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  • 5.Women Blog More5.客中女性更活跃Considering this very website is essentially a glorified blog with facts and jokes thrown in, our opinion on blogging is that it#39;s pretty radical. Luckily for us, research tends to be in agreement, finding that social blogging can have a positive affect on social and personal well-being. In addition, constant blogging increases a person#39;s overall knowledge of, and confidence with, the English language.考虑到这个网站实质上是一个事实+笑料型的客,我们认为客是很基本的。我们庆幸的是,社交客对群体和个人幸福都有积极影响,这与理论一致。此外,经常玩客还可以提升一个人对英语语言的全面认识和自信。And according to the numbers, women have an edge in this field. Women are not only 8% more likely to own and update a personal blog, but they#39;re also more likely to engage with and use social media. That second part may have some of you scoffing, but we should point out that a secure understanding of social media is an increasingly important aspect of business, and that being able to properly vocalize one#39;s opinions or thoughts via writing is a skill that should never be underestimated. As for the blogging aspect: blogging is not only linked to boosting both motivation and confidence, but blogging itself is seen as one of the most influential forms of marketing on the entire web, and women control a vast chunk of that. In fact, in one experiment conducted to test the effects that blogging had on a person#39;s well-being, it was found that women#39;s confidence, emotional state, and senses of accomplishment and community were improved by the simple act of daily blogging.从数量来看,女性在这方面有优势。不仅有8%的女性拥有和更新自己的客,而且她们也趋于建立关系和使用社交媒体。可能有人会嘲笑后面提到的做法,但我们应当指出商务中日益重要的方面是对社交媒体有可靠的理解,且写作是一项不可低估的技能,我们完全可以通过写作来表达观点或想法。从写客方面来说,写客不仅仅与促进积极性和提高自信心有关,它自己本身在整个网络中还被视为是最有影响力的营销方式之一,而女性控制着这里的大部分组块。事实上,我们在客对个人幸福的影响试验中发现,女性的自信、情感状态、成就感和社群感都随着每天更新客的简单行为而有所增强。4.Women are More Likely to Pursue — and Stick with — College4.女性更愿意追求学业并坚持上大学96% of today#39;s high school women plan to continue their studies at college, whilst the figure for young men in the same age group sits at around 90%. Though that doesn#39;t initially seem like that big of a difference, it#39;s important to note this is equal to thousands of young men not going to college.In fact, women best men on almost all fronts when it comes to everything college-related (and that includes jello shots.) Along with being more likely to start college, they#39;re more likely to research their choice of school, consult college websites about courses, and enroll immediately after finishing high school. They#39;re even more likely to take an active role in college activities. On top of this, female students are also more inclined to actually finish college, with the graduation rates for females being noticeably higher than those of their male counterparts. Damn, women kick all kinds of ass when it comes to higher education.如今有96%的高中女生打算在大学里继续学习,与此同时,同龄的男生中有这个打算的大约为90%。虽然乍一看这并没有什么太大的差别,但值得注意的是,这相当于有数以千计的男生没有接受高等教育。事实上,在与大学有关的每件事上(也包括;代价;)女性都比男性更出色。除了更可能上大学,女性也更愿意调查她们选择的大学,上校园网页咨询她们的课程,而且在高中毕业以后就立即登记入学。她们甚至更容易以积极的姿态投身到大学生活中。此外,现实中女性也更倾向于能完成她们的大学学业,女性的大学毕业率要明显高于她们的男同学们。由此看来,女性几乎在所有与高等教育有关的领域里都能拔得头筹。3.Women Can See More Colors than Men3.