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黑龙江省哈尔滨市中医医院网上预约电话哈尔滨阳光妇科医院治疗子宫肌瘤好吗Business商业Chesapeake energy切萨皮克能源Caging a wildcat囚住野猫Shareholders curb Aubrey McClendon股东限制奥布里·麦克兰登的权力;WILDCAT; was once American slang for risky business; then it was applied specifically to drilling for oil or gas in virgin land. Either way, it fits Aubrey McClendon, the boss of Chesapeake Energy. Since co-founding the firm in 1989, the tall Oklahoman has overseen the acquisition of vast tracts of land and found oodles of natural gas under it. As Chesapeake became Americas second-largest natural-gas producer, Mr McClendon became the face of fracking, a gas-extraction technique hated by greens.;野猫;本是美国俚语,意指高风险商业活动。后来专指在未开垦的土地上开采石油或天然气。这两种解释都适用于切萨皮克能源公司奥布里?麦克兰登。自从1989年与合伙人一同创立该公司,这个高大的俄克拉荷马州人就一直监管土地收购业务,使公司获得了大量土地并在地下发现了丰富油气资源。随着切克披萨成长为美国第二大天然气生产企业,Mr McClendon也成为;水力压裂;形象代言人,这是一项令环保人士痛恨的天然气提取技术。More recently Mr McClendon has enraged shareholder activists. On May 1st they clipped his wings. While remaining chief executive, Mr McClendon will give up the chair of Chesapeake to someone independent. Shareholders hope this will stiffen the spine of a boss-friendly board. Mr McClendon will also negotiate the scrapping, by 2014, of a programme by which he was allowed to buy a 2.5% stake in every new well drilled by his company.最近,Mr McClendon触怒了股东中的激进分子。 这些人于5月1日剥夺了Mr McClendon对公司的控制权。尽管保住了首席执行官的位子,Mr McClendon还是要将董事长职位让位于某个独立的第三方。股东们希望此举能够让原本对总裁过于友好的董事会可以挺起脊梁 。同时,Mr McClendon将商议于2014年废除一向(激励)项目,在该项目中Mr McClendon有权在公司开采的所有新油井中占有2.5%的股份。Mr McClendon has long argued that this unusual arrangement was in the best interests of shareholders. ;You could say Im the only CEO in America who truly participates alongside his company in the day-to-day business activity on the same basis as the company,; he told Forbes last year. Presumably he believes that his incentives will now become less well-aligned. Many shareholders disagree.一直以来,Mr McClendon坚持认为这项不寻常的安排是为了实现股东的最大利益。去年在福布斯的采访中,Mr McClendon说;你可是说我是美国唯一一个真正参与公司日常商业事务,并与公司站在同一立场的CEO。;事到如今,大概他也认为这项激励措施使他与公司的立场并不一致。(可是)许多股东对这一点并不认可。As Chesapeake has grown, so has Mr McClendons appetite for debt to finance his stakes in wells. (To avoid cherry-picking, he was obliged to invest in all of each years new ones, or none at all.) In the first year of the programme, according to the Wall Street Journal, the firm drilled 19 wells; last year it was around 1,700, and Mr McClendon had to stump up over 7m.切萨皮克能源公司的逐步发展,Mr McClendon对资本的胃口也越来越大,他不断通过借贷来为购买油井股票融资。(为了避免挑选行为惹人注目,他不得不对每年的新开发的天然气井全部投资或者全都不投)。据华尔街日报报道,在该项激励计划实施的第一年,公司开发了19个天然气井,到2011年,公司天然气井数量约为1700个,Mr McClendon为此需要付4.57亿美元。He did this mostly by borrowing: he admits to personal debts of 6m. In 2008, as natural-gas prices plunged along with the firms market capitalisation, he had to sell most of his shares in Chesapeake to repay debts. The following June, the board gave him a special m bonus to invest in the well programme, while suspending the requirement that he own shares in the firm worth five times his annual salary. This generous move was what first stoked the ire of shareholder activists.Mr McClendon主要靠借贷来付这笔钱,他承认自己负有高达8.46亿美元的个人债务。2008年,随着市值缩水天然气价格大跌,他不得不卖掉自己持有的大部分公司股票来偿还债务。年6月,董事会拨给他价值7500万美元的特殊津贴来投资天然气井项目,同时,他必须持有相当于其年工资五倍的公司股票的这一强制要求也被取消。这种大方的举动第一次激怒了股东中的激进分子。