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In the peculiar-looking, former cross-dressing Shakespearean actor Benedict Cumberbatch, Hollywood has found an unlikely leading man.本尼迪克特·康伯巴奇(Benedict Cumberbatch),这个长相奇特,年少时男扮女装出演莎剧的演员,出人意料地成了好莱坞的一线男星。Benedict Cumberbatch was in mid-monologue, holding forth on the dangers of the surveillance society, when it suddenly occurred to him that he was meant to be promoting his latest movie, whatever that was (he has been in a lot of them lately). He talks superfast, so that when he paused, the effect was of a train driver slamming on the emergency brakes. ;Why does anyone want to know my opinions?; he asked. ;I#39;m not interested in ing my opinions.;本尼迪克特·康伯巴奇正谈论着政府监控的危害。慷慨激昂之间,他突然意识到自己接受采访的目的是推荐他最近出演的电影——我们且不管那是什么,因为这段时间来他出现在不少电影中。他说话语速极快,所以当他停顿时,那效果就好像一位火车司机猛踩紧急煞车。“为什么会有人想要知道我的想法?”他问道:“我可不想在报纸上读到自己的观点。”He has no idea. There are people out there these days who so love to hear Cumberbatch talk — who so love to watch Cumberbatch exist — that they do not care what he does, as long as they get to observe him doing it. Somehow, along a career consisting of highly interest-ing but generally non-megastar-making roles (most recently, the lead in the B series ;Sherlock;; Khan, the wrathful villain in the movie ;Star Trek Into Darkness;; the WikiLeaks founder, Julian Assange, in ;The Fifth Estate; and the voice of Smaug, the very bad-tempered dragon in the latest ;Hobbit; movie), Cumberbatch has progressed from being everyone#39;s favorite secret crush to one of the most talked-about actors in Hollywood.他可是有所不知。近来这段时间,康伯巴奇的一言一行让一些粉丝如此痴狂——他们不管他到底说了做了什么,只要能有机会听到看到他就好。在康伯巴奇的职业生涯中,他出演了一些非常有趣,但一般而言却很难让演员本人成为巨星的角色(最近几年来他出演了B电视剧《神探夏洛克》[Sherlock]中的主角;《星际迷航:黑暗无边》[Star Trek Into Darkness]中的狂暴反派可汗[Khan];《危机解密》[Fifth Estate]中“维基解密[Wikileaks]的创始人朱利安·阿桑奇[Julian Assange];在最新一部《霍比特人》[The Hobbit]中,他给史矛革[Smaug]这条坏脾气的恶龙配了音。),但不知怎么的,康伯巴奇从所有人最喜欢的秘密暗恋对象变成了好莱坞被谈论最多的演员之一。His celebrity manifests itself in unexpected ways. When Cumberbatch, who is 37, appeared on ;Late Night With Jimmy Fallon,; Fallon noted that more people were waiting in the standby line than for any other guest that year. He was reportedly tweeted about 700,000 times in 2013.他的知名度带来了让人意想不到的效应。当这位37岁的演员出现在《吉米·法伦晚间秀》(Late Night With Jimmy Fallon)的现场时,法伦透露说康伯巴奇是本年度吸引到最多等候排位观众的嘉宾。据报道,在2013年,康伯巴奇在推特上被提到70万次。Last fall, he appeared on the cover of Time#39;s international edition. Although he has not been a romantic lead in any big films, and although he says he looks like ;Sid from ‘Ice Age#39; ; and although he once declared that ;I always seem to be cast as slightly wan, ethereal, troubled intellectuals or physically ambivalent bad lovers,; there are numerous websites devoted to the subject of his romantic prowess, e.g., ;Benedict Cumberbatch — Fantastic Lover,; a compendium of clips set to Marvin Gaye#39;s ;Let#39;s Get It On,; that has been viewed more than 490,000 times on YouTube. (These are mostly posted by his army of female fans, who call themselves ;Cumberbitches; and who use the hashtag ;Cumberwatch; when they tweet about his activities.)去年秋天,他上了《时代》杂志国际版的封面。