襄阳襄城区有泌尿科吗ask对话

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 襄阳襄城区有泌尿科吗放心助手
AUSTIN, Ind. — She became addicted to painkillers over a decade ago, when a car wreck left her with a broken back and doctors prescribed OxyContin during her recovery. Then came a new prescription opiate, Opana, easily obtained on the street and more potent when crushed, dissolved in water and injected. She did just that, many times a day, sometimes sharing needles with other addicts.印第安纳州奥斯汀——十年前,她开始对镇痛剂上瘾。当时,她在一次车祸中脊柱受伤,医生在她康复期间给她开了奥施康定(OxyContin)。然后,又出现了一种新的处方麻醉剂Opana,这种药在外面很容易买,碾碎后效力更强,可溶于水,还可以用于注射。她就是那样做的,而且每天要用很多次,有时还会与其他上瘾者共用针头。Last month, the thin, 45-year-old woman learned the unforgiving consequences. She tested positive for H.I.V., one of nearly 150 cases in this socially conservative, largely rural region just north of the Kentucky border. Now a life long hobbled by addiction is, like so many others here, consumed by fear.上个月,这个瘦削的45岁女人得知,这样做造成了不可挽回的后果。她的艾滋病毒(HIV)检测结果呈阳性,是靠近肯塔基州北部边界这个民风保守、以农业为主的地区的近150例艾滋病毒携带者之一。现在,与这里的许多人一样,因为上瘾而长期受到困扰的生活已经被恐惧吞噬。She is afraid to start antiretroviral therapy because she does not want to be spotted entering the clinic on Main Street, she says, and afraid to learn her prognosis after hearing a rumor — false, it turns out — that someone else with the virus was given six months to live. Other drug users have refused to be tested at all.她说,她不敢开始抗逆转录病毒治疗,因为她不想被人看到走进主街那家诊所,在听到有个病毒携带者经诊断只剩六个月时间后(后经明是谣言),她甚至不敢去了解自己的预后。还有些药物使用者完全拒绝接受测试。“I thought it was just a homosexual disease,” the woman said one recent evening, twisting a tissue in her manicured hands as tears filled her eyes. She asked that her name not be published out of concerns about being stigmatized. “I didn’t ever think it would be in my small hometown.”“我还以为这是同性恋才会得的病,”她在近日的一个晚上说,她做过美甲的双手揉捏着一张纸巾,眼中噙满泪水。因为担心被人歧视,她要求对自己的姓名保密。“我从没想过,这种事会发生在我家乡的小镇。”The crisis would test even a large metropolis; Austin, population 4,200, is overwhelmed despite help from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the state and nonprofit groups like the AIDS Healthcare Foundation. H.I.V. had been all but unknown here, and misinformation is rife. Attempts to halt the outbreak have been hindered by strong but misguided local beliefs about how to address it, according to people involved in the response.这个危机甚至还会考验一个大都市;尽管有疾病控制与预防中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,简称CDC)、州和艾滋病健康护理基金会(AIDS Healthcare Foundation)等非营利组织的帮助,人口仅4200的奥斯汀还是有些不知所措。这里几乎对HIV一无所知,而且错误信息也很多。相关人士表示,在如何应对它的问题上,当地一些强烈而具有误导性的观念,对阻止HIV蔓延的工作造成了阻碍。Gov. Mike Pence reluctantly authorized a needle exchange program last month, but local officials are not running it according to best practices, outside experts say. Austin residents still must wait for addiction treatment, even though they have been given priority. And getting those who are H.I.V.-positive on medication, and making sure they adhere to the protocol, has been difficult.外界有专家称,上个月州长迈克·彭斯(Mike Pence)不情愿地批准了一个针头更换项目,但当地官员的执行不力。本应得到优先待遇的奥斯汀居民仍然必须等待接受药物上瘾治疗。此外,让那些HIV检测呈阳性的人接受药物治疗,并保他们能遵守规定,也并非易事。Officials here say the need for education is urgent and deep; even local health workers are learning as they go. Brittany Combs, the public health nurse for Scott County, said she was stunned to discover from talking to addicts that many were using the same needle up to 300 times, until it broke off in their arms. Some were in the habit of using nail polish to mark syringes as their own, but with needles scarce and houses full of people frequently shooting up together, efforts to avoid sharing often failed.这里的官员表示,对教育的需求迫切而深刻;连当地的医务人员都摸索着工作。斯科特县(Scott County)的公共卫生护士布里特妮·库姆斯(Brittany Combs)说,她在与上瘾者交谈的过程中发现,很多人会使用同一个针头达300次,直到针头断在胳膊里,她对此感到震惊。有些人还习惯用指甲油标示出自己的注射器,但是由于针头不多,再加上屋子里满是经常一起进行注射的人,所以往往很难避免共用针头的情况。After the needle exchange program started last month, Ms. Combs also learned that many addicts were uncomfortable visiting a needle distribution center that opened April 4 on the outskirts of town. So she started taking needles directly to users in their neighborhoods.库姆斯还了解到,上个月针头更换项目开始后,许多上瘾者都不愿意去往针头分发中心。4月4日,该中心在城郊开放。所以,她开始直接把针头拿到社区,给那里的药物使用者。At the same time, H.I.V. specialists from Indianapolis — who have evaluated about 50 people with the virus here so far and started about 20 of them on antiretroviral drugs — are fighting a barrage of misinformation about the virus in Scott County, where almost all residents are white, few go to college and one in five live in poverty, according to the census.