Hedge funds short-selling Chesapeakes shares talk of ;red flags; that suggest trouble ahead. For example, the board is looking into reports that Mr McClendon borrowed money from financial firms that had a business relationship with Chesapeake. The firm also disclosed that the taxman was looking at the well programme as part of an audit. On May 2nd, Mr McClendon complained that ;a great deal of misinformation; has been published.对冲基金卖空切萨皮克股票被人们视为;前方危险;的警告。例如,董事会正在调查的一份报告指出:Mr McClendon从一些与切萨皮克公司有业务关系的金融公司借款。切萨皮克公司也披露税务部门正打算将油气井激励计划(涉及的资产)纳入审计范围。5月2日,McClendon对此表示不满,声称公开报道中含有;大量虚假信息;。To have a boss with such big debts looks risky. Did the board know the details? This much is clear: neither the board nor shareholders can claim they were unaware of the programme that let Mr McClendon invest in new wells, which has existed since the firm went public in 1993.公司总裁负债累累,这看上去不妙。董事会是否了解其中细节?很明显:董事会和股东都无法宣称他们对这项允许McClendon投资新油井的激励计划毫不知情,(事实上)自从1993年公司上市,该计划就已经存在了。As the forthcoming flotation of Facebook may show, investors are often willing to overlook weak corporate governance when offered the chance to buy shares in a newly listed firm run by a brilliant entrepreneur. The turmoil at Chesapeake should remind them:caveat emptor.FACEBOOK上市前的一系列事件也许可以反映出投资者的误区——当一家由天才企业家经营的公司刚刚上市时,投资者在获得机会购买该公司股票的同时却忽视了公司管理中的薄弱之处。发生在切萨皮克能源公司的混乱局面也是对这类投资者们的提醒:一经出售,概不负责。 /201210/204094哈尔滨子宫肌瘤微创手术多少钱 Obituary;Nancy Wake; 讣告;南希·威克;Nancy Wake—saboteur and special agent, died on August 7th, aged 98.南希·威克——二战间功勋卓越的英国间谍特工,8月7日去世,享年98岁。Convivial, and not averse to a drink, Nancy Wake could often be found cheering up a cocktail bar. In the late 1940s, and again towards the end of her life, it might have been the American Bar of the Stafford Hotel, just across the road from The Economist’s offices in London. In 1940, when she was living as a newlywed in Vichy France, it could have been another American Bar, this one in the H?tel du Louvre et de la Paix in Marseilles. It was a chance encounter here with an English officer, interned by the French authorities but that day on parole, which led to her membership of the resistance, and then to her role as an agent of the British Special Operations Executive in occupied France. Of the 39 SOE women infiltrated into France, 11 of whom would die in concentration camps, she was perhaps the most redoubtable.热衷于聚会派对,从不拒绝美酒的南希·威克经常出现在鸡尾酒会。到她生命的最后一段时光也是如此,可能她就出现在伦敦《经济学家》杂志社办公大楼对面的斯塔福耶酒店的美国酒馆。上世纪40年代时亦是如此,1940年她刚刚结婚,嫁到维希政权下的法国,那时她经常出现在另一家美国酒馆,在巴黎卢浮旅馆里或者在马赛和平旅馆里。在那里,她很偶然地碰到一位被法国当局保释的在囚英国军官。 这位军官后来带领她加入了抵抗德国纳粹的运动中,也使她成为了英国特别行动处驻占领的法国的一位特工。而在特别行动处39位渗入法国的女特工中,11名没有在德国纳粹集中营中丧生,而她也许是其中最令人敬畏的那个。From her earliest days, Miss Wake combined opposing qualities. She was disciplined, but at the same time a free spirit. In Sydney, to which her large family had moved after leaving her birthplace in New Zealand, she twice ran away from home. As soon as she could, she made her way to London, then to Paris to work as a freelance journalist. There it was her cheerful independence as much as her good looks that caught the eye of the rich French industrialist, Henri Fiocca, who would take her to Marseilles as his wife.早在还是个女孩的时候,威克身上就有了相反的特质。她遵守纪律,同时却又热爱自由。她随大家庭从家乡新西兰搬到悉尼后,就离家出走过两次。她一长到足够负担自己的生活的年纪,就自己去了伦敦生活,然后又到巴黎做了自由记者。她那值得庆贺的独立以及她夺人眼球的美貌,捕获了一位法国企业家亨利·费奥卡的心。随后他们结了婚,来到了马赛。She enjoyed her new life of luxury while it lasted, but she was no flibbertigibbet. Soon after meeting the interned British officer, she was helping to get similar Allied airmen, refugees and escaped prisoners-of-war out of occupied France and into Britain. She took a flat, ostensibly for a lover, in fact for the resistance, sheltered men on the run and became a crucial part of the southern escape line to Spain, travelling all over southern France from Nice to Names to Perpignan, with clothing, money and false documents.