女性可以比男性看到更多的颜色There#39;s an old joke that a woman can look at three different tins of paint and see ;brushed almond,; ;smokey seashells,; and ;expired milk,; whereas her confused husband can only see three tins of cream paint. Well apparently, that joke is more factual than most realize, according to an article by none other than the B. By virtue of simply having lady parts, a woman is able to see more subtle shades of red than a man. Women are also very, very unlikely to be affected by color blindness, due to their having two X chromosomes. In fact, there is a stark difference in how men and women see the world. Whereas men#39;s eye are supposedly better at discerning details from a distance, women are more adept at seeing color. According to an article published by National Geographic in 2012, women are able to see almost all colors more clearly and more brightly than a man can. Perhaps best of all, women are able to better see the color green than men. This means that, to a women, the grass is always greener on their side of the fence.有个老笑话这样说,女人看三个不同的油漆桶时可以看到;色泽柔软的杏仁;,;烟熏的贝壳;和;过期的牛奶;,但是她们糊涂的丈夫却只能看到三桶奶黄漆。很显然,对于B的另一篇文章来说,这个笑话更实际,更加通俗易懂。文章说到,凭借着女性的先天优势,女性比男性更能看到红颜色其他的微妙色调。由于女性有两条X染色体,她们也非常不易患色盲。实际上男性和女性在看世界的方式上有明显的不同。男性的眼睛善于从远处辨别细节,而女性的眼睛更熟练于观察颜色。《国家地理》在2012年发表的一篇文章称,相比于男性,女性能够更加清晰、更鲜明地看到几乎所有的颜色。或许最好的是,女性能比男性更好地看清绿色。这意味着对于一个女人来说她眼里的草地绿意更浓。2.Women are Better Able to Understand and Accept Climate Change2.女性能更好理解和更易接受气候变化Since an article about gender differences wasn#39;t going to stir up enough trouble on its own, I figured I might as well bring climate change into the mix. In a study published in mid-2013 by a researcher at Michigan State University, it was discovered that, on average, women#39;s beliefs and opinions on climate are more likely than those of men to fit with current scientific opinion. The findings were gleaned from over eight years of Gallup polls on environmental change.既然一篇关于性别差异的文章还不足以引火烧身的话,我想不妨让气候变化也卷入这场纷争吧。密歇根州立大学一个研究人员在2013年年中时推出一项调查,结果表明,较之男性,女性对气候的看法和见解通常更科学。研究结果由盖普洛民意调查提供,这项关于环境变化的调查持续了8年多。Weirdly, the research found men are more likely to claim that they have a better understanding of climate change than women, even though the findings suggest they don#39;t. To e Aaron M. McCright#39;s musings on the findings: ;Men still claim they have a better understanding of global warming than women, even though women#39;s beliefs align much more closely with the scientific consensus.; We#39;re certain this statement will in no way annoy anybody currently ing this.奇怪的是,研究发现比起女性,男性更喜欢声称自己对气候变化有深入了解,即使结果显示事实并非如此。引用一段艾伦·M·麦克奈特对调查结果的想法:;即使女人的想法与科学研究更契合,但男人依然宣称自己比女人更了解全球变暖的现象。;我们相信,这一言论绝不会触怒任何一位正在阅读这篇文章的读者朋友。1.Women Recycle More1.女性更注重循环利用Regardless of your opinion on climate change, it#39;s hard to argue against recycling. It not only saves energy and provides extra jobs, but it also helps out polar bears to boot, which is always nice. And yet, according to a study conducted in the UK, when it comes to single-person households, women wipe the floor with men when it comes to recycling last night#39;s pizza box. According to the results, though 69% (huh huh huh) of women recycled a part of their daily waste, only 58% of men could claim to do the same.既然你持气候变化的观点,就很难反对循环利用的做法。循环利用有百利而无一害,不仅可以节约能源和减缓就业压力,还能让北极熊免遭;沦为皮草;之灾。然而,英国的一项研究显示,单亲家庭在回收隔夜披萨盒的问题上,女性的环保意识较之男性更胜一筹。根据该研究,即使有69%(呵呵哒)的女性会回收一部分生活垃圾,做出同样举动的男性只有58%。Interestingly enough, the study found that this percentage shot up to 79% if the household contained both a man and a woman, which I think is a good way to end this piece. There may be small differences between men and women and how we all interact with the world, but we#39;re way more likely to make that world a better place if we work together. 10% more likely, in fact.有趣的是,研究表明,如果是一个一男一女组成的家庭,回收利用率会飙升至79%——我觉得这是一个解决问题的好办法。虽然男性与女性之间存在着微妙的差异,两性理解世界的方式也有所不同,但我们都希望共同创造一个更美好的世界。然而事实是,数据或许只能再增加10%。翻译:小懒 来源:前十网 /201511/407215。