虽然他并没有主演过任何爱情大片,虽然他说自己长得像《冰河世纪》(Ice Age)里的树懒希德,虽然他说过“我好像总是被挑中演一些苍白病态,不食人间烟火,麻烦缠身的知识分子,或是身体机能有问题,让人失望的爱人,”但是还是有人在无数的网站上专门意淫他的情爱技能。比如《本尼迪克特·康伯巴奇——完美情人》(Benedict Cumberbatch — Fantastic Lover)。这是一个视频辑成,配的背景音乐是马文·盖伊(Marvin Gaye)的《开始吧》(Let#39;s Get It On)。这个视频在YouTube上被点击了49万次。这些帖子很多都是他为数众多的女粉丝上传的。她们自称“康巴婊”(Cumberbitches)。在社交媒体上报道他的动向时,她们用的主题标签是“康伯巴奇观察”(Cumberwatch)。His appeal is manifest, yet hard to pin down. His name is odd, Hogwartsian, suggesting both an Elizabethan actor and a baker whose products are made with rustic ingredients no one has heard of. Tall and lean, he has an other-century look about him, with his long, narrow face, his mop of crazy hair (he keeps it shorter off-duty) and bright, far-apart, almond-shaped blue eyes that on-screen can play intelligent, ardent, manic or insane, depending on the job. In ;Sherlock,; he looks like the sort of person who has a stratospheric I.Q. and an abysmal E.Q. but is dead sexy with it; at the same time, if you were to remark on his resemblance to an otter, you would not be the only one.康伯巴奇的魅力显而易见,但是要解释这到底是一种什么样的魅力却不是那么容易。他有一个奇怪的名字,像是《哈利·波特》中霍格沃茨魔法学校中某个人物的名字。这名字让人想到一位伊丽莎白时代的演员,或是一位使用名不见经传的农家原料做面包的面包师傅(Cumberbatch中的batch有“一批烤面包”的意思——译注)。他身材修长消瘦,相貌古典。狭长的脸孔上顶着一头浓密的乱发(不演戏的时候,他留着短发)。明亮的蓝眼睛是杏仁的形状,分得有点开。在银幕上,这双眼睛能根据需要表现出智慧,热忱,狂躁,疯狂。在《神探夏洛克》中,他饰演的人物智商超高而情商超低,但却性感得要命。而同时,如果你觉得他长得有点像一只河狸,那不是你一个人有这种看法。When he sat down with a cup of coffee in a Camden pub last November and began to discuss electronic surveillance, the government, his favorite movies, his career, the rabidity of ;Sherlock; fans and how coffee affects him (it makes him talk even faster), Cumberbatch had just come off an extraordinary run of work.去年11月,康伯巴奇在伦敦卡姆登区的一个酒吧里坐下。他要了一杯咖啡,开始谈论起电子监控,政府,他喜爱的电影,他的职业,《夏洛克》粉丝们的狂热,以及咖啡对他的影响(让他说话更快了)。他刚完成了一连串非同寻常的工作。;The Fifth Estate,; in which he perfectly captures the slippery nature of Julian Assange — free-speech hero, treacherous colleague, possible megalomaniac — had just come out. Over the next two months, three more of his films would be released: ;The Hobbit: The Desolation of Smaug,; in which he gets to intone things like ;I am death; in a creepy dragon voice; ;12 Years a Slave,; in which he plays a sympathetic slave-owner; and ;August: Osage County,; in which he has a small role in an ensemble of superstars like Julia Roberts and Meryl Streep.《危机解密》刚刚上映。康伯巴奇出色地抓住了朱利安·阿桑奇让人捉摸不定的气质——他是一个言论自由斗士,但对同事却背信弃义,并有可能是个自大狂。在接下来的两个月中,康伯巴奇参与的另外三部电影也会陆续上映。这些包括《霍比特人2:史矛革之战》(The Hobbit: The Desolation of Smaug),在里面康伯巴奇用让人毛骨悚然的龙的声音说了些诸如“我是死亡”这样的台词;在《为奴12年》(12 Years a Slave)中,他扮演了一位有同情心的奴隶主;在有像茱莉亚·罗伯茨(Julia Roberts)和梅丽尔·斯特里普(Meryl Streep)等巨星助阵的《八月:奥色治郡》(August: Osage County)中,他饰演了一个小角色。The Time cover had just hit the newsstands, and Cumberbatch was slightly freaked out. ;It#39;s one of the more bizarre levels of success,; he said. At first he thought it was fake. ;Someone sent me a photograph of it and I thought, ‘Some fan has got hold of a photo and done one of those neat apps where they impose your head on something,#39; ; he said.用他做封面的《时代》杂志刚刚上市。康伯巴奇有点吃惊。“能得到这样的成功实在让人感到匪夷所思,”他说。一开始他以为封面是假的。“有人给我发了一张封面照片,我还在想:‘肯定是哪个粉丝弄到了我给《时代》拍的照片,并用了什么软件把我的头放到了杂志封面上。