赣州整形美容医院飞度活动

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年10月18日 20:37:38
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Gone Shopping购物Our supermarket had a sald on boneless chicken breasts,and a woman I know ontended to stock up .我们的超级市,场在廉价拍卖无骨鸡胸,我认识的某位女士打算去多买一些。At the store,However,she was disappointed to find only a few skimpy prepackaged portopns of the poultry,然而,到了这家肉店的时候她感到很失望,因为只找到一点点事先就包装好的鸡肉,so she complained to the butcher.所以她就向这位肉店老板抱怨。;don#39;t worry,lady,; he said.他说:“,别担心,;I will pack some more trays and have them y for you by the time you finish shopping.;我会替你多包几盘,在你买完东西的时候把它们准备好。”Several aisles later ,my friend heard the butcher#39;s voice boom over th public-address system:逛完几个走道之后,我的朋友听到肉店老板的声音透过公共广播系统隆隆地说;Will the lady who wanted bigger breasts please meet me at the back of the store?;“那位想要大胸部的请到本店后方来见我好吗?” /201503/361458

1. Their relationship will not take up 100% of their life, but they will put 100% into their relationship. It#39;s important to ambitious girls to have other priorities and things going on outside of their relationship. But that doesn#39;t mean they won#39;t give it their all when it comes to being happy with someone.爱情不是她们生活的全部,但她们会在恋爱时全身心投入。对有追求的女生来说,除了爱情之外,她们还有许多重要的事情,但这不影响她们在恋爱时完全投入并享受这段美好时光。2. They#39;re not looking for a challenge, but they are looking for someone to challenge them. They#39;re not interested in the chase or winning the game. But they#39;re interested in being with someone who#39;s going to challenge them to be better and to grow every day.她们要找的不是挑战,而是可以激发其自我挑战欲望的那个人。她们对恋爱中的追逐和输赢并不感兴趣。能够激励她们不断改善自我、不断成长,这才是她们要找的人。3. Romance usually means something different to ambitious girls. They love dates and surprises just like the next girl. But in their minds, the most romantic thing in the world is being with someone who they can truly relate to, and someone who supports them in everything that they do.有追求的女生对浪漫的定义通常不同。当然她们也像所有女生一样,喜欢约会和惊喜。但对她们来说,世界上最浪漫的事莫过于找到那个可以真正交心,并会事事都持自己的人。4. They#39;re not afraid to tell you when they like you. If they think this thing has a chance, they#39;re not going to sit back and play coy and always wait for you to make the first move. They#39;re going to be straight-up with you, and you can do with that what you want.若是来电,她们会大胆表白。如果觉得有可能,她们不会按兵不动、羞羞答答,总是等着对方先开口。她们会主动表白,并且坦然接受你的任何回应。5. They don#39;t play games. There#39;s no ;wait two hours to text back; guidelines that they believe they have to follow. Ambitious girls do what they want when they want, because they don#39;t have time for arbitrary dating rules.她们不会耍花招。她们认为根本不用遵守“收到消息两小时再回复”之类的爱情指南。有追求的女生随心而动,她们认为那些专横的恋爱规则简直是浪费时间。6. They#39;ll still have a lot of other things going on besides you. They take dating seriously. But they#39;re also passionate about their careers and friends and family and hobbies. When they#39;re dating, ambitious girls are looking for someone who#39;s not only going to support that, but someone who#39;s going to love them all the more for it.除了恋爱之外,她们还有很多事情要做。她们会真诚地恋爱,但对待事业,朋友,家人以及爱好也同样热情。对追求的女生来说,理想的另一半不仅会持她有自己的生活,而且会因此更爱她。7. They don#39;t hold it against you if you#39;re not interested. They know what they want, and if you#39;re not interested, they#39;re just happy that you#39;re not wasting any more of their time.若对方不感兴趣,她们也不会由此心生怨念。因为她们清楚自己想要的是什么,若对方不感兴趣,并且也没耽误她们的时间,她们只会高兴。8. They#39;re not looking to be a trophy wife. The idea of playing backseat to their companion is nauseating to an ambitious girl. They#39;re looking for someone who is going to be their partner, not their leader.她们不想做花瓶妻子。有追求的女生憎恶那些认为妻子是丈夫附属品的想法。她们要找的是与之并肩而行的人,而不是颐指气使的人。