  • The nutritional pickle so many Americans are now in is largely a result of “an oversimplification of dietary recommendations that created a fat phobia,” Dr. Frank B. Hu of the Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health told me. 哈佛大学公共卫生学院(Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health)的营养与流行病学教授胡丙长(Frank B. Hu)士告诉我,“对饮食建议的过度简化导致了人们对所有脂肪都存在恐惧心理,在很大程度上造成了时下很多美国人面临的营养学困境。 Starting in the 1970s, when accumulating evidence from animal and human studies showed that a diet high in saturated fats and cholesterol was an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, dietary guidelines urged people to eat less fat. 从20世纪70年代起,越来越多来自动物和人类研究的据表明,高饱和脂肪高胆固醇饮食是心血管疾病的重要风险因素,膳食指南呼吁人们少吃脂肪。 Although health advice focused on saturated fats from high-fat animal foods, many people generalized the advice to mean all fats, choosing in their stead a panoply of reduced-fat and fat-free foods rich in carbohydrates, from crackers to sweetened yogurts. They especially increased their consumption of two kinds of carbohydrates, refined starches and sugars, that have helped to spawn the current epidemic of obesity and Type 2 diabetes. 虽然健康建议都侧重于高脂肪动物食品中的饱和脂肪,有许多人都将它们外延到了所有脂肪,并选择代之以从饼干到加糖酸奶等一系列富含碳水化合物的低脂和无脂食品。他们对2种碳水化合物——精制淀粉类和糖类的摄入量增加得尤其明显,这催生了当今肥胖和2型糖尿病的流行。 Experts now realize that efforts to correct past dietary sins that made heart disease and stroke runaway killers have caused the pendulum to swing too far in the wrong direction. 专家们现在认识到,人们为了避免心脏病和中风而努力纠正既往的饮食误区,结果矫枉过正,走向了另一个错误的方向。 “The mistake made in earlier dietary guidelines was an emphasis on low-fat without emphasizing the quality of carbohydrates, creating the impression that all fats are bad and all carbs are good,” Dr. Hu, a professor of nutrition and epidemiology, said. “It’s really important to distinguish between healthy fats and bad fats, healthy carbs and bad carbs.” “早期膳食指南犯的错误在于过分强调低脂肪,而不重视碳水化合物的质量,让人们误以为所有的脂肪都是坏东西,而所有的碳水化合物都有益于健康,”胡士说。“区分有益健康的脂肪与坏脂肪,有益健康的碳水化合物与坏碳水化合物非常重要。” He explained that saturated fat, found in fatty animal foods like meats and dairy products, raises blood levels of cholesterol and is not healthy, “but olive oil is important — it’s beneficial for cardiovascular health and body weight.” Olive oil, like canola, avocado and nut oils, is monounsaturated, and while it has as many calories as meat and dairy fat, it does not raise serum cholesterol or foster fat-clogging deposits in blood vessels. 他解释说,高脂肪的动物性食物,如肉类和乳制品中的饱和脂肪会提高血液中的胆固醇,不利于健康,“但橄榄油很重要——它对心血管健康和控制体重都有益。”与菜籽油、鳄梨和坚果油一样,橄榄油也是单不饱和脂肪酸,虽然它像肉类和乳制品脂肪同属于高热量食品,但它不会提高血清胆固醇,也不会促进脂肪在血管内的堆积和堵塞。 “We have to get out of the fat phobia mind-set,” Dr. Hu stressed, adding that we also have to abandon the idea that all complex carbohydrates are good. “我们必须摆脱恐惧脂肪的心理定势,”胡士强调,并补充说,我们也必须放弃所有复杂的碳水化合物都有益于健康的想法。 Sugars are simple carbohydrates and starches are complex carbohydrates; all are ultimately broken down into glucose, the body fuel that circulates in blood. Sugars are digested rapidly, quickly raising blood glucose, but most starches take longer to digest. 