. Fitch estimates current combined debt stands at Rmb1.1tn, and according to Chinese media the companies have about Rmb600bn in short-term debt.根据光大券(Everbright Securities)的数据,截至去年年底,山西省七大煤炭集团的债务总计达到1.18万亿元人民币,几乎相当于全省在2015年1.28万亿元人民币的国内生产总值(GDP)。惠誉估计,当前债务总计为1.1万亿元人民币,另据中国媒体报道,这些公司有大约6000亿元人民币的短期债务。“If the banks support this, they may be able to get back some of these loans. If not, then most of it will become non-performing loans,” said DBS analyst Chen Shujin.“如果持贷款重组,他们或许能够收回其中一些贷款。否则大部分将变成不良贷款,”星展(DBS)分析师陈姝瑾表示。 /201608/459573

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