9. Ambitious girls know that being tough and being emotional aren#39;t mutually exclusive. Ambitious girls are strong, confident, and intelligent. They know how to handle themselves. But they#39;re aware that that doesn#39;t mean they can#39;t be vulnerable or emotional. One of the reasons they feel comfortable dating is because they know how to be tough without feeling the need to apologize for having emotions.有追求的女生明白,坚强和感性并不相互冲突。她们坚强,自信且理智,知道如何处理好自己的事情。但是她们也清楚,这些不代表她们不能有脆弱和感性的一面。她们坚强的同时,也不必为脆弱而受责备,这是她们舒适恋爱的原因之一。10. A good conversation in their eyes doesn#39;t revolve around how much money you make or how successful you are. They#39;re more interested in hearing what makes you tick, what inspires you, what gets your blood flowing, and what you#39;re passionate about.在她们看来,良好的交流不必围绕着对方的金钱和成功。她们更在意对方的动力,灵感,能量和热情之所在。11. They know that sometimes they have a hard time opening up in the beginning. They#39;re used to being in control, so when they#39;re not, it#39;s a little disorienting. But they enjoy the challenge of trying to get better, so it#39;s something they#39;re always keen to work on.在开始一段感情时,有时她们会觉得难以敞开心扉。因为她们习惯一切都在掌控之中,而爱情这件事却充满未知,所以她们会有些迷茫。但她们很享受自我完善的过程,并愿意为之全力以赴。12. They won#39;t ask you to choose between them and your other priorities, because they#39;re too busy having priorities of their own.她们不会逼你在爱情和其他重要事情之间做出选择,毕竟她们有太多重要事情来充实自己。13. Ambitious girls are attracted to people who have goals and aspirations – people who want more than an average existence. They don#39;t need you to be the CEO of a Fortune 500 or an insanely successful entrepreneur. They just want to know you care about something that matters and are willing to work for it.有理想有抱负、不甘平庸的人会赢得这些女生的青睐。对方无需是财富500强公司的CEO,也不必是特别成功的企业家。她们只要了解,对方有自己在意的东西,并愿意为之奋斗就够了。14. They#39;re not going to wait forever. They#39;ll let you know, one way or another, that they like you. They#39;re never in a rush to jump into a relationship, but they#39;re also practical about where they are in their lives and when it#39;s time to move on. If you like them, do something about it.她们可不会一直傻等。若是动心,她们一定会用某种方式表现出来。面对爱情,她们不会轻率莽撞就开始。同时,她们也很现实,知道自己处于人生的什么阶段,知道什么时候该放手向前。所以若对她们有好感,请有所行动。15. They#39;re less worried about a fairytale romance and more concerned with finding someone who will simply make them happy. They#39;re not preoccupied with a huge diamond ring, an over-the-top wedding, and a ridiculous love story they can tell their friends. They just want to be with someone who will love them for who they are, and never ask them to stop following their dreams. 相比童话般的浪漫举动,她们更在意简单的快乐。她们并不痴迷于硕大的钻戒、奢华的婚礼或是可以向朋友炫耀的疯狂壮举。她们只求相守的那个人爱的是她们真实的样子,并永远持她们的梦想。 /201506/382671

  

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  ABOUT 18 months ago, my 97-year-old grandmother went out to dinner with some friends. As Nanna got out of the car, she tripped over her friend Shirley’s cane, fell to the pavement and came down hard on her elbow. Back at home, she headed to the kitchen to get some dessert — “and my left leg just crumpled.”大约一年半前,97岁的外婆和几个朋友外出用餐。外婆下车时,绊到朋友雪莉(Shirley)的手杖,摔到人行道上,肘部重重地摔了一下。她回到家,去厨房拿甜点时发现“左腿有点不对劲”。At the hospital, the doctors ordered X-rays, but couldn’t see anything wrong. After two weeks of therapy, Nanna was sent home, but she’d made up her mind. After 30 years of living in Florida, 28 of them as a widow, and most of those spent insisting that the only way she’d go back to her native Michigan was “in a box,” Nanna asked her older daughter, my Aunt Marlene, to find her a sunny place near Detroit.医生给她拍了X光片,但没看出什么问题。治疗两周后,外婆出院了,这时她已做了一个决定。她在佛罗里达住了30年,其中28年是寡居,大部分时候她坚称,她只有“在骨灰盒里”才会回到故乡密歇根,但是现在她让大女儿、我的姨妈马琳(Marlene)给她在底特律附近找一个阳光灿烂的地方。