#39;”Also, he had had an exciting experience on a British talk show, when Harrison Ford, a fellow guest, emerged from his taciturnity to announce that he loved him as Holmes. This has been happening to Cumberbatch a lot lately, fellow actors declaring themselves fans, such as when Ted Danson saw him through a crowd of stars at a pre-awards party recently and began shouting ;Sherlock!;他不久前还在英国的一个脱口秀上出镜。在节目中,另一位嘉宾哈里森·福特(Harrison Ford)打破了一贯的寡言少语,宣称他非常欣赏康伯巴奇的福尔斯,这让康伯巴奇激动不已。演员同行们告诉康伯巴奇自己是他的粉丝,这样的事近来发生了不少次。在最近的一次颁奖典礼前的派对上,泰德·丹森(Ted Danson,美国老牌影星——译注)在一群明星中看见了他,喊道:“夏洛克”!A few days earlier, he had wrapped his most recent movie, a biopic of the British cryptographer Alan Turing. Cumberbatch talked for a long time about the tragedy of Turing#39;s life and about what has been a series of very intense roles, heavy on iconic fictional characters and real people. ;I am so y to play a really dumb character,; he said.几天前,康伯巴奇刚完成了他最新一部电影的拍摄。这是一部传记电影,主人公是英国密码破解家艾伦·图灵(Alan Turing)。康伯巴奇花了很长时间谈论图灵的悲剧人生,以及自己近期来饰演的一系列激烈角色——他们都是符号式的虚构人物或真实人物。“接下来我太想演一个笨蛋了,”他说。He was born in London, to parents who were in the business — the actors Wanda Ventham and Timothy Carlton — and had his first substantial part in high school at Harrow, the famous boys#39; boarding school that is the Yale to Eton#39;s Harvard. ;I played the queen of the fairies,; he said. (That would be Titania in ;A Midsummer Night#39;s Dream.;)康伯巴奇生于伦敦,父母都是演员——父亲是蒂莫西·卡尔顿(Timothy Carlton),母亲是旺达·文瑟姆(Wanda Ventham)。他在哈罗公学(著名私立男校,与另一著名私立学校伊顿公学名声不相上下——译注)上高中时演出了第一个重要角色。“我扮演了仙女之王”。(他指的是《仲夏夜之梦》[A Midsummer Night#39;s Dream]中的泰坦妮娅[Titania]。)Later, when he performed in ;As You Like It,; an old alumnus watching the play apparently pronounced him ;the best Rosalind since Vanessa Redgrave.; He went to the University of Manchester and the London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art, and then slid pretty easily into work; so far he has appeared in more than 30 films and dozens of television, radio and theater productions. But it was his title performance in ;Sherlock,; which debuted in 2010, that propelled him to a new league.后来,当他参演《皆大欢喜》(As You Like It)一剧时,观众中的一位老校友称他为“自瓦妮莎·雷德格雷夫(Vanessa Redgrave,英国女演员——译注)之后最出色的罗莎琳德(Rosalind)扮演者”。他随后到曼彻斯特大学读书,又到伦敦音乐和戏剧学院深造,然后很顺利地进入演艺圈工作;迄今他已经出演过30多部电影、十多部电视剧、广播剧和话剧。但直到2010年由他主演的电视剧《神探夏洛克》首映,他才真正成为一线明星。Part of it has to do with the witty, knowing script, with its clever allusions to the old stories; and part of it has to do with Cumberbatch#39;s sublime portrayal of the odd, brilliant, infuriating, charismatic detective. Sherlock-the-character has a fanatic following, with fans who debate every Cumberbatchian movement and every plot twist with the fervor of grassy-knoll conspiracy buffs. Cumberbatch takes care to remind them that though they might well love Sherlock, Sherlock would never love them back. ;I always make it clear that people who become obsessed with him or the idea of him — he#39;d destroy you,; Cumberbatch said cheerfully. ;He is an absolute bastard.;《夏洛克》成功的原因之一在于其诙谐机智而让人心领神会的剧本,其中有许多与原著互相映衬的情节;另外一个原因就是康伯巴奇出色的演技:他把这位怪诞而聪明绝顶、富于魅力,让人又爱又恨的大侦探演得活灵活现。