糖类是简单的碳水化合物,而淀粉是复杂的碳水化合物。但它们终将被分解为葡萄糖,作为身体的燃料存在于血液循环当中。糖类的消化速度很快,可以迅速提高血糖,而大多数淀粉需要较长的消化时间。 Important exceptions are refined carbohydrates, like white b and white rice. Starchy foods with highly processed grains that have been stripped of dietary fiber act more like sugar in the body. They are rapidly digested and absorbed, raising blood levels of glucose and prompting the secretion of insulin to process it. When consumed in excess of the body’s need for immediate and stored energy, refined carbs and sugars can result in insulin resistance and contribute to fatty liver disease. 但精制碳水化合物,如白面包和白米饭是重要的例外。用经过高度加工的谷物制成的淀粉类食物已经丧失了原来的膳食纤维,它们在人体内的消化过程反而与糖类更加接近。它们被迅速地消化和吸收,提高血糖水平,并促进人体分泌胰岛素来应对。当你的摄入量超过了身体即时消耗和能量储存的需要,精制碳水化合物和糖类可能导致胰岛素抵抗,引起脂肪肝等疾病。 Alas, potatoes, the nation’s most popular vegetable, act like sugars and refined carbohydrates. They have what is called a high glycemic index, the ability to raise blood glucose rapidly. Potatoes, Dr. Hu explained, are made of long chains of glucose easily digested by enzymes in the mouth and stomach, and the fat in French fries slows the process only slightly. 可惜,美国最受欢迎的蔬菜——土豆也跟糖类和精制碳水化合物差不多。它们都具有较高的升糖指数,也就是迅速提高血糖的能力。胡士解释说,土豆由长链葡萄糖构成,很容易被口腔和胃部的酶消化,而炸薯条中的脂肪只能稍微减缓这一过程。 The concept of a glycemic index, proposed in 1981 by David Jenkins and his colleagues in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, has since been validated repeatedly and is now accepted as a good way to distinguish between the kinds of carbohydrates that are health-promoting or at least neutral and those that have negative health effects. 升糖指数这一概念是1981年由戴维·詹金斯(David Jenkins)及其同事们在《美国临床营养学杂志》(The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition)上提出的,其后经过反复验,现已被公认为是区分那些促进健康(或至少也是中性)的碳水化合物与对健康有负面影响的坏碳水化合物的一种好方法。 In 2002, Dr. David S. Ludwig, a pediatrician, endocrinologist and nutrition researcher at Boston Children’s Hospital and professor at the Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, published a comprehensive review of how glycemic index influences human physiology, clearly demonstrating its importance to preventing and treating obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Had Americans and their physicians heeded it then, we might have been largely spared the fix we’re now in. 2002年,哈佛大学公共卫生学院的教授,波士顿儿童医院(Boston Children’s Hospital)的儿科医生、内分泌学家和营养研究员戴维·S·路德维希(David S. Ludwig)士发表了一篇关于升糖指数如何影响人体生理的全面综述,明确地阐明了升糖指数对预防和治疗肥胖症、糖尿病以及心血管疾病的重要性。要是当时美国人和他们的医生们能听从这篇综述中的劝告,很有可能我们就可以避免陷入当前的这种困境。 The index was developed by testing the glucose response to a standard amount of carbohydrate against a reference food, either pure glucose (index number 100) or white b (71). High-glycemic foods like baked Russet potatoes (111), white baguette (95), cornflakes (93), white rice (89), pretzels (83), instant oatmeal (83), rice cakes (82), Gatorade (78) and French fries (75) induce higher blood glucose levels than ordinary white b and are best consumed infrequently and in small quantities. 升糖指数可以通过比对标准剂量的碳水化合物与参比食物对葡萄糖的应答而得出,其中参比食物可以是纯葡萄糖(升糖指数为100)或白面包(71)。高升糖指数的食物包括烤土豆(111)、白法式长棍(95)、玉米片(93)、白米饭(89)、咸脆饼干(83)、即食燕麦片(83)、米饼(82)、佳得乐(78)和炸薯条(75)等,它们提升血糖水平的能力都超过了普通的白面包,最好不要经常食用,并注意只能少量食用。 