Last summer, she moved into an independent living facility with access to a range of services and activities. She has her own apartment, with a kitchen, but can eat her meals in a dining hall. After giving her a few days to unpack and settle in, I got her on the phone. How was it going?去年夏天,她搬进了一个独立生活机构,这里提供一系列务和各种活动。她有自己的公寓,里面有个厨房,不过她也可以在食堂用餐。在她安顿好几天后,我给她打了个电话,问她过得怎么样。“Well,” Nanna began. Her apartment was lovely. The food was just fine, and there were all kinds of classes and courses to while away the hours. “Have you made any friends?” I asked, in the same chipper tone I used when my younger child returned from her first day at kindergarten.“呃,”外婆说。她的公寓很可爱。食物还可以,还有各种讲座和课程,可以消磨时光。“你有没有交到什么朋友?”我用活泼的语气问道,就像我的小孩第一天从幼儿园回来时我问的那样。There was a pause. Then: “They won’t let me sit at their table!” Nanna cried.外婆停顿了一下,然后大声说道:“他们不让我跟他们坐在一起!”“Wait, what? Who won’t let you sit at their table?”“等等,你说什么?谁不让你坐?”“You try to sit and they say, ‘That seat is taken!’ ”“我想坐下,他们却说,‘这个座位有人了!’”“Oh, my God,” I said, instantly thrust into a painful flashback of junior high, when I walked into the cafeteria and was greeted with the sight of leather purses looped across the chair backs and the sound of one girl with dramatically plucked eyebrows announcing, “Those seats are taken!” I hadn’t known enough to carry a purse. I had a lunchbox. (And it would take me another decade to figure out the eyebrow thing.)“哦,天哪,”我说。我一下子想起了初中时的痛苦经历。我走进食堂,看到椅背上都挂着小皮包,一个眉毛修得很夸张的女孩大声宣告:“这些座位有人了!”我当时还不知道要带个小包。我只带了饭盒(又过了十年我才学会修眉毛这档子事)。“And just try to get into a bridge game,” Nanna continued. “They’ll talk about bridge, and you’ll say, ‘Oh, I play,’ and they’ll tell you, ‘Sorry, we’re not looking for anyone.’ ”“我就是想打打桥牌,”外婆继续说道,“她们在聊桥牌,我说,‘哦,我会打’,然后她们说,‘对不起,我们不是在找人打牌。’” “Mean girls!” I said. “There are mean girls in your home!”“真刻薄!”我说,“这些女孩在你家里还这么刻薄!”“It’s not a home,” Nanna said sharply.“这不是我家,”外婆马上反驳道。I considered. “Here’s my advice,” I said. “Find a bridge foursome. Figure out which one of them looks weak. Then hover.”我想了想,接着说,“我的建议是,找一个桥牌四人组。看看其中哪个人最弱。然后在她周围转悠。”When I was young and innocent — say, last summer — the idea of 90-year-olds in pecking orders, picking on those at the bottom, was a joke. Everyone knew that the real danger to the elderly came from unscrupulous relatives, con artists or abusive caregivers. We’ve all heard sad tales of senior citizens being beaten, starved or neglected by the people paid — usually underpaid — to care for them.我年幼无知时——比如去年夏天——认为90多岁的老人要排资论辈,欺负排在等级最底层的人这种事是开玩笑的。谁都知道老年人真正的威胁来自没良心的亲属、骗子或虐待人的看护员。我们都听说过付费看护人(通常报酬过低)殴打老人、不好好照顾老人或使老人挨饿的悲伤故事。The notion that a threat to seniors is their peers is somewhat new, and usually played for laughs. It goes against a truism handed down from mothers to daughters for generations: This, too, shall pass. Mean girls are not girls, or mean, forever. High school doesn’t last forever, everyone grows up. But Nanna’s experience suggests otherwise. It says that the cruel, like the poor, are always with us, that mean girls stay mean — they just start wearing support hose and dentures.同辈会对老年人造成威胁这种观念还比较新,通常是笑谈。它与母女代代相传的老生常谈相悖。我们一直以为:一切都会过去的。刻薄的女孩会长大,不会永远刻薄。高中会结束,每个人都会长大。但外婆的经历表明,现实不是这样的。她的经历告诉我们,就像永远有穷人一样,我们身边也总会有残酷的人,刻薄的女孩老了也还是刻薄——只不过她们开始穿护腿长袜、戴假牙。A recent Cornell University study by Karl Pillemer proves the point, showing that aggression among residents in nursing homes is widesp and “extremely high rates of conflict and violence” are common. According to the study’s news release, one in five residents was involved in at least one “negative and aggressive encounter” with another resident during a four-week period. Sixteen percent were cursed or yelled at; 6 percent were hit, kicked or bitten; 1 percent were victims of “sexual incidents, such as exposing one’s genitals, touching other residents, or attempting to gain sexual favors;” and 10.5 percent dealt with other residents’ entering their rooms uninvited, or rummaging through their belongings.