她很享受奢华的新生活,但她并不是那种只知享乐的肤浅的人。在她遇到那名被拘禁的英国军官后不久,她就帮着将与他情况相似的盟军飞行员、难民和在逃战俘逃从被占领的法国转移到英国。她买了栋公寓,表面上看是为了会情人用的,但实际上是为了庇护抵抗军。她带着衣物、钱和假造的公文,从尼斯到尼姆再到配里皮昂在法国南部来回奔走,成为法国南部向西班牙逃亡路线的一个关键部分。Inevitably, she was arrested. Beaten up and questioned for four days, she revealed nothing. It was this steadiness and loyalty to her comrades that most appealed to the British officers who later agreed to train her to become an SOE agent.不可避免地,她被逮捕了。敌人鞭打拷问了她四天,她却什么都没有泄露。正是这种坚持稳定和对同志的忠诚打动了那位英国军官,成为他后来同意将她训练为一名特别行动处特工的最重要原因。Other qualities were evident by then. Her femininity was never in doubt. It helped her escape capture, not just because she could on occasion flirt her way out of trouble, but also because her Gestapo pursuers assumed any woman as skilful in evading them must be a butch matron (though because of her ability to scuttle off the Germans called her “the White Mouse”). When she was with the Maquis, silk stockings and Elizabeth Arden face cream were often dropped for her by parachute, along with Sten guns, radios and grenades. Yet she conformed to no stereotype, swearing in the vernacular in the coarsest of terms, living for months in the woods and fighting, in the words of a confrère, not like a man but “like five men”.那时她的其它优秀品质也已经非常明显。她的女性魅力是毋庸置疑的。这帮助她成功逃离拘捕,并不只是因为他能偶尔靠美人计脱险,还因为她的那些盖世太保追求者们认为任何擅长回避他们追求的人必定是个男人婆 (不过因为她非常善于逃跑,德国纳粹称她为“白鼠”)。 在法国抗德游击队工作那会儿,组织经常空降丝袜、伊莉莎白·雅顿的面霜,以及斯特恩式轻机关、收音机和手榴弹给她。然而,她绝不是一般的女人。她可以用最脏的法国方言骂人,她也可以在茂林作战数月。用一位同事的话说,她根本不像一个男人,她“像五个男人”。Her fearlessness seemed to come from a total lack of self-doubt. The certainty with which she held her beliefs—she hated the Nazis, having seen them whipping Jews in Vienna before the war, loved France and was intensely loyal to Britain—freed her of any sense of guilt. This in turn enabled her to act as though she were utterly innocent, even when claiming to be the cousin of an imprisoned Scottish captain, or chatting to a Gestapo officer with 200lb of illegal pork in her suitcase.她的英勇无畏似乎因为她从不自我怀疑。她那种斩钉截铁的确定和由此而来的信念——对战前在维也纳鞭笞犹太人的纳粹的痛恨、对法国的热爱以及对英国无比的忠诚——使她从不愧疚。因此,即使她公开撒谎自己是一名囚禁的苏格兰上校的表,或者是在包里藏着两百磅非法猪肉与一名盖世太保军官交谈,她也表现地底气十足、气定神闲。It was sheer guts, though, that got her over the Pyrenees in her espradilles when the Germans were at her heels. And back in Britain in 1943 it was her character rather than her skills or physical abilities that got her through her training in grenade throwing, silent killing and parachute jumping. As for violence, she hated it—until she became hardened.然而,完全是巨大的勇气,使得她在德国纳粹紧跟其后的情况下,穿着她那破旧的帆布鞋,穿越了比利牛斯山。而再往前,1943年在英国时,正是因为她的顽强的性格,而不是她的技术或身体素质,使她通过了扔手榴弹、无声杀人和跳伞训练。她痛恨暴力,直到她变得无坚不摧。That began in April 1944, when Captain (as she now was) Wake and another SOE agent were parachuted into the Auvergne in south-central France. Their immediate job was to work with the local Maquis to cause as much disruption as possible before D-day five weeks later. Now the fighting began, and Captain Wake showed herself more than willing to take part, ily joining raiding parties, blowing up local Gestapo headquarters and ambushing German patrols.那是1944年4月,威克成为了上尉(到现在一直是),她和另外一位英国特别行动处特工空降在法国中南部的奥弗涅。他们当时的任务是与当地的抗德游击队员一起,尽可能多地制造混乱,为五周后的诺曼底登陆做准备。现在斗争开始了,威克上尉显然不只是要去参与其中,她自愿加入了突击队,端掉了盖世太保的总指挥部,并突袭了德国巡逻兵。