同时,来自印第安纳波利斯的HIV专家正在与斯科特县大量关于HIV的错误信息作斗争。据调查,这里几乎所有居民都是白人,上过大学的很少,五分之一的人生活在贫困之中。目前,这些专家已经对这里的大约50名病毒携带者进行了检查,并开始对其中20人使用抗逆转录病毒药物。“There are still a significant proportion of people in Austin who have biases about H.I.V. and are contributing to the stigma and subsequent fear,” said Dr. Diane Janowicz, an infectious disease specialist at Indiana University, who is treating H.I.V. patients here. “I have to reassure them — if your grandkid wants a sip of your drink, you can share it. It’s O.K. to eat at the same table. You can use the same bathroom.’”“奥斯汀仍然有很多人对HIV存在偏见,而且正在对与之相伴的耻辱感和恐惧起到推波助澜的作用,”在这里治疗HIV患者的印第安纳大学(Indiana University)传染病专家黛安娜·扬诺维茨士(Dr. Diane Janowicz)说。“我得反复告诉他们——如果你的孙子想喝一口你的饮料,你可以给孩子喝。在同一张桌子上吃饭也没有问题。你们还可以共用一个卫生间。”Many of the newly diagnosed here have strikingly high amounts of the virus in their blood, Dr. Janowicz said, and in one patient the H.I.V. has progressed to AIDS. Nonetheless, she said, “if they take their medicine for H.I.V., this is a chronic disease, not something they have to die from.”扬诺维茨说,这里许多近期确诊者的血液病毒含量都高得惊人。还有一位患者的HIV已经发展成了艾滋病(AIDS)。她说,不过,“如果他们使用针对HIV的药物,这就是一种慢性疾病,不见得一定会死于这个病。”Another complication is that the needle exchange has faced strong local resistance. Mr. Pence, a Republican, generally opposes such programs, saying they perpetuate drug use. Many residents here feel the same.另一个问题是,针头更换项目在当地遭到了强烈抵制。身为共和党人的彭斯对此类项目基本上持反对态度,说这样会使药物滥用的行为延续下去。这里的许多居民也这样认为。“If you would have asked me last year if I was for a needle exchange program, I would have said you’re nuts,” Ms. Combs said. “I thought, just like a lot of people do, that it’s enabling — that you’re just giving needles out and assisting them in their drug habit. But then I did the research on it, and there’s 28 years of research to prove that it actually works.”“如果你去年问我是否持针头更换项目,我会说你疯了,”库姆斯说。“与许多人一样,我认为这是在给药物使用提供方便——你把针头分发出去,为他们使用药物的习惯提供帮助。但是,我随后我做了一些了解,有28年的研究可以明这样做真的有用。”But researchers say that Scott County’s hastily created exchange has several features that could sharply curb its effectiveness. To get clean needles, drug users have to register, using their birth date and a few letters from their name to create an identification number that goes on a laminated card. But the police are arresting anyone found with needles but no card, saying it will prod more people to participate.但研究人员称,斯科特县匆忙创建的更换项目有几个地方会严重影响它的效果。要获得干净的针头,药物使用者必须登记,用出生日期和名字中的几个字母来创建一个识别码,这个码会印到一张塑封的卡片上。然而,任何有针头但没有卡片的人,一经发现就会被警察逮捕,理由是这样会促使更多人参与更换项目。Dr. Don Des Jarlais, the director of research for the chemical dependency institute at Mount Sinai Beth Israel hospital in New York, said the most successful needle exchange programs let participants pass out syringes to peers who remain in the shadows instead of requiring everyone to sign up. Arresting drug users who are not officially enrolled in the program “makes it hard to build trust,” Dr. Des Jarlais said, adding, “You’re not going to be able to get enough syringes out to really stop the epidemic if you have those types of restrictions.”纽约西奈山以色列堂医院(Mount Sinai Beth Israel)化学品依赖研究所的研究负责人唐·德夏莱(Don Des Jarlais)说,最成功的针头更换项目会让参与者把注射器传递给身边那些仍然躲在暗处的人,而不是要求每个人去登记。逮捕那些没有在这个项目中正式登记的药物使用者,“会导致很难建立起信任”,德夏莱说。他还表示,“如果设定这些限制,你就无法把足够多的注射器分发出去,从而真正阻止病毒的传播。”Local supporters of the needle exchange say a limited program is better than none, and believe that improvements will come with time. Last week, the state legislature sent a bill to Mr. Pence that would allow communities to create needle exchange programs for up to a year if they are experiencing an epidemic of H.I.V. or hepatitis C because of intravenous drug use. Mr. Pence said he would sign the measure, noting in a statement that it would allow only “limited and accountable” needle exchange programs, and only “where public health emergencies warrant such action.”当地持针头更换项目的人表示,有限制的项目总比完全没有这类项目好,而且他们认为随着时间流逝,事情将出现改善。上周,州立法机构向彭斯提交了一个提案。根据该提案,当一个社区因为静脉药物注射而出现HIV或丙型肝炎的广泛传播时,可以创立一个长达一年的针头更换项目。彭斯称,他将签署这一提案,并在一项声明中指出,它将只批准“有限且可问责的”针头更换项目,而且只在“出现公共健康危机的前提下”进行。