康奈尔大学最近的一项研究明了这个观点。进行这项研究的是卡尔·皮勒默(Karl Pillemer),他发现养老院居民之间的侵犯以及“高频率冲突和暴力”十分普遍。他在该研究的发布会上说,在四周时间里,五分之一的居民与其他居民至少发生过一次“负面和攻击性交往”。16%的人被咒骂或怒斥;6%的人被打、踢或咬;1%的人遭到“性骚扰”,“比如暴露生殖器,抚摸其他居民,或者企图获得性福利”;10.5%的居民碰到过其他居民不请自来或者乱翻东西的情况。Whether you’re brawling on the playground or battling over the best seats in chair-cercize, bad behavior is constant, and the rituals for trying to get in with the in-crowd don’t change much. Nanna’s quest for “the Cadillac of walkers,” a 0 number not covered by Medicare, mirrored my search a decade ago for the nearly thousand-dollar Bugaboo that would signal to my urban-mommy cohort that I belonged.不管是在操场上争吵,还是在坐式锻炼中争夺最佳位置,都会经常出现恶劣行为,努力进入小团体的过程没有太大改变。外婆要买医疗保险不报销的400美元的顶端步行器,跟我十年前花了将近1000美元购买Bugaboo婴儿手推车一样,只是为了表明自己属于都市母亲这个群体。What transforms with age are the criteria for judgment: not looks, not wealth, not the once-coveted ability to drive at night. When you get to be Nanna’s age, you’re reduced to a number — the younger the better. Even in a residence for the elderly, the 80-somethings will still be cold to the 95-year-olds. Now 99, my Nanna is completely cognizant of what’s going on. Her memory, both short- and long-term, is excellent. But once her new neighbors heard her age, they knew they didn’t want her at their table.随着年龄改变的是评价标准:不是相貌、不是财富、不是曾经渴望的能在晚上开车的能力。到了外婆这个年纪,评价标准就只剩下年龄了——越年轻越好。甚至在养老院里,80多岁的人也会对95岁的人冷淡。我外婆现在99岁,头脑依然十分清晰。她的短期和长期都很好。但是新邻居们一听说她的年龄,就不想跟她坐在一起。“My question is, are they rude? Are they nasty? Or is it that she’s not hearing, or is interpreting something that’s not really something? I can’t tell,” says Aunt Marlene. “I think there’s definitely cliques. I don’t know if there’s a way to alleviate the feeling of being left out. At 99, do you end up with a group? Does that happen? I don’t know. At first I thought, it just takes time. Now I wonder — maybe this is the way it is. Maybe you can’t expect anything else.”“我的问题是,她们粗鲁吗?她们态度恶劣吗?还是说她没听清或者误会了?我无从判断,”马琳姨妈说,“我想那里肯定有小集团。我不知道有没有办法缓解这种被排挤的感觉。在99岁时,你最终能否拥有自己的小团体?会有吗?我不知道。一开始我想,过一段时间就好了。现在我想,也许情况就是这样了。也许你不能再期望什么。”Bad behavior doesn’t change. Nor does the response from the ones on the sidelines, watching and hoping for the best. Even with lowered expectations, it’s hard. I fret about my first grader getting shut out of the four-square game or my sixth grader sitting alone at lunch. My mom and her sister wonder if their mother is suffering the same kind of isolation, exclusion and loneliness; the pain of having outlived every single one of your contemporaries, of having lots to say and no one to listen.恶劣行为不会改变。旁观者的反应也不会改变——他们只会旁观,希望情况变好。即使降低期望,也很难实现。我担心我上一年级的孩子不能参加方块游戏,担心我上六年级的孩子吃午餐时没人跟他/她坐在一起。我妈妈和姨妈担心她们的妈妈也在遭受同样的隔离、排斥和孤独,忍受活得比所有同辈人都长的痛苦,以及有很多话想说却无人聆听的痛苦。Nanna tries. Every day, she takes a class: Yiddish, current events, even iPad 101. She gets dressed up for dinner, with a pretty scarf, a new sweater. She’s gotten to know her neighbors, table-mates, even the one who forgets her name between one dinner and the next, and she’s joined a mah-jongg game — “even though I haven’t played in years.” The ledge outside her front door is home to a little stuffed bear, dressed in University of Michigan regalia, a hopeful sentry, and maybe a conversation starter.外婆在努力。她每天上一门课:意第绪语、时事,甚至iPad入门。她去用餐时精心打扮,戴上漂亮围巾,穿上新毛衣。她慢慢认识了邻居和桌友,甚至包括那个在两顿饭之间就忘了她名字的人,她还加入了一个麻将小组——“尽管我好多年没打过了”。