粉丝们热情追捧他扮演的夏洛克角色,康伯巴奇的每个动作、剧情的每一步发展,都会引发粉丝们的热烈辩论,其狂热程度完全不亚于肯尼迪遇刺事件中的阴谋论者们。康伯巴奇还特别注意地提醒他们:他们热爱夏洛克,但夏洛克可绝不会领这个情。“我一直清楚地表现这一点——你迷恋他,为他痴迷,而他会玩死你,”康伯巴奇开心地说:“他是个彻头彻尾的混蛋。”Over a follow-up breakfast at the Algonquin Hotel in New York a few weeks later, I started to see what his public life is like. We walked there after a quick trip to my office, in which we spoke to no one but which precipitated three breathless ;Is that who I think it is?; emails from normally phlegmatic colleagues in under five minutes. (He came back a couple of weeks later, and the non-phlegmatic people were gaping in the halls.) In the street we had to move quickly, because crowds form if Cumberbatch stands still for too long. In the hotel, we positioned ourselves behind a pillar, but people spotted him anyway (when they asked for autographs, they invariably asked on behalf of their teenage children).在初次采访之后几个星期,在纽约阿隆金酒店再次与康伯巴奇共进早餐时,我开始了解他的公众生活究竟是什么样的。早餐前,我们在我的办公室短暂停留了一下,并未与任何人交谈,但在短短五分钟内,三位平日里都很稳重的同事兴奋地给我发来邮件:“难道这真的是他?”(几个星期后,他又来过一回;这次,那些不那么沉稳的同事们在走廊里惊讶得闭不上嘴)。走在街上,我们要健步如飞;他稍作停顿,就会有一群人围上来。在酒店里,我们坐在一根柱子后面,但还是有人认出了他(当他们来要签名时,永远都是说为了他们十几岁的孩子)。As good a sport as Cumberbatch is, he sometimes finds it a bit too much. Filming ;Sherlock; last year in Cardiff, Wales, he had an awkward interlude when he had to walk from his trailer to his car wearing a costume that, had anyone seen it, might have become a major plot spoiler. When he failed in his efforts to get a particularly persistent paparazzo not to photograph him, Cumberbatch shrouded himself in a hoodie (;I looked like Kenny in ‘South Park#39;;) and held up a sign he had hastily fashioned that said: ;Go photograph Egypt and show the world something important.;即使康伯巴奇这样性格随和的人,有时候也会受不了。去年在威尔士卡迪夫拍《神探夏洛克》时,出了这么一段尴尬事件:他需要身着戏装从化妆车走到自己的车里,戏装如果被人看到,就会严重泄露剧情。他屡次试图摆脱一个固执的仔摄影师都没成功,最后只好套上一件帽衫(“我看起来就像是《南方公园》里面的肯尼”),举起一个匆匆写就的牌子:“去拍埃及吧,让世界看到点重要的东西。”The move was lampooned by the British newspapers, particularly when, to the delight of hundreds of fans massed on the street in London for another shoot, Cumberbatch did it again, this time with signs printed with provocative questions about democracy, government intrusion, journalism and the battle between liberty and security in the war on terror. ;These are very complex questions and very difficult arguments to be very clear about, so to ask the questions is to stimulate the debate,; he explained. He has not done it since, though, he said, ;I felt really strongly about it at the time.;此举遭到某些英国报纸的抨击。让粉丝们兴奋不已的是,康伯巴奇后来又这样做了一次,这次他的纸片上面写满了关于民主、政府侵犯个人隐私、新闻以及在反恐战争中自由与安全的矛盾等引人深思的问题。“这些都是很复杂的问题和难以解释清楚的论点,所以提出这些问题就是为激发讨论,”他解释道。尽管此后他并未故伎重演,但他说“我当时对这些问题感想很强烈。”In New York he was visiting his friend Zachary Quinto, who acted alongside him in ;Star Trek,; seeing some movies, going to some museums and trying to keep a low profile.康伯巴奇在纽约拜访了他的朋友——和他一起出演《星际迷航》的扎克瑞·昆图(Zachary Quinto),看了几场电影,逛了逛物馆,并试图保持低调。