For now, the program here is giving out a maximum of 140 clean needles per user per week to whoever comes to the outreach center or accepts them from the roaming minivan. Ms. Combs said some people told her they injected as often as 15 times a day, and the exchange is erring on the side of providing slightly more than people need. She has passed out needles at a house where the owner, an older woman known as Momma, sits on the porch while a steady stream of visitors comes to shoot up inside. She has knocked on the door of a trailer where, she said, “multiple family members live and the daughters all prostitute themselves out and everyone is doing drugs.” One recent afternoon, on a street fragrant with lilacs, a young woman on a bicycle declined Ms. Combs’s offer of clean needles, saying she aly had some — and H.I.V.目前,这里的项目每周最多向每个药物使用者发放140个干净针头,发放对象是每个来到推广中心,或者从流动的小型货车上拿针头的人。库姆斯说,有人告诉她,他们每天会注射多达15次,而这个更换项目宁愿提供略微超出人们需求的数量。她曾去一户人家发放针头,这家的主人是一个年纪稍大的女性,名叫莫玛(Momma);莫玛坐在门廊上,有人不停地来到这里,到里面进行注射。库姆斯还曾敲过一个拖车式活动房屋的门,她说,“好几个家庭成员都住在里面,家里的女儿都会去卖淫,每个人都在用毒品。”近日的一天下午,在一条弥漫着紫丁香香味的街道上,一名骑自行车的年轻女性拒绝了库姆斯提供的干净针头,她说自己已经有了一些,而且自己已是HIV携带者。“I know I need the medicine to slow it down,” she murmured.她低声说道,“我知道我需要药物来延缓病情发展。”One unexpected benefit of the H.I.V. outbreak, according to the woman who tested positive and fears starting treatment, is that the men who used to stream into town daily, seeking young female addicts who would prostitute themselves in exchange for drug money, have all but disappeared.这名检测呈阳性,而且害怕开始治疗的女性表示,HIV的蔓延带来了一个意想不到的好处:那些曾经每天涌入城里,寻找年轻的女性用药上瘾者的男性几乎都消失了。他们之所以来这里,是因为上瘾者会用性务来换取毒品钱。“It took H.I.V. to change our town,” she said. “Those of us who are affected are devastated, but I’m glad H.I.V. is here.”“最终HIV改变了我们的城镇,”她说。“我们这些受感染的人被毁了,但我很高兴HIV来到了这里。” /201505/373927It has long been a mystery to men why so many women enjoy watching tear jerker movies with their friends.长期以来,男人们对女人喜欢跟朋友一起看苦情片感到不解。But now scientists have come up with a suggestion – sharing sad emotions helps women bond.现在科学家有了解释:分享悲伤的情感让女人们惺惺相惜。A research team at Cardiff University found that by sharing their emotions women found the happy parts of films more joyful and the sad bits less sad.卡迪福大学的研究小组发现,通过分享情感,女士们觉得电影中高兴的部分更加令人愉快,而悲伤的情节看起来没那么悲伤。Job van der Schalk, a psychologist at Cardiff University, said: ‘Our findings suggest that a negative emotional experience such as watching a ‘weepy#39; is more positive when it is shared with a friend.卡迪夫大学心理学家范德沙克说: “我们的研究结果发现,在和朋友们分享一些消极的情感体验(比如看一场哭戏)的时候,取得的效果更加积极。‘And, at the same time, a positive emotional experience, such as watching a ‘romcom#39;, should equally be more pleasant when shared.#39;而且同时,分享积极的体验比如跟朋友一起看一场浪漫喜剧,感受到的快乐也更多。The study involved 30 pairs of female friends aged between 20 and 33 who were shown emotionally powerful images and asked to rate them on a scale from ‘very negative#39; to ‘very positive#39;.这次研究的对象为30对年龄在20到33岁的女性朋友,研究人员让她们观看产生强烈情感的影像,让她们把看到的影像按照从 “非常消极”到 “非常积极”的程度进行评价。The scientists put one of each pair in a brain scanner to monitor their reactions, and the volunteers were also asked to view and rate the images while on their own and also while together.研究人员给每一对志愿者中的其中一位带上大脑扫描监测器,他们让这些志愿者在单独观看图像和跟朋友一起观看图像时分别对图像进行消极或积极的评价。The researchers found the images were seen more positively when the pairs were together, The Sunday Times reported.研究人员发现参加实验的一对朋友在一起的时候,他们看待图像的态度更加积极。The study, published in the journal Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, said: ‘When people go to the cinema to watch a film, they ... anticipate a positive subjective impact of sharing this emotional experience.#39;这一研究发表在《社会认知与情感神经科学》的期刊上,报告指出:人们去电影院看电影的时候,他们期待的是一种积极的主观的情感分享体验。And Hollywood success seems to back the theory.而好莱坞的成功似乎验了这一理论。The 2008 film Marley and Me, which surrounds a couple#39;s relationship with their dog, took #163;160m at the global box office, and last year#39;s film The Fault in Our Stars - about two teenage cancer patients who find love - took more than #163;200m.2008年上映的电影《马利和我》,情节围绕着一对夫妇和他们的展开,该电影在全球获得了1.6亿英镑的票房。去年上映的一部关于两个癌症少年寻爱故事的《星运里的错》获得了超过2亿英镑的票房。Aggie Romeril, 22, a London beauty manager, said: ‘I think we#39;re a “stream it and weep” age. You scroll through Netflix, find who#39;s got the biggest laptop and bundle into a housemate#39;s bed for a sob session.#39;二十二岁的伦敦美容经理艾琪·罗默里尔说:“我觉得我们处在‘看了哭一场的#39;年纪。我们在Netflix搜寻影片,找一台大屏幕的手提电脑,然后钻入好友的床上看着电影哭个够。 /201505/374816