她门外的壁架上放着一个小毛绒熊,它戴着密歇根大学的校徽,是个充满希望的哨兵,也可能成为一次谈话的开端。I try, too. Over Thanksgiving, we celebrated Nanna’s 99th birthday, with all 12 of her great-grandchildren on hand to tour the new apartment. Down in the lobby, my 6-year-old, Phoebe, and I met a beautifully dressed, immaculately made-up woman sitting on a bench with a cane, waiting for her niece to take her to Thanksgiving dinner at 5. It was 2. “Do you want to see my kitty?” she asked, and my daughter happily agreed. I learned that, like Nanna, the woman had moved in over the summer, was a Michigan native, and seemed sharp and aware. Feeling like a guy at a bar — another echo of another acceptance-and-rejection ritual — I asked for her number.我也在努力。感恩节那天,我们庆祝外婆的99岁生日,有12个曾孙辈一起去参观她的新公寓。我和六岁的女儿菲比(Phoebe)在大堂碰见一个穿戴漂亮、打扮得无可挑剔的女人,她拿着手杖坐在凳子上,等待甥女5点钟带她去赴感恩节晚宴。当时才两点。“你想看看我的小猫吗?”她问道。我女儿欣然答应。我后来得知,她和外婆一样,也是密歇根本地人,也是夏天搬进来的。她看起来头脑清醒。我要了她的电话号码,感觉自己像酒吧里的男人,开始了另一场接受和拒绝的过程。Then Phoebe and I took the elevator back up to Nanna’s apartment, where the refrigerator door is covered with pictures of her children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren, and I announced, “Nanna, I think I made you a friend.”然后,我和菲比乘电梯回到外婆的公寓,她的冰箱门上贴满了子女、孙辈和曾孙辈的照片,我大声宣布:“外婆,我觉得我给你找了一个朋友。” /201501/357194Gaokao from foreigners#39; perspective外国人眼中的高考Allegedly the world#39;s largest high-stakes test featuring cramming and intense exam preparation, the gaokao has been attracting foreign media attention. Curious reporters found some typical gaokao scenes such as the following.由于被称为全球最大高风险考试;,并以;死记硬背;著称,中国高考也引起了外媒关注。好奇的外国记者记录下了这样一些典型镜头:One yaer,before the gaokao高考前1年…For the past year, Liu Qichao has focused on one thing, and only one thing: the gaokao. Fourteen to 16 hours a day, he studied for the college entrance examination. He took one day off every 3 weeks. (The New York Times, Jun 13, 2009)整整一年,刘奇超所有的心思都放在一件事情上,这唯一的一件事便是:高考。他每天学习14到16个小时,每3个星期休息一天。(《纽约时报》,2009年6月13日)Three month,before the gaokao高考前3个月…Ma Li, 18, fits the profile of a final-year student toiling on the exam tmill. She regularly puts in an extra 6 hours at home at the end of a 10-hour school day. (B, Jun 8, 2012)18岁的马丽是在高考机器上挥汗如雨的典型学生形象。她每天在学校学习10小时之外,还要在家再多复习6小时。(英国广播公司,2012年6月8日)One week,before the gaokao高考前1周…Families pull out all the stops to optimize their children#39;s scores. In Sichuan Province in southwestern China, students studied in a hospital, hooked up to oxygen containers, in the hope of improving their concentration. Some girls take contraceptives so they will not get their periods during the exam. (The New York Times, Jun 13, 2009)每家每户都想尽办法帮助自己的孩子考试中取得高分。在中国西南地区的四川省,学生一边在医院吸氧一边复习,以期提高注意力。一些女孩子则用避药物以防止月经周期在考试期间到来。(《纽约时报》,2009年6月13日)The day of gaokao高考当天Outside the exam sites, parents keep vigil for hours, as anxiously as husbands waiting for their wives to give birth. A tardy arrival is disastrous. One student who arrived 4 minutes late in 2007 was turned away, even though she and her mother knelt before the exam proctor, begging for leniency. (The New York Times, Jun 13, 2009)考场外,家长们持续几个小时地等待,就像等待妻子临产的丈夫一样焦虑。迟到则是毁灭性的,2007年就有一名学生迟到了4分钟,她和她的母亲在监考官面前跪下了,仍然未能参加考试。(《纽约时报》,2009年6月13日)Tough reality理想与现实Following the end of the ;cultural revolution; (1966-76), China#39;s universities were reopened and the entrance exam was launched in 1977. The vision behind it was utopian. The gaokao was expected to ensure that a peasant#39;s son from Gansu has the same doors open as a Shanghai official - to make high test scores, not political patronage or guanxi (relationships), the ticket to a university education.1977年,;文革;后的中国重开大学,恢复了高考,其背后的想法是理想化的:让一个来自甘肃的农家子弟与一个来自上海官员家庭的孩子拥有同等的机会;让分数,而不是政治恩惠或关系,成为大学教育的通行。