She did not enjoy killing a German sentry with her bare hands, but she was unsentimental. Likewise, she saw the necessity of killing a German woman captured by some of her Maquis colleagues who admitted to being a spy. Though she had been raped and tortured, Captain Wake ordered her to be shot—or, if the captain’s later suggestion is to be believed, she herself shot her, since the Maquisards’ sense of honour permitted her rape but not her killing.她不喜欢用徒手杀掉一名德国哨兵的感觉,但她并非冷血无情。同样地,在与她共事的马基队员抓到一名承认自己是名间谍的德国妇女时,她知道必须杀了她。尽管这女人已经被强暴过、折磨过,威克上尉还是命令杀掉她。甚至,人们都不敢相信她后来这个提议:由她亲手干掉她——因为法国抵抗成员的荣誉感使他们只允许自己强暴她,而不允许自己杀掉她。In spite of such horrors, and in spite of such feats as bicycling over 500km in under 72 hours to find a radio operator, Captain Wake was having the time of her life. She was still only 26, a woman among 7,000 (mostly) admiring men, carrying out daily acts of derring-do and revelling in a job she had plainly been born for. Although she lived with the constant possibility of capture, it held no fear for her, and she did not yet know that her husband, rather than betray her, had been arrested by the Gestapo, tortured and killed. Decorations galore—from Britain, France, America and Australia—awaited her, but life would never be as good again.尽管经历着类似的恐怖事件,尽管曾经有过许多惊人壮举,比如为寻找一个收音机操作员72小时内骑车500公里,威克上尉依然享受着女人生命的黄金时光。她毕业是个26岁的年轻女性,军营中的7000男人大多都是她的倾慕者。在这群男人中,每天英勇地执行任务,完全陶醉于这一她天生注定要从事的工作。尽管随时都有可能被捕,她却从不害怕。那时她还不知道,她的丈夫并不是背叛了她,而是被盖世太保抓了起来,折磨致死。战争结束后,各种荣誉从英国、法国、美国和澳大利亚向她涌来,但她生命最美好的时光已一去不返。201206/187927And here in a freezer that MESSENGER will encounter another puzzle: can ice exist on a planet so close to the sun?在冷冻中,;信使;号将遇到另一个难题:如此接近太阳的行星,冰存在吗?Its only when the first radar observations to the surface of Mercury were obtained, back in the 90s.早在90年代,只有第一个观测水星表面的雷达知晓。That was discovered that Mercury in fact,had what appeared to be polar caps in these first radar images.而事实上在水星上的发现,似乎是在雷达图像上有类似的冰帽。Some corners of Mercury polar craters are in permanent shadow.Here, on the most sunbaked planet of all, water seems to survive frozen in the eternal darkness.水星极地陨石坑永久的阴影中的一些角落里。在这里,就像地球上的所有太阳炙烤下一样,水似乎冻结存活在永恒的黑暗中。The ice is contained in places where literally the sun never shines,冰也包含在太阳绝对不会照射到的地方,and so the ice sequestered in these dark,因此这些冰在黑暗中被束缚,interiors of craters of high latitude regions.在这些高纬度地区的陨石坑内部。We found the same thing on our moon.我们在月球上也发现过同样的东西。In late ,the LCROSS mission crashed a probe into a deeply shadowed crater confirming ice hidden near the lunar South pole.在年末,LCROSS任务探测到了陨石深坑附近的阴影确认冰隐藏在月球的南极。Where did it come from? A comet?它从何而来?来自彗星吗?注:听力文本来源于普特201203/174209哈尔滨阿城市人民医院做药物流产多少钱

哈尔滨市人民医院哪个医生比较好Business Microsoft and Intel Wintel swings商业 微软和英特尔 微软和英特尔各觅新欢The marriage that dominated personal computing becomes more open强强联姻主导个人电脑市场之势日趋明朗TOGETHER Microsoft, the maker of the Windows operating system, and Intel, the worlds biggest maker of semiconductors, used to rule the world of personal computing.微软(Windows操作系统的开发者)和英特尔(世界最大的半导体制造商),曾联手统治了个人电脑市场。Now that new computers are as likely to sit in peoples hands as on their desks or laps, life for the Wintel couple is less comfy.然时代变迁,如今的电脑已不再局限于放在桌上、膝上,还能持于手上。于是乎,微软和英特尔这两口子也开始心猿意马。On September 13th, at their annual conferences for software developers, both claimed to have found new zest—not least from dallying with other partners.就在9月13号,一年一度的软件开发大会上,两口子都宣布已有了新的对象——不仅仅只是和别人眉目传情、暗送秋波了。Gartner, a research and consulting firm, expects that this year only 3.8% more laptop and desktop PCs will be shipped than in 2010.