A case for the FBI联邦调查局的案件The phone rings at FBI headquarters . ;Hello?;联邦调查局总部的电话响了。“ 喂?”;Hello,is this FBI?;“喂,是联邦调查局吗?…”;Yes,What do you want?;“是的,有何需要吗.?”;I am calling to report my neighbor Tom.He is hiding marijuana in his firewood .;“我打电话是要检举我的邻居 汤姆。他在他的木柴中藏匿大麻。”;This will be noted.; Next day,the FBI comes over to Tom#39;s house.“我们会严加注意的。”次日,联邦调查局来到汤姆的家。They search the shed where the firewood is kept,break every piece of wood ,find no marijuana,swear at Tom and leave .他们搜查了存放木柴的库房,把木柴劈成一块一块,没有找到太麻,就对着汤姆口出秽言,然后离去。The phone rings at Tom#39;s house.汤姆家的电话响了。; Hey ,Tom! Did the FBI come ?;“喂,汤姆,联邦调查局有来你家吗?”;Yeah!; ;Did they chop your firewood?;“有呀”“他们‘有劈你们家的木柴吗?”;Yeah,they did.;“有呀,他们劈了呀”;OK,now it#39;s your turn to call .I need my garden plowed.;“好了,现在换你打电话了,我的菜园需要犁一下啦。” /201503/361444

A life-sized figure of a nude male sits on a rock with his chin resting in one hand, as if lost deep in thought. The Thinker, the work of French sculptor Auguste Rodin (1840–1917), has been impressing people for generations. This legendary artist gained worldwide fame with his numerous sculptures with a distinct style.他赤身裸体坐在一块石头上,单手拖住下巴,仿佛陷入了深深的沉思——这座真人大小的雕塑正是出自法国雕塑家奥古斯特#8226;罗丹(1840–1917)之手的《思想者》。它给一代又一代人留下了深刻印象。这位传奇的艺术大师因其许多别具一格的雕塑作品而闻名于世。The National Museum of China is hosting a retrospective show of Rodin’s creations until March 22, 2015. The show is his largest ever in China and displays 139 classic works created by the progenitor of modern sculpture. The sculptures are provided by the Rodin Museum in Paris.(2014年11月28日)至2015年3月22日,罗丹雕塑回顾展在中国国家物馆举行。此次展出的139件展品都是出自现代雕塑鼻祖罗丹之手,这也是迄今为止在中国最大规模的罗丹艺术展。所有展品均来自巴黎罗丹物馆。Departing from the idealism of the Greeks and the decorative beauty of the Baroque and neo-Baroque movements of the 1600s in Europe, Rodin introduced innovative practices that paved the way for modern sculpture. Instead of focusing on traditional themes like mythology and allegory, he modeled the human body with realism and celebrated individual character and physicality. This was the key to his success and few other artists can rival him.既有别于古希腊的“理想主义”,也与欧洲17世纪巴洛克与新巴洛克时期的华丽风格不同,罗丹的创新地奠定了现代雕塑的基石。神话、寓言等传统主题不再是他作品的焦点,相反,他以现实中的人为模型,赞颂人的身体和精神。罗丹因此获得成功,成为无人能敌的艺术家。His genius was to express inner truths of the human psyche. His sculpture emphasized the individual and the concreteness of flesh, and suggested emotion through detailed, textured surfaces and the interplay of light and shadow. Every part of the body speaks for the whole in his work. Imagine in the sculpture The Thinker, the grip of the toes, the rigidness of his back, and the differentiation of his hands all indicate the male passion and power.罗丹的伟大之处在于表达出了人类的深层精神内涵。他的雕塑强调个体性与肉体的具体性;通过细腻而充满质感的表面、以及光与影的运用表达情感。他作品中的每个部分仿佛都在说话。《思想者》就是代表之一:紧缩的脚趾、坚硬的后背、与众不同的两手无不展现出男性的与力量。Unlike many artists, Rodin didn’t establish his distinct artistic style or a credible list of works until he was in his 40s. Rejected by the prestigious art school Ecole des Beaux-Arts three times, Rodin worked as a decorative bricklayer for nearly two decades, from the late 1850s to late 1870s.与很多艺术家不同,罗丹一直到不惑之年才形成自己独特的艺术风格、并拥有了一系列成功的作品。连续三次被巴黎美术学院拒之门外后,罗丹当了近二十年的砌砖工(从十九世纪五十年代至十九世纪七十年代)。But later a fateful trip to Italy in 1875 stirred Rodin’s inner-artist. He drew inspiration from Italian sculptor Michelangelo and other sculptors of the Renaissance. His first great piece The Age of Bronze was created at that time. Later, he spent much time exploring alternative techniques such as assembling existing fragments. This dedication resulted in creative pieces such as The Gates of Hell, which included several hundred figures.直到1875年,到访意大利的“命运之行”激发了罗丹内心的艺术渴望。意大利雕塑家米开朗基罗和其他文艺复兴时期的雕塑家给了他灵感。他的第一个伟大作品《青铜时代》就是创作于这个时期。随后,他花费了大量时间钻研各种各样的新技法,比如将已有的碎片进行组合。这些努力成就了他的许多创新之作——比如拥有一百多个形象的《地狱之门》。He believed that art should be true to nature, a philosophy that shaped his attitudes toward models and materials.罗丹坚信艺术应是忠实于自然,这种理念影响了他对模特与材料的态度。 /201501/352908Flowers花A new business was opening and one of the owner#39;s friends wanted to send him flowers for the occasion.有一家公司开幕,老板的其中一位朋友为了这件太事要送他花。They arrived at the new business site and the owner the card,他们到达了新的公司地点,老板读了卡片的 内容:;Rest in Place.;“安息吧”。The owner was angry and called the florist to complain.老板非常生气就打电话给花店抱怨。After he had told the florist of the obvious mitake就在他告诉花店这项明显的错误,and how angry he was ,以及他有多么生气之后,the florist replied,花庙却回答说:;Sir,I am really sorry for the mistake,“先生,我真的对于这项错误感到十分抱歉,but rather than getting angry,但是与其生气,you should imagine this :你还不如应当想象somewhere there is a funeral taking place today,以下这个情况:今天有一个地方在举行葬礼,and they have flowers with a note saying,他们收到了花,还附上一张纸条说:‘Congratulations on your new location#39; ;‘恭喜新居落成!”’ /201503/361452