But lower-income Chinese parents now endure too heavy a financial burden as they push their children to obtain as much education as possible.但是现在,中国的低收入父母正在为让孩子尽可能接受高等教育而承受过于沉重的负担。For a rural parent in China, each year of higher education costs 6 to 15 months#39; labor. A year at an average private university in the US equals almost a year#39;s income for the average wage earner, while an in-state public university costs about 6 months#39; pay. Moreover, an American family that spends half its income helping a child through college has more spending power with the other half of its income than a rural Chinese family earning less than ,000 a year.对于中国的农村父母来说,每一年的高等教育要花费6到15个月的劳动所得。在美国,中等私立大学每年所需费用,基本等同于美国平均收入者1年的工资,而本州的公立大学开销则约等于6个月收入。此外,一个每年拿出一半收入供孩子上大学的美国家庭,其另一半收入的购买力要强于一个年收入少于5000美元的中国农村家庭。Yet a college degree no longer ensures a well-paying job, because the number of graduates in China has quadrupled in the last decade.然而,大学学位已经不能再保一份高薪工作——中国大学毕业生人数已经在过去10年里翻了两番。 /201506/379069

  2. Graham Crackers2.全麦饼干Do you feel less lust after eating a graham cracker? You should do – or, at least, the inventor of it hopes you do.吃完一片全麦饼干以后是否觉得欲望有所减轻呢?这正是——或至少是其发明者所希望的。In the 1830s, reverend Sylvester Graham decided that America had become too lust-filled. In order to curb the problem and help people across the nation get back onto a good God-fearing path, he created the ‘Graham diet.’ The diet consisted of wheat, fruit and vegetables, but absolutely no meat; eating meat and fatty foods was, Graham claimed, a way to invoke sexual thoughts in the mind. Sylvester Graham invented the graham cracker as a part of his newfound diet.19世纪30年代,教士Sylvester Graham认为美国欲望太过膨胀。为解决这一问题,帮助全国的人们回到一条虔诚的道路上,他发明了“Graham 饮食”。这种饮食中包括谷物、水果和蔬菜,但绝对没有肉;Graham认为,吃肉和脂肪类食品会引发人心中的淫欲。Sylvester Graham发明了全麦饼干作为他的全新饮食的一部分。He wasn’t alone in his mind-set; someone else who shared this was John Harvey Kellogg. Does the name seem familiar? That’s right – Kellogg’s corn flakes. The beloved breakfast cereal was Kellogg’s way to save the souls of the American people, but ended up being a delicious breakfast rather than a cure for the wandering eye.他并不是一个人将想法付诸实际;另外一个与他共享的是John Harvey Kellogg。这名字是不是有些熟悉?没错——Kellogg’s玉米片(即氏玉米片——译者注)。Kellogg想要以这种受人喜爱的早餐谷物来拯救美国人的灵魂,谁知它没有拯救得了迷茫的双眼,却成为了美味的早餐。Next time you need to calm down, try stuffing graham crackers into your mouth. If the wheat doesn’t do the trick, the dry mouth certainly will.当下次你需要冷静一下的时候,试试在你嘴里塞上全麦饼干。如果小麦解决不了问题,那口干舌燥的感觉肯定会让你达到目的。 /201506/383172

  

  There are people in this country eating too much red meat. They should cut back. There are people eating too many carbs. They should cut back on those. There are also people eating too much fat, and the same advice applies to them, too.在美国,有些人食用红肉太多,他们应该少吃点;也有些人食用碳水化合物太多,他们也应该克制;还有些人食用脂肪太多,相同的建议也适用于他们。What’s getting harder to justify, though, is a focus on any one nutrient as a culprit for everyone.把某一营养物质说成是危害所有人健康的罪魁祸首的说法,正变得越来越难以自圆其说。I’ve written Upshot articles on how the strong warnings against salt and cholesterol are not well supported by evidence. But it’s possible that no food has been attacked as widely or as loudly in the past few decades as red meat.此前,我已在《纽约时报》的Upshot专栏中撰文,阐述那些关于盐和胆固醇的强烈警告其实并没有得到充分的据持。不过,在过去的几十年里,恐怕任何一种食物受到的攻击都没有红肉这样广泛和强烈。As with other bad guys in the food wars, the warnings against red meat are louder and more forceful than they need to be.与食品战争中的其他“坏东西”一样,对食用红肉的警告已经大大超过了实际需要的程度。