At the other end of the glycemic spectrum, oatmeal (55), pasta (46 for spaghetti, 32 for fettuccine), apples (39), carrots (35), skim milk (32), black beans (30), lentils (29), prunes (29), barley (28), chickpeas (10), grapefruit (25), peanuts (7) and hummus (6) have a smaller effect on blood glucose, and green vegetables like broccoli have too little an effect to be measured. 而低升糖指数食物,包括燕麦片(55)、意大利面(细面为46,宽面为32)、苹果(39)、胡萝卜(35)、脱脂牛奶(32)、黑豆(30)、小扁豆(29)、西梅(29)、大麦(28)、鹰嘴豆(10)、葡萄柚(25)、花生(7)和鹰嘴豆泥(6)等对血糖的影响较小,而西兰花等绿色蔬菜对血糖的影响非常小,以至于无法测定。 Closely related to the glycemic index is the glycemic load. While the glycemic index measures how quickly a particular food raises blood sugar, the glycemic load takes portion sizes into account. Hence a food like watermelon, with a high glycemic index, has a low glycemic load, since much of the fruit is water. 升糖指数与另一个概念密切相关,那就是升醣负荷。升糖指数衡量的是某一特定食物提升血糖的快慢,而升醣负荷还考虑到了份量因素。比如,西瓜虽然升糖指数很高,但它的升糖负荷较低,因为这种水果的绝大部分成分是水。 High-glycemic foods are a particular problem for people trying to control their weight. The amount of insulin released to lower blood glucose can overshoot the mark and result in a rapid return of hunger. A low-glycemic food, on the other hand, has no such effect. And those that are rich in wholesome fats, like peanuts or avocado, can actually delay the return of hunger, though the calories can add up quickly if consumed to excess. 对于试图控制体重的人来说,高升糖食物尤其是大麻烦。它们可能导致胰岛素大量释放以降低血糖,但胰岛素一旦释放过量,就会让人很快就重新感到饥饿。相反,低升糖食物就不会造成这种问题。至于那些富含健康脂肪的食物,如花生或鳄梨,其实倒可以延缓人再次饥饿的速度——不过,如果摄入过量,热量也会迅速增加。 “The glycemic index and glycemic load of the average diet in the ed States appear to have risen in recent years because of increases in carbohydrate consumption and changes in food-processing technology,” Dr. Ludwig wrote in 2002. The pattern persisted in the decade that followed, and can largely explain the rise in overweight and obesity among Americans of all ages. 路德维希士在2002年写道:“近年来,由于美国人对碳水化合物摄入的增加和食品加工技术的改变,人们日常饮食的升糖指数和升糖负荷都有所上升。”在其后的十年里,这种模式仍然持续着,并在很大程度上导致了所有年龄段的美国人中超重和肥胖的增加。 In addition, chronic consumption of meals with a high-glycemic effect can induce insulin resistance, the hallmark of Type 2 diabetes, and an excess of free fatty acids in the blood, resulting in fatty liver disease. The prevalence of both these disorders has risen in recent years, and both can lead to chronic inflammation, a promoter of cardiovascular disease. 此外,长期以高升糖效应的食物为主食可引发胰岛素抵抗(这也是2型糖尿病的标志),而且,血液中过量的游离脂肪酸还会导致脂肪肝等疾病。近年来这两种疾病的患病率均有所上升,而且,它们都可能导致慢性炎症,继而诱发心血管疾病。 Dr. Hu said that when he was growing up in China, most people were physically active and thus able to handle the glycemic load of large amounts of white rice consumed. “Now, however, the Chinese have become more sedentary but still consume large amounts of white rice, and both obesity and diabetes are on the rise,” he said. 胡士说,他从小在中国长大,在他的童年时代,大多数人都经常从事体力活动,从而能够应对大量食用白米饭造成的升糖负荷。“然而,现在的中国人越来越爱久坐不动,却仍在食用大量白米饭,肥胖和糖尿病都呈上升趋势,”他说。 /201603/430118。
  • With many of us contemplating marathons or other prolonged endurance events in 2016, we, our spouses and other family members most likely have wondered whether such strenuous training could be harmful to our hearts. Could any of us, in making ambitious resolutions, exercise too much?有很多人都考虑在2016年参加马拉松比赛或其他长时间的耐力活动,然而,这样的雄心会不会造成运动过度?如此艰苦的锻炼会不会损伤我们的心脏?我们的配偶、其他家庭成员、当然还有我们自己不由产生了担忧。A newly published scientific review offers both reassurance and some caution. It found that while most athletes’ hearts can withstand most exercise, there are exceptions. For some people in seemingly good health, heavy loads of exercise might be problematic. That’s why all of us who work out should be as informed as possible about our family’s cardiac history and our own potential genetic risks.