SOUTH PORTLAND, Me. — LIKE many parents, I have a particular book I like to give to friends when they announce they’re pregnant for the first time. It is the book I early in my wife’s pregnancy, blurting out passages about everything from birth, baby minding and child rearing to education, work and discipline. But you probably won’t find it in the baby section of your local bookstore. “The Anthropology of Childhood: Cherubs, Chattel, Changelings,” by David F. Lancy, is an academic title — but it’s possibly the only book that new parents will ever need.缅因州南波特兰——和很多父母一样,在有朋友宣布第一次怀的时候,我也有一本专门的书想送给他们。这本书是我在妻子怀初期看过的,将从出生、保育、抚养,到教育、工作和管教的一切议题,都和盘托出。但也许你在本地书店的育儿区找不到这本书。戴维·F·兰西(David F. Lancy)的《童年人类学:小天使、私产、调换儿》(The Anthropology of Childhood: Cherubs, Chattel, Changelings)是一本学术书——但它可能是初为父母的人唯一需要看的一本书。The book, which first appeared in 2008 and is about to be published in a second edition, is a far cry from “What to Expect When You’re Expecting.” Professor Lancy, who teaches at Utah State University, has pored over the anthropology literature to collect insights from a range of culture types, along with primate studies, history and his own fieldwork in seven countries. He’s not explicitly writing for parents. Yet through factoids and analysis, he demonstrates something that American parents desperately need to hear: Children are raised in all sorts of ways, and they all turn out just fine.这本2008年首版、即将再版的书,和《海蒂怀大百科》(What to Expect When You’re Expecting)是很不一样的东西。在犹他州立大学(Utah State University)任教的兰西教授查阅了大量的人类学文献,从各文化类型中寻找灼见,此外还参考了灵长目动物的研究、历史,以及他自己对七个国家的实地考察。他写这本书,并不是明确地面向父母,而是通过一些逸闻趣事和分析,验了一些美国父母迫切想听到的话:抚养孩子的方法多种多样,结果都挺好的。Children in Fiji, for example, are not allowed to address adults, or even make eye contact with them. In Gapun, an isolated village in Papua New Guinea, children are encouraged to hit dogs and chickens, and to raise knives at siblings. At 8 or 9 years old, boys among the Touareg, a nomadic people in North Africa, get a baby camel to care for. Try sitting on the couch with your partner and keeping these to yourself as you .比如斐济的孩子不能称呼大人,甚至不能跟他们对视。在巴布亚新几内亚的偏远村庄加庞(Gapun),孩子们被怂恿着去打和鸡,对着兄弟挥舞刀子。北非游牧民族图瓦雷克(Touareg)人会让8、9岁的男孩去照料一只幼年骆驼。当你坐在沙发上看这本书,看看你如何忍得住不把这些说给身边的另一半听。This is not “Ripley’s Believe It or Not,” anthropological trivia into the weird and wonderful ways of mankind. I took a larger point from all this — namely that humans have a tremendous capacity for living inside their culture and accepting those arrangements as natural, and finding other arrangements weird, unnatural, even abhorrent.它并非“信不信由你”(Ripley’s Believe It or Not)式的人类学趣事,专门收集人类一些古怪而奇妙的做法。它有着更宏大的视角——即人类在自己的文化中生活时,有着极强的适应力,可以自然地接受这些约定,而觉得其他的约定很奇怪、不自然,甚至可恶。When you’re a first-time parent, something perverse happens that makes you seem like a visitor to your own culture. In the first year of my son’s life, I found myself pondering things like baby rattles. Where do they come from? Why do we give rattles to babies? Are there cultures where babies don’t get rattles? (Indeed, there are.)初为父母的人会遇到一些不合常理的事,让你觉得对自己身处的文化很陌生。在儿子降生后的第一年里,婴儿摇铃之类的东西会引发我的深思。这些东西从哪冒出来的?为什么我们要给孩子铃铛?是不是有些文化是不给孩子铃铛的?(的确有。)At precisely the moment that I was worrying about my cultural performance of parenthood, I stumbled across mention of “The Anthropology of Childhood” on a blog and got a copy. I was immediately taken. The book does not render judgments, like other parenting books we know. “My goal is to offer a correction to the ethnocentric lens that sees children only as precious, innocent and preternaturally cute cherubs,” Professor Lancy writes. “I hope to uncover something close to the norm for children’s lives and those of their caretakers.”正当我忧心于我作为父母的文化表现如何时,我在一篇文上偶然看到《童年人类学》这本书,于是就买了一本。我立刻被吸引住了。这本书不像我们知道的其他育儿书,它没有发表论断。“我们把孩子视为宝贵、无邪、非比寻常的可爱小天使,我的目标就是对这种以自身文化为中心的看法做出纠正,”兰西教授写道。“我希望能为儿童的生活以及他们的监护者,找到一种接近常态的东西。”That norm is that children are expected to earn their keep, starting at a very early age (or they are tolerated as semi-supernatural forces, the “changelings” of the book’s title). Worldwide, there is little formal schooling; most knowledge is learned through play and imitation. Kids may spend more time overseen by older siblings than adults. Fathers have very little to do with their children. And adults in most cultures rarely, if ever, play with their children as extensively as we do with ours.