He is currently unattached, and is gearing up for his next batch of work. One question that has excited ;Star Trek; fans is whether his character, who all but stole the last film, will appear in the next one. There is certainly that possibility: He ended the film frozen in a pod and stored away in space. (;That was a stupid thing to do,; Cumberbatch said, referring to Starfleet Command. ;They should have just blown me up.;)现在还是单身的康伯巴奇正在为他下一轮工作做准备。让粉丝们感到兴奋不已的一个问题是,他在《星际迷航》中抢尽风头的角色会不会出现在续集中。这是有可能的:电影结束时,可汗被冻在一个冷冻仓里,放逐到茫茫宇宙中。(“这可真不是明智之举,”康伯巴奇指的是星际舰队指挥部:“他们应该直接把我炸死。”)He pulled a cap over his head and prepared again to withstand the public. He says he has a way of negotiating big-city crowds: ;If you pick a point far behind them they perceive you as not seeing them, and you#39;re the obstacle they have to get around.; For a moment, he sounded positively Sherlockian. ;There is a way of just shadowing through,; he continued. ;The higher the walls, the more dark the windows, the bigger the sunglasses — the more people are going to look. The greatest disguise is learning how to be invisible in plain sight.;离开时,康伯巴奇在头上戴了顶帽子,又一次做好了和公众打交道的准备。他说在大城市的人群中穿行他有自已的一套办法:“如果你目光聚焦在他们身后很远的地方,他们会以为你没有看见他们,这样你就成了人群不得不绕开的障碍物。”这会儿他听上去跟夏洛克没什么两样:“总有办法混迹于人群之中,”他接着说道:“墙越高,窗户越黑,墨镜越大,就越会引人注意。最好的伪装术就是学会在光天化日之下变成隐身人。” /201410/335556More than 50 years after its publication, Hannah Arendt’s “Eichmann in Jerusalem” remains enduringly controversial, racking up a long list of critics who continue to pick apart her depiction of the Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann as an exemplar of “the banality of evil,” a bloodless, nearly mindless bureaucrat who “never realized what he was doing.”汉娜·阿伦特(Hannah Arendt)的《耶路撒冷的艾希曼》(Eichmann in Jerusalem)出版50多年来仍具有争议,许多批评者猛烈抨击她对纳粹战犯阿道夫·艾希曼(Adolf Eichmann)的描述,她说他是“平庸的恶”的典型代表,是一个没有感情的、几乎没有思想的官员,“从未意识到自己做了些什么”。Bettina Stangneth, the author of “Eichmann Before Jerusalem: The Unexamined Life of a Mass Murderer,” published in an English translation this week by Alfred A. Knopf, didn’t aim to join those critics. An independent philosopher based in Hamburg, she was interested in the nature of lies, and set out around 2000 to write a study of Eichmann, the Third Reich’s head of Jewish affairs, who was tried in Israel in 1961, in light of material that has emerged in recent decades.这个星期,阿尔弗雷德·A·克诺夫(Alfred A. Knopf)出版社出版了《耶路撒冷之前的艾希曼:大屠杀者未被仔细审视的人生》(Eichmann Before Jerusalem: The Unexamined Life of a Mass Murderer)的英译本。该书作者贝蒂娜·斯坦尼思(Bettina Stangneth)无意加入那些批评家的行列。斯坦尼思是汉堡的一位独立哲学家,她感兴趣的是谎言的本质。2000年左右,根据近几十年出现的资料,她开始撰写关于1961年在以色列接受审判的艾希曼的著作,艾希曼是第三帝国犹太事务主管。Then, while ing through the voluminous memoirs and other testimony Eichmann produced while in hiding in Argentina after the war, Ms. Stangneth came across a long note he wrote, dismissing the moral philosophy of Immanuel Kant, that flew in the face of Arendt’s notion of Eichmann’s “inability to think.”艾希曼战后在阿根廷藏身时写了大量回忆录和其他文件。斯坦尼思在通读这些资料时发现了他写的一大段笔记,这段笔记驳斥了伊曼努尔·康德(Immanuel Kant)的道德哲学,与阿伦特所谓的“没有思考能力”的艾希曼形象截然相反。“I sat at my desk for three days, thinking about it,” Ms. Stangneth said in a telephone interview from her home. “I was totally shocked. I could not believe this man was able to write something like this.”“我在书桌前坐了三天,思考这个问题,”斯坦尼思在家中接受电话采访时说,“我完全震惊了。我简直不能相信这个人能写出这样的东西。”