最新发表的一项科学综述让我们大为安心,但它同时也提出了一些警告。该研究发现,尽管大多数运动员的心脏都能承受大部分的运动,但也有例外。运动的沉重负荷可能为某些看似身体健康的人造成麻烦。正是出于这个原因,所有平日锻炼的人都应该尽可能详细地了解自己家族的心脏病史以及自己潜在的遗传风险。Exercise, of course, is in general extremely beneficial for heart health. Dozens of large-scale epidemiological studies have found that people who exercise in any amount, whether five minutes a day or two hours a day or more, are much less likely to develop or die from heart disease than people who are sedentary.当然,一般而言,锻炼对心脏健康大有益处。数十项大型流行病学研究都发现,无论是每天锻炼5分钟还是2个小时,锻炼身体的人患心脏病或因心脏病死亡的风险要比久坐不动的人要低得多。But these studies, while encouraging, contain a disquieting subtext. Their plotted data typically shows some type of bell curve to the heart benefits from exercise, meaning that the more people work out, the less they are at risk of cardiac problems — up to a point, and then the benefits plateau or decline.但这些研究在给予我们鼓励的同时,也隐含着些令人不安的信息。根据数据绘制出的锻炼的心脏效益曲线往往呈钟形,这意味着,在某个点之前,锻炼得越多,人出现心脏问题的风险就越低,但越过这个点之后,锻炼的效益就会出现平台期或者有所下降。To some scientists, that finding made little intuitive sense. If a little exercise is good for the heart, why shouldn’t more be continually better?有些科学家直觉地认为这一发现说不通。既然少量锻炼有益于心脏,那为什么加大锻炼量却不会带来更大的好处呢?Dr. Paul Thompson, the chief of cardiology at Hartford Hospital in Connecticut and for years a dedicated marathon runner, was particularly drawn to that issue. He and his colleagues at Hartford Hospital, along with scientists at the Radboud University Medical Center in Nijmegen, the Netherlands, recently decided to delve more comprehensively than had yet been done into the available data on the topic.作为一名有多年经验的马拉松跑者,哈特福德医院(Hartford Hospital,位于康涅狄格州)的心脏科主任保罗·汤普森(Paul Thompson)士对这一问题特别感兴趣。最近,他和他在哈特福德医院的同事们以及荷兰内梅亨大学医学中心(Radboud University Medical Center in Nijmegen)的科学家们决定一同对这一课题的现有数据进行更深入全面地研究。Many past studies have looked at individual aspects of prolonged exercise and heart health. But no past review had comprehensively examined all of the ways in which prolonged endurance exercise might affect the heart and whether, on aggregate, those studies indicated that we should — or should not — worry about the effects of heavy training.以往有许多研究着眼于从个人角度来探讨长期锻炼与心脏健康。然而,却未曾有综述全面审查过长时间的耐力训练对心脏的效应,或总结这些研究是否提示我们应警惕高强度锻炼带来的影响。So for the new study, being published next month in Physiological Reviews, Dr. Thompson and his collaborators gathered all of the studies they could find from the past 30 or more years related to exercise and heart health, and parsed their findings both singly and collectively.因此,在这项1月发表在《生理学》杂志(Physiological Reviews)上的新研究中,汤普森士及其同事收集了他们能找到的过去30多年来与锻炼和心脏健康有关的所有研究,并个别和综合分析了这些研究的结果。Their findings should reassure most of us and our concerned loved ones.他们的研究结果应该可以让我们和我们那些忧心忡忡的亲人放下心来。“There is no evidence that there is a level of exercise that is dangerous or too much for a normal, healthy person,” Dr. Thompson told me.汤普森士告诉我:“目前没有据说明某种运动水平会给正常、健康的人带来危险或让人‘锻炼过度’。”At the same time, those of us who work out should understand that frequent exercise training causes “profound changes in cardiac physiology and structure,” as Dr. Thompson and his colleagues write in their review.另一方面,正如汤普森士及其同事们在该综述中所写:平日锻炼的人也应该明白,频繁的运动训练确实会引起“心脏的生理和结构发生重大改变。”