这种常态就是,儿童应该在非常小的时候开始自食其力(否则他们就会被当成一种有些超自然力量来纵容,也就是书名中所说的“调换儿”)。放眼世界,正规的学校教育所占比重微不足道,多数知识都是通过玩耍和模仿习得的。孩子更多时候是他们的兄姊在照看,而不是大人。父亲几乎不管孩子。绝大多数文化中,成年人不像我们这样花大量时间跟孩子玩,甚至根本不玩。The first-time parent faces a bewildering array of commercial products and schools of parenting philosophies: attachment parenting, “Resources for Infant Educarers,” “Baby Wise,” the list rolls on. But “The Anthropology of Childhood” shows that neither the supermarket baby aisle nor our parenting ideologies are truly diverse. The real divide isn’t between people who co-sleep and those who don’t, or between those who use cloth diapers and those who use disposables. It is between what Professor Lancy, in lectures, has deemed “pick when ripe” cultures versus “pick when green” cultures.初为父母的人要面临扑面而来的各种商业产品和育儿哲学流派:亲密育儿法、婴幼儿资源中心(Resources for Infant Educarers)、《从零岁开始》(Baby Wise)等等。然而《童年人类学》让我们看到,无论是超市里琳琅满目的婴儿用品,还是我们的育儿思想,都谈不上真的有什么不同。真正的差别是有的人和孩子一起睡,有的人不是;有的用尿布,有的用纸尿裤。兰西教授在讲座中说,两者就是“成熟后再采摘”和“未成熟就采摘”的文化区别。In the “pick when ripe” culture, babies and toddlers are largely ignored by adults, and may not be named until they’re weaned. They undergo what he calls a “village curriculum”: running errands, delivering messages and doing small-scale versions of adult tasks. Only later are they “picked,” or fully recognized as individuals. In contrast, in “pick when green” cultures, including our own, it’s never too early to socialize babies or recognize their personhood.在“成熟后再采摘”的文化里,大人基本上对婴幼儿不理不睬,断奶前可能连个名字都没有。他们要经历一种他称为“乡村课程”的过程:跑跑腿、带个信,做一些小规模的成人事务。而后才会被“采摘”,也就是被完全被当作一个独立的个人。“未成熟就采摘”的文化则完全不同,包括我们也是这样,我们总是迫切地尽早让婴儿社会化,或承认他们作为人的身份。Professor Lancy calls the American way of doing pick when green a “neontocracy,” in which adults provide services to relatively few children who are considered priceless, even though they’re useless. One senses him rolling his eyes at modern American parents, impelled to get down on the floor to play Legos with their kids. But he admits that each culture evolves the child-rearing strategies it needs to reproduce itself, and he posits that pick when green is necessary in a complex society like ours. Whether it should be exported is another question.兰西教授将美国的未成熟采摘方式称为“幼者至上”(neontocracy)的文化,成年人为相对较少的儿童提供务,他们被视为无价之宝,尽管他们什么用也没有。有人感觉兰西是在藐视当代的美国家长,他们被迫坐在地上,跟孩子们玩乐高积木(Lego)。但他承认,每种文化都逐步形成了保持自我发展所需的育儿策略,他认为,“未成熟就采摘”在像我们这么复杂的社会中是必要的。而是否应该输出这种文化则是另一个问题。We take our cultural practices as a timeless given, but I was fascinated to the historical origin of our modern neontocracy: 17th-century Netherlands. Wealthy and urbanized, the Dutch middle class began treating their children as inherently valuable, not as future labor. Birthrates dropped because more children survived infancy; the pampered offspring could be trained at an early age. We can blame the political philosopher John Locke for our current child-rearing preoccupations. He carried Dutch ideas back to England in the 1680s, where Protestant radicals like the Puritans and Quakers picked them up. We, and our “godlike cherubs,” as Professor Lancy calls them, are their heirs.我们将我们的文化习惯当作一种与生俱来的东西,但我看到了当代“幼者至上”文化的历史渊源:17世纪的荷兰,这让我着迷。富裕、城市化的荷兰中产阶级开始把他们的孩子当作天生的瑰宝,而不是未来的劳工。由于越来越多的婴儿成功存活,出生率有所降低;娇生惯养的孩子可以在早期获得培养。我们可以说,导致我们现在如此专注于育儿的,是政治哲学家约翰·洛克(John Locke)。他认为荷兰人的想法源于17世纪80年代的英国,英国的清教徒和贵格会(Quaker)信徒等新教激进分子提出了这些想法。我们,以及兰西教授所说的“神一般的小天使”是他们的继承人。And I was glad for an ethnographic antidote to the ubiquity of developmental psychologists, whose advice often lacks a vital cultural perspective. Case in point: When my wife and I were sleeplessly losing our wits, we through advice books on infant sleep, none of which mentioned that sleeping for eight uninterrupted hours in a bed in separate rooms is a distinct cultural anomaly. For most cultures, sleep is social. Around the world, people sleep in groups; with animals; in briefer chunks of time; without coverings.有人从民族学的角度对无处不在的发育心理学家——他们的建议往往缺乏重要的文化视角——进行了修正,我对此感到高兴。案例分析:当极度缺觉的妻子和我已经无计可施时,我们通读了关于婴儿睡眠的各种建议书籍,其中没有哪一本曾提到,在单独的房间的床上连续不断地睡8小时是一种明显的文化特例。在大多数文化当中,睡眠都带有社会性。从世界范围来看,有人成群结队地睡觉,有人和动物一起睡,有人睡得时间比较短,还有的人睡觉不盖东西。Once we learned that ours is not the norm, we relaxed. The fact that our year-old son wasn’t sleeping the way we wanted him to didn’t mean he lacked something; it meant that he wasn’t developmentally y to be acculturated to our cultural model of sleep, not all at once.