研究与顾问咨询公司高德纳预计,今年的笔记本和台式个人电脑的发货量较2010年顶多增长3.8%。That is partly because people have tightened their belts, but also because they are snapping up tablets and smartphones.这里面部分是因为现在的人都在拉紧裤腰带生活,但也有部分原因是他们都去抢购平板电脑和智能手机了。Both Microsoft and Intel have struggled to adjust.对此,微软和英特尔都是心急如焚,急于转变。The phone version of Windows has had good reviews but was installed in only 1.6% of smartphones sold in the second quarter; Googles mobile operating system, Android, scooped 43%.Windows手机综合测评不错,但第二季度只有售出的智能手机只有1.6%是安装其操作系统。而谷歌的安卓操作系统却抱走了43%的市场份额。Windows share of tablets is minuscule.在平板电脑市场Windows所占份额更可谓是芝麻粒豆。And in markets where battery life is prized, economical chips designed by ARM, a British company, have made the running.再者,在如今这个极其重视电池续航能力的市场情况下,节能型芯片可谓是前景广阔,而英国ARM公司在这方面已是先拔头筹。Intel has made virtually no impression in tablets and none at all in smartphones.可怜的英特尔对平板电脑市场几无影响,对智能手机更是无比汗颜。Both firms boasted this week of liaisons with others.本周,微软和英特尔都在高调宣传他们的新感情生活。Intel and Google said that future versions of Android would be tuned for Atom, Intels family of low-power processors.英特尔和谷歌结了姻,英特尔家族的节能处理器凌动未来将会和安卓系统合体,预计将会于明年上半年诞生。Phones with Intel inside should be on sale in the first half of next year. Microsoft showed off the next version of its operating system, code-named Windows 8, using ARM chips.另一方面,微软则看上了ARM,并对他们的后代表示出极高的自信,冠以Windows 8的美名。It wants to reassure the army of developers who write programs to run in Windows that these will be just as reliable as Intels.微软此举也就是想消除那些开发Windows系统软件的人们的疑虑,表明此产物会如与因特尔所产的那样稳定可靠。Microsoft also told developers how easy it would be to create applications for Windows 8 and to put them in a ;Windows Store;.同时,微软也一直向应用软件开发人员们宣传为Windows 8制做软件并存入Windows软件商店是何其地容易。Happy developers are essential, because the more apps they create, the more users will want to use Windows 8.软件开发者开心是必须的,因为这样才会有更多的应用软件,也就会吸引越多的用户使用Windows 8。Better still for both users and developers, the system will run on everything from PCs to smartphones.此外,这个系统将运行于从个人电脑到智能手机的所有平台,这对用户和开发都来说可谓是喜上加喜。Steven Sinofsky, the head of Microsofts Windows division, says Windows has been ;re-imagined;.Windows 部门主管Steven Sinofsky说道,Windows 已经重新设计了用户界面。A user sees chunky ;tiles;, as on a Windows smartphone today, rather than small icons; and he can view two apps at once, which he cannot do on an iPad.用户将看到像现在Windows智能手机上那样的瓷砖式的显示,而不是小的图标。它还能同时浏览两个应用程序,这是在iPad上也没有的功能。The system is designed for touch-screens, common on mobile devices but not yet on PCs—though you can use a keyboard or mouse if you like.目前这个系统只能在触屏移动设备上运行,个人电脑版的尚未发布,但是如果你想的话,只要接上键盘和鼠标,看起来和PC也没什么两样。Writing off either of these giants, even after their slow start, would be daft.不管是微软,还是英特尔,尽管他们近来反应迟钝,但无视他们都是一种愚蠢的行为。Intel is probably closing the power-consumption gap with ARM.英特尔完全有可能缩小与ARM 间的能耗差距。Microsoft claims to have 450m users of Windows 7, the operating systems latest incarnation on PCs.微软也声称其拥有4.5亿的用户正在使用其最新的个人电脑操作系统Windows 7。Many of these, and people with older versions, may upgrade, especially if they can use the same system on all their devices, at home or at work.由于Windows8能在所有的设备上运行,不管是在家里还是在工作单位都可以使用一样的操作系统,所以众多的windows7以及更旧版本的用户都可能会选择升级。Even so, the clock is ticking, especially for tablets, where the competition will get fiercer.尽管如此,还是必须争分夺秒,尤其是对平板电脑这种日新月异、竞争激烈的商品而言。Apples iPad2 is selling like, well, an iPad.苹果的iPad2 正如其一代iPad 一样热销。By the time Windows 8 tablets appear, a third version may well have won Apple even more customers.