Ms. Stangneth’s book cites that document and a mountain of others to offer what some scholars say is the most definitive case yet that Eichmann, who was hanged in 1962, wasn’t the order-following functionary he claimed to be at his trial, but a fanatically dedicated National Socialist.斯坦尼思在书中引用了那个文件以及其他大量资料,明了一些学者们心目中最为关键的一点:1962年被绞刑处死的艾希曼绝不像他自己在审讯中所声称的那样,只是一名从命令的公务员,而是一个狂热献身纳粹事业的纳粹党人。If previous researchers have seriously dented Arendt’s case, Ms. Stangneth “shatters” it, said Deborah E. Lipstadt, a historian at Emory University and the author of a 2011 book about the Eichmann trial.埃默里大学的历史学家黛拉·E·利普斯塔特(Deborah E. Lipstadt)说,如果说之前的研究者们严重削弱了阿伦特的论据,那么斯坦尼思“粉碎”了它。利普斯塔特2011年出版了一本关于艾希曼审判的书。The facts about Eichmann in Argentina have been dribbling out, “but she really puts flesh on the bones,” Dr. Lipstadt said. “This was not a guy who just happened to do a dirty job, but someone who played a crucial role and did it with wholehearted commitment.”利普斯塔特士说,艾希曼在阿根廷的一些真相已经陆续传开了,“但她写得生动具体”,“这家伙不是碰巧干了一份肮脏的工作,而是在其中扮演重要角色,全身心投入”。While Ms. Stangneth maintains that Arendt, who died in 1975, was fooled by Eichmann’s performance on the stand, she sees her less as a foil than as an indispensable intellectual companion.斯坦尼思认为阿伦特是被艾希曼在法庭上的表演愚弄了,但她不认为阿伦特不重要,而认为她是个不可或缺的智慧伙伴。阿伦特于1975年去世。“It wasn’t my plan to write a historian’s book, just arguing against Arendt with historical facts,” Ms. Stangneth said. “To understand someone like Eichmann, you have to sit down and think with him. And that’s a philosopher’s job.”“我没打算从历史学家的角度写一本书,只是想用史实与阿伦特辩论,”斯坦尼思说,“想了解艾希曼这样的人,你必须坐下来,从他的角度思考。那是哲学家的工作。”“Eichmann Before Jerusalem,” based on research in more than 30 archives, certainly contains plenty of eye-opening facts, including the revelation that in 1956 Eichmann had drafted an open letter to the West German chancellor, Konrad Adenauer — discovered by Ms. Stangneth in a trove of Eichmann’s papers held in German state archives — proposing that he return to his homeland to stand trial.《耶路撒冷之前的艾希曼》是在研究了30多个档案馆的资料后撰写的,其中当然有很多令人瞠目的事实,比如,1956年艾希曼曾起草过一份致西德总理康拉德·阿登纳(Konrad Adenauer)的公开信,提议让自己回国受审。那封信是斯坦尼思在德国国家档案馆保存的艾希曼文件里找到的。Ms. Stangneth also describes the sometimes surprisingly open postwar networks that protected Eichmann, as well as the reluctance of West German officials — who knew where Eichmann was as early as 1952, according to classified documents published in 2011 by the German tabloid Bild — to bring him and other former Nazis to justice.斯坦尼思还提到,战后情报关系网的公开程度有时令人惊讶,这保护了艾希曼;西德官员不太愿意将艾希曼和其他前纳粹分子绳之以法。根据德国小报《图片报》(Bild)2011年公布的机密文件,西德官员早在1952年就知道艾希曼的藏身之处。Such revelations drew headlines when Ms. Stangneth’s book appeared in Germany in 2011, the 50th anniversary of the Eichmann trial, contributing to renewed debate about whether Germany’s postwar government had made a complete break with the past. (The full 3,400-page file on Eichmann held by the German intelligence service, the BND, has yet to be declassified.)2011年是艾希曼审判50周年,斯坦尼思的书也于这一年在德国出版,她揭露出来的这些事很快成为报纸头条,再次引发关于战后德国政府是否与过去一刀两断的争论(德国情报机构联邦情报局[BND]仍未公布关于艾希曼的3400页的完整文件)。