一旦我们认识到自己的做法并非常态,我们就放松了。我们一岁的儿子不像我们期望的那样一直熟睡,并不意味着他存在缺陷;这意味着他还没有发育到能适应我们文化中的睡眠模式的程度,而这并不能一蹴而就。Perhaps the most surprising thing about “The Anthropology of Childhood” was how it taught me to value things that, in a cross-cultural perspective, might suddenly seem arbitrary: how we approach hygiene, for example, or teach etiquette. As a parent, I realized, my job is to transmit my culture. It helps to think of your child as a stranger in a strange land, like a study-abroad student you are hosting long term and to whom you must, patiently and constantly, explain the land they’re visiting.对于《童年人类学》,最令人惊讶的事就是它教会我要从跨文化的视角出发,重视那些乍看可能有些随意的事情,例如我们如何对待卫生习惯或传授礼仪。我意识到,作为家长,我的工作就是传输我的文化。把孩子想象成来自异乡的陌生人,比如长期住在你家的留学生,而且你必须不断地耐心针对他们到来的这个地方,向这个学生做出解释,这样做能带来一定帮助。“In our culture, we don’t put our feet on the table,” I have heard myself say. “I suppose there are cultures where you can, but this isn’t one of them.”“在我们的文化中,我们不把脚搁在桌子上,”我听见自己说。“我想在有些文化当中,你可以这样做,但我们的文化不行。”Then we get on the floor and play Legos, which is what we do in our culture.然后,我们开始到地板上玩乐高(Lego)积木,我们的文化就是这么做的。 /201502/358188

Thousands of parents are naming their babies after Downton Abbey characters, new figures have revealed.最新数据显示,成千上万的父母开始用英剧《唐顿庄园》(Downton Abbey)中角色的名字为孩子取名。The TV show#39;s huge popularity has inspired a resurgence of 1920s fashion and hairstyles, and now the old-fashioned names of its characters are also back in vogue.这部具有超高人气的电视剧再度掀起了一股20世纪20年代的复古之风,剧中的饰和发也广受人们追捧。现今,就连剧中旧式的人名也再度流行起来。Edith, Cora, Sybil and Elsie are all soaring in popularity among new parents.初为父母的人们在给孩子取名时,伊迪丝(Edith)、科拉(Cora)和埃尔希(Elsie)都是热门选择。But when the show began in 2010, the monikers were in danger of dwindling into obscurity.不过,该剧在2010年开播时,这些名字还都意味着身份地位卑微。It is now just finished its fifth season running on Sunday night attracting around eight million viewers per episode.该剧每周日晚间播出,最近刚刚播完第五季,每集大约有800万观众收看。Violet, the first name of the matriarchal Dowager Countess of Grantham played by Dame Maggie Smith, has seen a particularly large comeback after it made the top 100 girls#39; names for 2013.剧中格兰瑟姆老伯爵遗孀的名字维奥莱特(Violet)重磅回归,被列入2013年100个最受欢迎女孩名的榜单中。该角色由玛姬#8226;史密斯女爵扮演。Spiralling from 466 girls in 2010 to 709 last year, it has jumped in the national rankings from 123rd to 78th.2010年有466名女孩取名为“维奥莱特”,去年这个数字上升为709名。在全国排行榜中,“维奥莱特”从第123名直升至第78名。And highest of all was Elsie, the Christian name of housekeeper Mrs Hughes, which has rocketed into the thousands in just five years. Nearly 1,200 babies took the name last year compared to 535 in 2010.人气最高的名字为剧中女管家休斯太太(Mrs Hughes)的教名——埃尔希(Elsie)。这一名字在短短五年内迅速从榜单内的几千个名字中脱颖而出。相对于2010年的535人,去年近1200名新生儿取名为“埃尔希”。Parenting expert Dr Fin Williams, who founded the group Parent Perspectives based in Devon, was unsurprised by the trend.在德文郡(Devon)创办了“父母观点”(Parent Perspectives)组织的育儿专家芬#8226;威廉姆斯(Fin Williams)士对此并不感到惊讶。She said: #39;We pick up our preferences for names based on who we are surrounded by but also our experiences of TV characters who have that name.她说:“取名时,我们会首选那些熟知的名字,或者是我们看过的电视剧中角色的名字。”#39;We are less likely to name our children after someone who we feel hasn#39;t got a very nice character, and more likely to name them after somebody we aspire to.#39;“我们很少用品行不端的人的名字来给孩子命名。大多数时候,我们会以我们钦佩的人的名字来给孩子命名。”Cora, the warm-hearted countess of Grantham, and Sybil, her pretty and modest daughter, are among the names that have rocketed.格兰瑟姆伯爵夫人科拉为人心地善良,她的女儿茜玻(Sybil)年轻貌美,端庄典雅。这两个名字在榜单中扶摇直上。The figures, released by the Office of National Statistics, show a 55 per cent increase in the number of girls called Cora in England and Wales, while there are now treble the number of Sybils than there were in 2010.国家统计局近日发布的数据显示,在英格兰和威尔士,名为“科拉”的女孩数量增加了55%,而名为“茜玻”的女孩数量是2010年的三倍。The name Mary - the lead character of the show played by Michelle Dockery - has bucked the trend with a slight decline - just 203 girls were given the name in 2013, compared to 237 in 2010.米歇尔#8226;多克里(Michelle Dockery)是剧中主角玛丽(Mary)的扮演者。与剧中其它热门名字不同,用“玛丽”来命名的人数稍有下滑。2010年有237名女孩取名为“玛丽”,而2013年人数则下降为203名。The top names for 2013 were Oliver and Amelia, followed by Olivia, Emily, Ava and Isla, and Jack, Harry, Jacob and Charlie.2013年最受欢迎的名字顺次为奥利弗(Oliver)和阿米莉亚(Amelia)、奥利维亚(Olivia)、艾米莉(Emily)、伊娃(Ava)、伊斯拉(Isla)、杰克(Jack)、哈利(Harry)、雅各布(Jacob)和查理(Charlie)。 /201412/347303From congealed curry to cold pasta, you may think there#39;s nothing more dispiriting than a fridge full of leftovers.凝固的咖喱、冰凉的意大利面,你会发现没有什么比打开冰箱后发现满是剩菜更令人沮丧啦。But scientists are saying these dishes could have surprising health benefits, thanks to the chemical reactions that take place when food is left overnight.但是科学家们却发现这些隔夜菜对健康有着惊人的益处,这主要得益于它们在过夜时所发生的化学反应。From glowing skin to trimmer waists, we reveal why yesterday#39;s supper could be so good for you.从光滑的皮肤到纤细的腰部,我们就可以知道隔夜饭为什么会对你的身体有好处。COLD RICE TO STAY SLIM冷饭保持身体苗条Rice, when chilled overnight can contain up to 60 per cent fewer calories than when freshly cooked — potentially dropping from 130 calories per 100g to just 52. But you need to cook it in the right way, according to research presented to the American Chemical Society.提交给美国化学学会的一项研究显示,大米被冷藏一夜后,它的热量比新鲜烹制时减少达六成,从130卡路里/100克直降到52卡路里/100克。不过,这需要你以正确的方法去烹调。When the water is boiling, before the rice is added, pour a little coconut oil into the pan — about 3 percent of the weight of the rice you#39;re using. When cooked, leave in the fridge for 12 hours to hugely reduce the calories.当水沸腾后,先向锅里倒入约为大米总重3%的椰子油,然后再倒入大米。煮熟后的大米再放入冰箱12小时会大大减少其所含热量。This exciting phenomenon is down to the way starch in the rice changes when it is heated then cooled.之所以会出现这种令人兴奋的现象,是由于大米中所含淀粉的形态在加热并冷藏后改变了。When cooked rice is eaten, its starch is turned into the sugar — glucose — by the body and converted into fat if not burned off.煮熟的大米被吃下去时,它所含的淀粉会转化为糖,确切的说是葡萄糖,如果它们没有被消耗,就会转化成脂肪。However, when rice is chilled, its starch becomes what is called #39;resistant starch#39;, which the body cannot digest. This means it is not included in the calorie count.然而,把米饭放入冰箱后,淀粉会转化成“抗酶解淀粉”,它无法被人体消化吸收,因此也就不会增加人体内的卡路里了。The coconut oil stops the cold rice from sticking together, and also seems to produce more resistant starch in the rice, further reducing the number of calories.椰子油能防止冷饭粘在一起,也会促使米饭中产生更多的抗酶解淀粉,从而进一步减少卡路里的数量。Food scientist Dr Sam Christie explains: #39;The oil may be providing a barrier to the boiling water, slowing down the cooking of the rice. The result appears to be a less digestible form of rice containing more resistant starch.#39;食品科学家山姆·克里斯蒂士解释说:“油可以在沸腾的水中建立起一个屏障,减缓大米被蒸煮的程度,这也会产生更多不易消化的抗酶解淀粉。These are, she warns, preliminary findings. However, this could be wonderful news for dieters.她也警告说,这些都只是初步发现。然而,这仍然是节食者的好消息。But don#39;t forget, reheating rice can lead to food poisoning.但不要忘记,重复加热米饭可能导致食物中毒。Dr Martin Goldberg, microbiology lecturer at Nottingham Trent University warns: #39;The bacterium Bacillus cereus, found on some rice, can survive the cooking process. As rice cools, the spores germinate and produce a neurotoxin that can make you horribly sick.诺丁汉特伦特大学微生物学讲师马丁·哥德堡也警示:“有些米饭中含有细菌性蜡样芽胞杆菌,蒸煮过程可能无法将它们灭活。大米冷藏后,孢子发芽,产生一种令人严重不适的神经毒素。#39;If you wish to eat cold or reheated rice, cook small amounts and put straight into the fridge to cool quickly.#39;“如果你想吃冷饭或重复加热的米饭,可以少量蒸煮,然后直接放入冰箱中迅速冷却。”BEEF SOUP FOR SKIN牛肉汤对皮肤好Bone broth is a big nutritional trend. Low-calorie and rich-tasting, the soup also appears to be packed with ingredients to make your skin glow.骨头汤已经成为营养圣品。热量低,味道丰富,汤中也可以加入各种东西,使肌肤焕发光泽。As the name suggests, it contains the bones from meat — beef, lamb or chicken — cooked with water and ideally a little cider vinegar to help the process.骨汤,顾名思义,来源于牛羊肉或鸡肉等肉类。和水一起烹调,如果能加一点苹果醋,那就更理想了。Collagen from the bones breaks down into gelatin, which is easy to digest and excellent for the skin.骨头中的骨胶原分解成凝胶,更加易于消化,而且对皮肤极好。Recipes often suggest leaving the broth to simmer for hours.肉汤通常需要数小时的小火慢炖。#39;Complex chemical reactions take place — and the more disintegrated the bones, (and, therefore, digestible) the massive protein molecules, which are the cement of the body, become,#39; explains Dr Christie.克里斯蒂士解释说:“其中发生了许多复杂的化学反应——骨头分解的越彻底,大的蛋白分子就变得越易消化。而这些蛋白分子是人身体的基石。”Minerals and nutrients such as calcium, magnesium and cartilage also become easy to digest. The broth is thought to have benefits for bones, teeth and joints and help hair and fingernails to grow.矿物质以及钙、镁和软骨等营养物质也变得容易消化。肉汤据信对骨骼、牙齿和关节很好,而且能促进头发和指甲的生长。#39;Only re-heatany food once and ensure it#39;s very hot (over 60 degrees celsius) to kill any bacteria,#39; says Dr Goldberg.哥德堡士说:“任何食物只能重复加热一次,而且要保高温(60摄氏度以上)灭菌。” /201504/371857

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