待到Windows 8平板上市时,苹果的第三版平板可能已经抢占了更多用户。Amazon, buoyed by the success of its Kindle e-er, is expected to launch an Android tablet within weeks.Kindle电子书阅读器的成功也鼓舞了亚马逊,预计其安卓平板也将在数周内上市。Its vast online shop, selling much more than books, may be a draw.其在线销售多种产品的综合网上商城,将会是其一大助力。Other Android tablets are arriving all the time.其他安卓平板也将陆续上市。Some contenders, such as Research In Motion, the maker of the BlackBerry smartphone, have aly stumbled; HP has all but given up.其他一些竞争者,像动态研究通信公司(黑莓智能手机制造商),如今已是跌跌撞撞、蹒跚而行。;The longer they [Microsoft] leave it,; says Carolina Milanesi of Gartner, ;the more consumers will have found an alternative, and not just for tablets but for PCs too.;惠普则已是放弃了。;微软要是再拖拉下去,;高德纳的Carolina Milanesi说道,;将会有更多的消费者选择其他替代产品,而且这不局限于平板电脑,个人电脑也是同样的。; /201301/220397哈尔滨阳光医院妇科价位表 Books and Artts; Book review;文艺;书评;Conundrums of science;科学谜题;What is it for?科学究竟有什么用?Scinece in the 20th century and beyond; by Jon Agar;20世纪后科学;乔·艾格著;SCIENCE works with problems by making them into manageable, manipulable abstractions. Jon Agars ambitious new book sets out to synthesise the insights of many recent historians of science. These might be anything from a field biologists notes of lemming populations on Spitzbergen to a physicists creation of muon tracks in a cloud chamber, or from a set of equations in the mathematical imagination to a vast computer model of the worlds climate.用科学的方法处理问题就是将这些问题转化成易管理且可操作的抽象概念。乔·艾格将近代众多科学史家的见解都融入在他的新作当中,真可谓是大胆的创作。在这本书中你将会看到野外生物学家对于斯匹茨卑根群岛上的旅鼠种群的阐述,物理学家在云室里创建的μ介子轨迹,利用数学概念思考出的一组方程式,以及巨型计算机模型中的全球气候。Doing science is making these abstractions. The history of science is understanding how particular abstractions come to be accepted as the right way of producing solutions—and how problems get chosen in the first place. Sometimes the problems are those of the people paying for the science; sometimes they are posed by developments the scientists are interested in; sometimes they are problems that grow out of science itself.科学研究就是这么抽象。科学史就是在逐步认知如何以适当的方式解决某些特殊的抽象事物,使它们被大众接受,以及如何在第一时间发现所面临的问题。有些时候是献身科学事业的人们遗留了许多问题,有时候是科学家们针对他们所感兴趣的发展领域而提出了某些问题,而有时是科学本身产生了问题。As Mr Agar shows, the great problem-posing processes of the 20th century were its wars. The two world wars and the cold war ratcheted up the spending on science, changing its organisational basis, its political setting and its subject matter. The less obvious aspects of war and science—for example, the introduction of psychoanalysis into British medicine courtesy of shellshock—are given their due, as well as the central Faustian tragedy of the development of the atom bomb.正如艾格先生所说,许多重大问题都是在二十世纪的战争期间被提出的。二战和冷战都加大了花费在科学上面的时间和精力,改变了其组织基础、政治环境和作战目的。而战争和科学较不明显的方面也受到了一定的关注,例如,由于弹震症的出现将精神分析学引入英国医学中,又如原子弹的研发(虽然是个浮士德式的悲剧)也受到了某种认可。The bomb that graces the cover of the book has come to stand for the power of science. But Mr Agars history is more illuminating on the less obvious story of sciences role in problems of control. Throughout the book, the er is struck by how much people have seen a lack of control over others as a problem, and science as a source of solutions.一朵核爆蘑菇云出现在本书精美的封面上,引申出强大的科学力量。但是艾格先生更倾向于阐述科学在控制问题上所起到的作用,即使这个作用并非显而易见。通读全书,读者会震惊于因为缺乏控制而在诸多方面所引起的问题,而科学便是解决这一问题的唯一途径。