Americans are more overweight and obese than they pretty much have ever been. There’s also no question that we are eating more meat than in previous eras. But we’ve actually been reducing our red meat consumption for the last decade or so. This hasn’t led to a huge decrease in obesity rates or to arguments from experts that it is the reason for fewer deaths from cardiovascular disease.今天美国人超重和肥胖的程度基本上都甚于以往,我们也毫无疑问是比以前吃肉多。然而,在过去十年左右的时间里,我们的红肉消费量实际上是在逐渐减少的。可这并没有引起肥胖率大幅下降,也没有专家认为它是心血管疾病死亡人数减少的原因。The same reports also show that we eat significantly more fruits and vegetables today than we did decades ago. We also eat more grains and sweeteners.同样,报告还显示,我们今天食用水果和蔬菜的量显著多于几十年前。我们还吃下了更多的谷物和甜味剂。This is the real problem: We eat more calories than we need. But in much of our discussion about diet, we seek a singular nutritional guilty party. We also tend to cast everyone in the same light as “eating too much.”这才是真正的问题:我们摄入的热量超过了实际所需。但是,在大多数关于饮食的讨论中,我们都试图把责任归咎于某一类营养物质。而且,我们也倾向于给所有人都套上“吃得太多”的大帽子。I have seen many people point to a study from last year that found that increased protein intake was associated with large increases in mortality rates from all diseases, with high increases in the chance of death from cancer or diabetes. A close examination of the manuscript, though, tells a different story.我见过有很多人拿着去年的一项研究振振有词,称该研究发现,蛋白质摄入量的增加与因所有疾病死亡率以及因癌症或糖尿病死亡的几率大幅增加相关。然而,在仔细阅读文献后,我发现它说的完全是另外一回事。This was a cohort study of people followed through the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, or Nhanes. It found that there were no associations between protein consumption and death from all causes or cardiovascular disease or cancer individually when all participants over age 50 were considered. It did detect a statistically significant association between the consumption of protein and diabetes mortality, but the researchers cautioned that the number of people in the analysis was so small that any results should be taken with caution.这是一项队列研究,研究人员通过美国健康与营养调查(National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Nhanes)对参与者进行了随访。研究发现,当考虑到所有50岁以上的参与者时,蛋白质摄入量与全因死亡率、心血管疾病死亡率以及癌症死亡率中的任何一项均无相关性。研究的确发现蛋白质摄入量与糖尿病死亡率之间具有统计学显著相关性,但研究人员提醒说,由于该分析中纳入的人数过少,应谨慎对待由此得出的任何结果。The scary findings from two paragraphs up are from a subanalysis that looked at people only 50 to 65. But if you look at people over 65, the opposite was true. High protein was associated with lower levels of all-cause and cancer-specific mortality. If you truly believe that this study proves what people say, then we should advise people over the age of 65 to eat more meat. No one advises that.而上面倒数第二段中那个可怕的结论只不过是一项仅考察50岁到65岁参与者的亚组分析的结果而已。如果你将调查的对象改为65岁以上的参与者,就会发现情况恰恰相反。高蛋白摄入量与较低的全因死亡率和癌症特异性死亡率相关。如果你相信这项研究为应该少吃红肉提供了据,那么我们也应该建议65岁以上的人多吃些肉——显然并没有人这么做。Further, this study defined people in the “high protein” group as those eating 20 percent or more of their calories from protein. When the Department of Agriculture recommends that Americans get 10 to 35 percent of their calories from protein, 20 percent should not be considered high.此外,这项研究对“高蛋白质”组成员的定义为:饮食总热量中有至少20%来自蛋白质。考虑到美国农业部(ed States Department of Agriculture,USDA)建议美国人从蛋白质获得的热量应占所需热量的10%至35%,20%其实不能算高。If I wanted to cherry-pick studies myself, I might point you to this 2013 study that used the same Nhanes data to conclude that meat consumption is not associated with mortality at all.如果允许我自己来挑选的话,我也能找出一项2013年的研究,它使用了相同的Nhanes数据,却得出了相反的结论:肉类消费量与死亡率毫不相关。Let’s avoid cherry-picking, though. A 2013 meta-analysis of meat-diet studies, including those above, found that people in the highest consumption group of all red meat had a 29 percent relative increase in all-cause mortality compared with those in the lowest consumption group. But most of this was driven by processed meats, like bacon, sausage or salami.不过,我们还是不要刻意去挑选吧。