But the core of “Eichmann Before Jerusalem,” which was translated into English by Ruth Martin, is a detailed portrait of Eichmann and the circle of former Nazis and Nazi sympathizers surrounding him in Argentina, based largely on materials previously available to scholars but never, Ms. Stangneth said, fully or systematically mined.但是《耶路撒冷之前的艾希曼》(英译者露丝·马丁[Ruth Martin])的核心是详细描述艾希曼在阿根廷时的情况,以及当时围绕在他身边的前纳粹分子和纳粹持者。它的主要依据是学者们之前就能看到,但是(据斯坦尼思说)从未被完整或系统挖掘过的资料。“We waste a lot of time waiting for spectacular new material,” she said. “We haven’t sat down and taken a very close look at the material we have.”“我们浪费很多时间等待惊人的新资料,”她说,“而没有坐下来仔细查看已有的资料。”That material forms a veritable mountain. Eichmann’s testimony in Jerusalem runs to thousands of pages of transcripts, notes and handwritten texts, including a 1,200-page memoir he produced after the trial.那些材料真的能够堆积成山。艾希曼在耶路撒冷的词包括成千上万页笔录、笔记和手写文本,包括他在审判后写的1200页的回忆录。Ms. Stangneth, building on the work of others, has also pieced together the so-called Argentina Papers, a tangle of more than 1,300 pages of handwritten memoirs, notes and transcripts of secret interviews of Eichmann in 1957 by Willem Sassen, a Dutch journalist and former Nazi living in Buenos Aires.斯坦尼思以他人的研究为基础,同时也把所谓的阿根廷文件拼凑到了一起,它包括1300多页手写回忆录、笔记以及住在布宜诺斯艾利斯的荷兰记者、前纳粹分子威廉·扎森(Willem Sassen)1957年对艾希曼的秘密采访的笔录。The Sassen transcripts, scattered across three German archives in incomplete and confusingly paginated copies, have long been known to scholars, and small portions were submitted as evidence in Eichmann’s trial, where he dismissed them as loose “pub talk.” (Two brief, edited excerpts also ran in Life magazine.)扎森的笔录分散存放在德国的三个档案馆,残缺不全,页码混乱。学者们很早之前就知道这些笔录,其中一小部分作为据被提交到艾希曼的审判中,他把那些笔录斥为不可靠的“酒吧胡言”(其中两段经过编辑的剪短节选曾刊登在《生活》[Life]杂志上)。Ms. Stangneth uncovered hundreds of pages of previously unknown transcripts in mislabeled files. She also found evidence that the Sassen circle included more people than scholars had previously recognized, among them Ludolf von Alvensleben, former adjutant to Heinrich Himmler, whose participation in some of the interviews, she said, had gone undetected.斯坦尼思在贴错标签的文档中发现了几百页之前不为人知的笔录。她还发现有些学者也在扎森的圈子里,而之前人们并不知道,比如海因里希·希姆莱(Heinrich Himmler)的前助手鲁道夫·冯·阿尔文斯莱本(Ludolf von Alvensleben)。斯坦尼思说,之前人们没有察觉他也参与了其中一些采访。Together, in Ms. Stangneth’s depiction, these men formed a kind of perverse book club, meeting almost weekly at Sassen’s home to work through the emerging public narrative of the Holocaust, discussing every volume and article they could get their hands on, including ones by “enemy” authors. Their goal was to provide material for a book that would expose the Holocaust as a Jewish exaggeration — “the lie of the six million,” as one postwar Nazi publication in Argentina put it. But Eichmann had another, contradictory goal: to claim his place in history.根据斯坦尼思的描述,这些人组成了一种堕落的读书俱乐部,几乎每周都在扎森的家中会面,阅读公众对犹太大屠杀的最新描述,讨论他们能找到的每一本书和每一篇文章,包括“敌方”作者所写的内容。他们的目标是收集资料,写一本书,揭露大屠杀是犹太人的夸张,是“600万人的谎言”(阿根廷一本战后纳粹出版物的说法)。但是艾希曼有另一个相反的目标:确立他在历史上的地位。The facts and figures confirming the scale of the slaughter piled up as Eichmann recounted the rigors of what he called (without irony, Ms. Stangneth notes) his “killer of a job.” Ms. Stangneth es a long Eichmann tirade on his “duty to our blood” — “If 10.3 million of these enemies had been killed,” he declared of the Jews, “then we would have fulfilled our duty” — that left his sympathetic listeners unnerved.