Lewis Terman, developer of intelligence tests, for example, dreamed of psychology as “a science of human engineering” in the 1920s. Eugenicists sought, by combining, in the words of J.B.S. Haldane, the offices of “the policeman, the priest and the procurer”, to control both the actions of their social inferiors and the course of evolution. Devotees and fellow travellers, such as Julian Huxley and H.G. Wells, saw in the biological sciences “the ultimate collective control of human destinies”. The Rockefeller Foundation dreamed of bringing the dangerous “psychobiology of sex” under “rational control” as part of its “Science of Man” programme. And Norbert Wiener, father of cybernetics, sought to combine the human and the machine into a system—initially, but not only, an anti-aircraft system—that was defined by the way in which it controlled itself.举例来说,智力测验的开发者路易斯·推曼在1920年代将心理学设想为人体工程学。优生学家根据遗传学家霍尔丹的学说,并与警方、牧师和拉皮条者通力合作,力图控制弱势群体的行为和人类的进化过程。像朱利安·赫胥黎这样的生物学家和与其志同道合的赫伯特·乔治·威尔斯认为生物科学可“最终控制的人类的整体命运”。作为“人类科学”计划的一部分,洛克菲勒基金会希望对危险的“性心理生物学”进行“理性控制”。控制论的创立者诺伯特·维纳力图将人类和机器结合在一个系统中,即防空系统,这是最初的形式,但并非单一形式,该系统的性质是自控。At first blush these look like futures that simply failed. But the story is more complex. The Rockefeller Foundations vision of a “Science of Man” led it to foster a new “molecular biology” at CalTech and other institutions. Todays control of crops through their genes and children through their pharmaceuticals can both be traced back, in part, to that intervention. And then there is the remarkable story of Song Jian. A Chinese engineer who had been schooled in control theory in Moscow just after Stalins death (at which point cybernetics, previously bourgeois and reactionary, became acceptable), he rose to pre-eminence in Chinas military-industrial complex. Attending a meeting on control theory in Helsinki in the 1970s, he became convinced of the power of crude computer models like those of the Club of Romes “Limits to Growth”. Importing such modelling to his power base at the Chinese missile and space-flight ministry he became crucial in the enactment of the one-child policy in the 1980s.乍看下,这些内容毫无希望可言,但其实并非如此。洛克菲勒基金会对于“人类科学”的愿景促使其在加州理工学院和其他院校发展了“分子生物学”这个新学科。如今,通过基因可以对农作物进行控制,并且通过药物能对儿童进行控制,在某种程度上都能对事物进行一定的干预。接下来看一看宋健的非凡故事。他是一名中国工程师,就在斯大林病逝后不久(此时控制论、曾经的资产阶级和反动分子开始为人们所接受),他前往莫斯科学习控制理论,随后在中国的共军联合体中成为一名出类拔萃的人物。1970年代,宋健在赫尔辛基参加了一场有关控制理论的会议,他开始认识到原始计算机模型的力量,正如罗马俱乐部发表的《增长的极限》依据的计算机模型一样,随后他便将这类模型引入他在中国导弹与航天部门的动能基地加以研究。他也是1980年代独生子女政策的主要制定者。Mr Agars book is somewhat biased towards the physical sciences and it has some odd gaps. Seeing the molecular biology of the 1960s as an information science, Mr Agar overlooks Peter Mitchell, whose breakthrough in understanding that cells store energy, not in molecules, but in potential differences revealed an aspect of life hitherto undreamed of. There is nothing on the fluoridation of water, and too little on nutrition.艾格先生在书中对自然科学的存有一些偏见,但该书在某些领域的也有空白。他不仅将1960年代的分子生物学视为信息科学,还忽视了彼得·米切尔的观点,这位生物化学家的一项突破性研究是细胞能够通过电位差而不是分子储存能量,这个理论体现在生活中的方方面面,至今为止都让人类难以想象。书中也没有对饮水加氟法进行阐述,在营养学方面也较少被提及。Some of the later material on trends too close to the present might well have been omitted. Given the central role of war, a book limited to what Eric Hobsbawm has called the short 20th century—1914 to 1991—might have served better. But overall, Mr Agar has abstracted and made manageable a range of rich and informed analysis. Anyone who thinks seriously about science, and about how it is used, will find it a very useful source of new ways to appreciate both problems and solutions.后期对科学趋势的一些研究由于很接近当今的研究而被省略了。鉴于埃里克·霍布斯鲍姆称二十世纪(1914年至1991年)乃是个“短暂的世纪”,以及战争在本书起到的核心作用,这样的安排比较妥当。但总体来说,艾格先生在本书中做出了一系列充分且通透的分析,虽然抽象,但易于掌握。认真研究并运用科学的人都会发现书中许多有用的科学方法会帮助他们解决问题并发现对策。201206/187432哈尔滨市香坊区人民医院官网