2013年的一项关于肉类膳食研究的荟萃分析纳入了上述的几类情况,分析结果发现:与红肉消费量最低组相比,最高组成员的全因死亡率增加了29%,但这一增加主要是由加工肉类,如培根、腊肠或意大利香肠等造成的。Epidemiologic evidence can take us only so far. As I’ve written before, those types of studies can be flawed. Nothing illustrates this better than a classic 2012 systematic review that pretty much showed that everything we eat is associated with both higher and lower rates of cancer.流行病学据能告诉我们的也只有这么多了。正如我之前所说,这类研究有可能存在缺陷。2012年的一项典型的系统性综述就是最好的佐:该综述表明,几乎我们的所有食物都同时与较高和较低的癌症发病率相关。We really do need randomized controlled trials to answer these questions. They do exist, but with respect to effects on lipid levels such as cholesterol and triglycerides. A meta-analysis examining eight trials found that beef versus poultry and fish consumption didn’t change cholesterol or triglyceride levels significantly.所以,我们需要进行随机对照试验才能真正找到问题的。这样的实验确实是存在的,不过却是关于胆固醇和甘油三酯等血脂水平指标的。一项荟萃分析审查了八项试验,发现与食用禽肉和鱼肉相比,食用牛肉并不会显著改变人的胆固醇或甘油三酯水平。All of this misses the bigger point, though. It’s important to understand what “too much” really is. People in the highest consumption group of red meat had one to two servings a day. The people in the lowest group had about two servings per week. If you’re eating multiple servings of red meat a day, then, yes, you might want to cut back. I would wager that most people ing this aren’t eating that much. If you eat a couple of servings a week, then you’re most likely doing fine.但是,所有这些都忽略了更重要的一点——“太多”的标准到底是什么。红肉消费量最高组的人每天食用一至两份红肉,而最低组的人每周才食用大约两份。如果你每天都吃好几份红肉,那么,没错,你是需要控制一下了。但我敢打赌,正在阅读这篇文章的人中大多数都不会吃那么多。如果你每周食用一两份红肉,那么最有可能的情况是:你的身体一切正常。All the warnings appear to have made a difference in our eating habits. Americans are eating less red meat today than any time since the 1970s. Doctors’ recommendations haven’t been ignored. We’re also doing a bit better in our consumption of vegetables. Our consumption of carbohydrates, like grains and sugar, however, has been on the rise. This is, in part, a result of our obsession with avoiding fats and red meat.健康警告大大改变了我们的饮食习惯。美国人今天的红肉消费量比20世纪70年代以来的任何时候都少。人们并没有忽略医生的建议。我们在食用蔬菜方面也取得了一点进步。但我们对谷物和糖等碳水化合物的消费量却一直在上升。在某种程度上,可以说这正是我们执着于不吃脂肪和红肉的后果。We’re eating too many calories, but not necessarily in the same way. Reducing what we’re eating too much of in a balanced manner would seem like the most sensible approach.我们仍然摄入了太多的热量,只不过改了个途径罢了。最明智的做法应该是以平衡的方式少吃那些我们过量食用的东西才对。Last fall, a meta-analysis of brand-name diet programs was published in the Journal of the American Medical Association. The study compared the results from both the individual diets themselves and three classes, which included low-carbohydrate (like Atkins), moderate macronutrient (Weight Watchers) and low-fat (Ornish). All of the diets led to reduced caloric intake, and all of them led to weight loss at six months and, to a lesser extent, at 12 months. There was no clear winner, nor any clear loser.去年秋天,《美国医学协会杂志》(Journal of the American Medical Association)上发表了一项对著名饮食方案的荟萃分析。该研究既比较了单个的饮食方案,也对三大类饮食方案:低碳水化合物饮食(如阿特金斯饮食法[Atkins]),中度宏量营养素饮食(如Weight Watcher)和低脂肪饮食(如Ornish饮食)进行了比较。所有的饮食方案都减少了热量摄入,它们都能令参与者在六个月后体重减轻,并在接下来的六个月里继续减轻(但减重幅度较小)。它们之间并没有表现出明显的优劣。Where does that leave us? It’s hard to find a take-home message better than this: The best diet is the one that you’re likely to keep. What isn’t helpful is picking a nutritional culprit of bad health and proclaiming that everyone else is eating wrong. There’s remarkably little evidence that that’s true anytime anyone does it.这给我们带来什么启示?你最有可能坚持下来的饮食方案就是最好的饮食方案——世界上最棒的教益或许莫过于此。把健康状况不佳归咎于某一特定的营养物质,并宣称其他人的饮食习惯都不对,这样做没有一点好处。很显然,任何时候任何人这么做都是毫无根据的。 /201505/374897。

  

  

  

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