In the short term, these changes can mimic heart damage, they point out, with cardiac cells often becoming “leaky” after strenuous workouts or events, releasing proteins into the bloodstream that, in other circumstances, could indicate a heart attack. These proteins usually disappear within a few days, and the heart seems to recover fully, Dr. Thompson said.他们指出,短期看来,这些改变有点像心脏损伤,也就是说,在剧烈运动之后,心脏细胞往往会“漏”,将蛋白质释放入血液——换了别的情况,这可能预示着心肌梗死。不过,这些蛋白质通常几天内就会消失,心脏也完全“康复”了,汤普森士说。But in the process, the heart adapts and changes. Its left and right ventricles enlarge. It begins to look quite different than a non-athlete’s heart.但是在这个过程中,心脏出现了适应性改变:左、右心室扩大,从形态上开始与那些非运动员的心脏有了很大差异。For most people, these changes are beneficial and also necessary for successful athletic performance. But, as Dr. Thompson and his colleagues write, their review of the studies indicates that there are outliers, seemingly healthy people for whom strenuous exercise holds unexpected dangers.这些变化对于大多数人来说都是有益的,对于取得优异的运动成绩也必不可少。不过,正如汤普森士和他的同事所写的那样,他们在做完研究综述后发现,世事总有例外,有些人表面上健康,但剧烈运动却可能给他们带来意想不到的危险。Perhaps most surprising, older marathon runners can be just as susceptible as their sedentary counterparts to atherosclerosis, or the buildup of dangerous plaques in the arteries, the studies show. Strenuous exercise does not prevent these plaques in people who are predisposed by heredity or lifestyle to the condition.也许最令人惊讶的是,研究表明,中老年马拉松选手与久坐不动的人一样容易患动脉粥样硬化(也就是危险斑块在动脉中堆积)。在因遗传或生活方式原因更容易患这种疾病的人当中,剧烈运动对斑块没有预防效果。The act of exercising, however, may increase the risk that the plaques will rupture, precipitating a heart attack. Someone with atherosclerosis is more likely, studies show, to have a heart attack while running than while sitting quietly.而且,运动时的动作可能会增加斑块破裂的风险,引发心肌梗死。研究显示,与静坐时相比,动脉粥样硬化患者在跑步时更可能发生心肌梗死。But many older athletes with atherosclerosis have no idea they suffer from the condition, which often causes few symptoms.但是,很多患有动脉粥样硬化的中老年运动员对自己的病情一无所知,虽然有些症状已经出现。Similarly, according to the new review, people with certain inherited heart abnormalities, such as cardiomyopathy (an enlarged heart) or long QT syndrome, a disorder of the heart’s electrical activity, may exacerbate their conditions with strenuous exercise. The cardiac remodeling that is beneficial for most exercisers, the reviewers write, is undesirable for them and could lead to premature death, possibly contributing to the statistical downturn in health benefits from extreme exercise seen in some studies.这项新综述还显示,某些遗传性心脏异常,如心肌病(心脏肥大)或长QT综合征(心脏电活动的紊乱)的患者在剧烈运动时,病情可能加剧。作者们在综述中写道,虽然心脏重构对大多数锻炼者有益,但对上述患者却有害,可能会导致他们过早死亡。一些研究发现剧烈运动的健康效益从统计学上偏低,可能有这方面的原因。The best response to this information is not, however, to panic and avoid strenuous exercise, Dr. Thompson said. The best response is “to know your family history of sudden death,” he said. If a close family member has died unexpectedly of heart problems, talk to your doctor about whether you need to be tested for conditions such as atherosclerosis or cardiomyopathy.不过,汤普森士表示,对这些信息的最佳反应不是恐慌并避免剧烈运动,而是“了解自己家族的猝死病史”。如果你有近亲因为心脏问题而意外死亡,请与你的医生谈谈,看你是否需要接受测试,以检查有无动脉粥样硬化或心肌病等疾病。The rest of us should pay attention to symptoms such as unusual fatigue, shortness of breath or chest pain during exercise, he said, but are much more likely to strengthen our hearts with exercise than harm them.其他的人也应该注意在运动中是否出现了不寻常的疲劳、呼吸急促或胸痛等症状,汤普森士说,但总的说来,锻炼更可能强健我们的心脏,而不是伤害它们。 /201602/426530。
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