哈市南岗妇产医院可以做人流吗 We put the house on market Thursday beforeLabor Day. And we were under contract following Tuesday. 我们是劳动节前的周三将房子推向市场的,自周三后,我们一直在签售房合同。The Opielas are a sign of a recoveringhousing market. They bought their 2-bedroom, 1.5 bathroom house in DCs CapitolHill area for 5,000 in. Opielas一家可以反映正在恢复的房地产市场,这家人于年用355,000美元在华盛顿国会大厦附近买了拥有两间卧室,1.5间浴室的房屋。Do you love living in Capitol home?你们喜欢住在这儿么?Yeah.是的,喜欢Yeah.喜欢呢Now theyre selling.现在他们在卖这套房子。Were recently thinking of listing maybe around430,000, 440,000 something like that and after our original meaning was thereal alerk he suggested 469,000 which at first I was a little bit worried aboutthat sounds maybe scared people away. So we one-hand listed to that level. Turnout to be the right thing to do.我们原来估价这样的房子可能会值430,000至440,000, 在我们表达了初步意向后,网上的实时警报给出建议价469,000。起初我还有些担心,害怕会把人们吓跑。我们还是将价格先定在较高水平,事实明我们做对了。Hungry buyers came knocking.大量求房若渴的买家不断敲门看房。Maybe 35 people came through total, for onethree-hour per house whichs pretty amazing. And then we have through a lot oftraffic.一天我们预留3个小时参观房子,大概一共来了35个人,令人吃惊,那时我们消息的点击率很高。We had probably 7 of 8 others scheduled theappointments over a four or five-day period, then people come by saw the sign,just wanted to come in to see the place. So there’s a lot of people looking forhouses in this area.有人住得比较远,有7、8个人预约过四五天来看房。还有路过,看到卖房广告的人,也想进来看看房子。看来有不少人想在这一片买房子。The market has been great this fall. Thingsare absolutely outstanding, open houses are very busy, there’re buyers outthere and gaining a lot of Internet response to listings. Im getting a lot ofcalls on listings and things are moving fast.这个秋天的房产市场很不错。一切都很火,开放房屋参观的人都很忙活,来了很多买家,他们已经获得了网上对报价大量反馈信息。我接到了许多咨询房价的电话,一切发展很快。The latest housing headlines show improvingbuilder confidence rising sales and prices and record low mortgage rates.最近的房地产头条新闻显示了房地产商的信心大增,房屋销售量增加了,价格也提高了,而分期付款率却是历史最低。The house isnt coming back to life?难道房地产市场不正在复苏吗?But dont break up the bubble just yet,home prices arent expected to return to their peak until 2023.但是现在泡沫还不会破裂,2023年前房屋价格都不会达到历史上的最高水平。There’re 3-million loans that are inforeclosure or the very late and likely go into the purge, thats a lot ofloans. There were 49.5 million people with mortgages. In some markets acrosscountry still a big problem.收回赎回权的房屋还有3百万欠款,最后可能都要清除,这是一大笔欠款。还有4950万人还要付分期付款,这些都是全国的市场所面临的大问题。But for those in the market.但是对这些房地产市场中的人们来说。Its fabulous time for buyers wait foranswers for the first time in 6,7 years salaries you know do have someleveraged negotiations prices are rising. And they dont have to cut the pricelike they did before.这对那些攒了6、7年薪水,一直等待的人买房者来说,这是第一次绝好的时机。经过一段时间的市场杠杆作用,房价正在上涨。现在他们不能再象以前那样随意砍价了。Heres what buyers need.这却是购房者想要的。Youre gonna need good credit, youre goingto need proof of income, and youre going to need some money that form thedownpayment.你要有好的信用,有收入明,有足够的钱来付定金。As for the Opielas, theyre looking to sellfor a profit and they hope their next selling experience is similar.对Opielas一家人来说,他们想卖个好价钱,并且希望下一次卖方经历也如此。So its always gonna be like this goingforward right?按这样的情况进行下去,是否是正确的呢?Of course it’s a decision that you’reright.当然,你认为正确就没错儿。Fire service expects prices in Washington DCto rise about 3.6% per year for the next five years, thats just slightly belowthe national average.Fire务预计在接下来的五年,华盛顿房价每年会有3.6%的增长,只是比全国平均低一点。 201211/207348哈尔滨省第九医院急诊电话道里区妇女医院有哪些专家

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