在艾希曼叙述自己所谓的“杀手工作”(斯坦尼思指出这绝不是讽刺)的严酷时,他也在提供无数能实屠杀规模的确凿事实。斯坦尼思引用了艾希曼描述自己“天生使命”的长文——“如果真有1030万敌人(他指的是犹太人)被杀,那我们也算完成了使命”——这让同情他的听众们感到不安。“I cannot tell you anything else, for it is the truth!” Eichmann said. “Why should I deny it?”“别的我无可奉告,因为这就是事实!”艾希曼说,“我为什么要否认它呢?”For the Sassen circle, Ms. Stangneth writes, this tirade marked the end of the fantasy that Eichmann would help them defend “pure National Socialism” against the slanderous charges of its enemies. For Eichmann, the Sassen conversations were good practice for Jerusalem, where his Israeli interrogator, Ms. Stangneth writes, noted his facility in answering historical questions, although in service of a very different image of himself.斯坦尼思写道,对扎森的圈子来说,这篇长文标志着幻想的破灭,他们不再指望艾希曼会帮助他们为“纯粹的纳粹主义”辩护,帮助他们否认敌人的诽谤中伤。对艾希曼来说,扎森的采访只是应对耶路撒冷的极佳演练。斯坦尼思写道,以色列审讯者发现艾希曼在回答史实问题时得心应手,不过这次是为了给自己塑造一个完全不同的形象。If Arendt, like many others, was taken in, some historians say, his performance still led her to valuable insights about the mentality of many of those who carried out the killing on the ground.有些史学家说,如果阿伦特像其他很多人那样被蒙骗了,那么他的表演仍让她洞察到很多当时在现场执行屠杀的人们的心态,这很有价值。“She had the right type but the wrong guy,” said the historian Christopher R. Browning, the author of “Ordinary Men,” an influential 1992 study of a German police battalion that killed tens of thousands of Jews in Poland. “There were all sorts of people like Eichmann was pretending to be, which is why his strategy worked.”“她说的那类人的确存在,但他不是那类人,”史学家克里斯托弗·R·布朗宁(Christopher R. Browning)说。他1992年的著作《普通人》(Ordinary Men)很有影响力,该书调查了波兰的一个德国警营,成千上万犹太人在这里被害。“艾希曼所假装的那种人的确存在,各种各样的人都是那样的。所以他的策略才能奏效。”Listening to Eichmann in Jerusalem, Arendt saw an “inability to think.” Listening to Eichmann before Jerusalem, Ms. Stangneth sees a master manipulator skilled at turning reason, that weapon of the enemy, against itself.听着艾希曼在耶路撒冷的陈述,阿伦特看到了一个“不能思考的”人。听着艾希曼在赴耶路撒冷之前的讲述,斯坦尼思看到了一个非常擅长操纵的大师,擅长让理性来反对它自身,而理性原本是敌人的武器。“As a philosopher, you want to protect thinking as something beautiful,” she said. “You don’t want to think that someone who is able to think does not also love it.”“作为一名哲学家,你想维护思考,认为它是一种美丽的东西,”她说,“你不愿认为一个有能力思考的人不喜欢思考。” /201409/329624

The Christmas pudding we recognise today is a Victorian dish made from suet, dried fruit, candied peel, bcrumbs, spices, egg and grated carrots and apples.我们现在经常见到的圣诞布丁,最早起源于维多利亚时代。其主要成分包括(牛羊腰部的)板油、干果、蜜饯果皮、面包屑、香料、鸡蛋、磨碎的胡萝卜和苹果。The Victorians shaped their puddings into a spherical shape and boiled them in a muslin cloth.维多利亚时期的人把布丁弄成球型,并用棉布包着放在水里煮。‘Stir up Sunday’ (the last Sunday before Advent) has become associated with the start of the pudding-making process, in order to allow it least a month to mature before being consumed on Christmas Day.唤醒星期日(基督降临日前最后一个星期日)一般标志着圣诞布丁制作过程的开始,因为布丁最后做好需要至少1个月的时间。这个时候开始制作可以确保在圣诞节当天大家能够享用圣诞布丁。At Christmas, the pudding is doused in brandy and set alight.圣诞节当天,布丁会被淋上白兰地(烧酒)然后点着火、点亮,然后端上桌。 /201312/269281

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