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2020年01月22日 10:06:41 | 作者:美丽新闻 | 来源:新华社
Bob McConnell, a retired engineer, set up a new wireless router in his home this year to get faster Internet speeds. Instead, he got the opposite, with his iPad often getting no wireless connection in his bedroom.为了获得更快的上网速度,退休工程师鲍勃·麦康奈尔(Bob McConnell)今年在家里安装了一个新无线路由器。结果,家里网络反倒不如从前了,在卧室里使用iPad时,他常常找不到信号。For days, he tinkered with the router’s settings, but couldn’t figure out a fix. “It was totally ruining my life,” said Mr. McConnell, who lives in a condominium building in Kirkland, Wash. “Things would work, and then the next morning they wouldn’t work again.”他花了好几天时间调整路由器的设置,但没能找到解决问题的办法。“它彻底毁了我的生活,”住在华盛顿州柯克兰市一座共管公寓里的麦康奈尔说。“有时候网络可以正常使用,但第二天就又不行了。”What Mr. McConnell experienced is a situation we call “Wi-Fi headache,” and it’s an ailment that many can relate to. The condition is rooted in the networking devices called routers that people install in their homes for Wi-Fi connectivity. Most routers are difficult to configure for anyone who doesn’t work in an information-technology department. Jargony tech terms like 802.11 or dual-band add to the confusion when people upgrade a router or try to decide which one to pick.我们把麦康奈尔经历的这种状况称为“Wi-Fi头痛”,这是一种很多人能感同身受的顽疾。它产生的根源在于一种名为“路由器”的网络连接设备。人们把它安装在家里,以获取Wi-Fi连接。对于不从事信息技术工作的人来说,大多数路由器很难配置。当人们想升级路由器,或试着挑选一款路由器时,“802.11”或“双频”之类的技术术语,只会让人更加困惑。So to diagnose and cure Wi-Fi headaches, we teamed up with The Wirecutter, the product recommendations website. The Wirecutter put dozens of top-rated routers and devices through hundreds of hours of testing to pick out the best router for most people and come up with other recommendations tailored to different living situations and budgets. It also ran new tests for The New York Times to come up with best practices for getting a stronger, faster Wi-Fi signal.所以,为了诊断和治疗Wi-Fi头痛,我们与提供产品推荐的The Wirecutter网站展开了合作。The Wirecutter对几十种热销路由器和设备进行了数百小时的测试,以挑选出适合大多数人的最佳路由器,同时也针对不同生活环境和预算提供其他匹配建议。该网站还为《纽约时报》进行了一些新测试,以便找到能获得信号更强、速度更快的Wi-Fi网络的办法。The bottom line: People with devices both new and old will see an improvement by upgrading to a recent router that supports the latest Wi-Fi standards. But they should be wary of buying a cheap router that isn’t any good, or spending too much on one that is too complex for their needs.最基本的要求是,不管使用的是新设备还是旧设备,在升级到持最新Wi-Fi标准的新款路由器之后,应该看到网络有所改进。但也应该小心不要买质量不太好的廉价路由器,或花太多钱买超过自身需求的过于复杂的路由器。Wi-Fi headaches start with how the technology has evolved. For years, router makers like Netgear, Linksys and Cisco focused on making Wi-Fi technology transmit data at higher speeds and over longer distances.Wi-Fi头痛始于这种技术的演进。多年来,Netgear、Linksys和思科(Cisco)等路由器厂商都将注意力放在提高Wi-Fi技术上,目的是使它传输数据的速度更快、距离更远。That did little to prepare people for the explosion of Internet-connected mobile devices. In buildings crowded with smartphones, computers, smart TVs and tablets, the devices’ signals are now fighting for room on the same radio channels. And routers are spewing out energy for longer distances that may be bumping into neighbors’ signals.但是,在帮助人们应对联网移动设备大爆炸方面,这种改进几乎没什么助益。在智能手机、计算机、智能电视和平板电脑泛滥的建筑里,这些设备的信号都在同样的无线电频道上争夺空间。而各厂商竭力让路由器传送信号距离更远的时候,则有可能干扰到邻居家的网络。“The router manufacturers are kind of brain-dead,” said Dave Fraser, the chief executive of Devicescape, which develops technology for making public Wi-Fi networks usable for mobile phone service. “All they were thinking about was supporting people with laptops in their homes and commercial environments. All of a sudden Wi-Fi is in everything and everywhere, and we’re moving around our homes much more.”“路由器厂商们有点蠢,”Devicescape公司首席执行官戴夫·弗雷泽(Dave Fraser)说。该公司开发的技术可以让公共Wi-Fi网络供移动通讯务使用。“之前他们只考虑给人们在家里和商务环境中用笔记本电脑上网提供持。突然之间,世道变了,遍地都是Wi-Fi,什么都要用Wi-Fi,而且我们在家里的活动性也比过去大得多。”Router manufacturers have more recently improved Wi-Fi technology with mobile devices in mind, said Mr. Fraser. New routers often include smarter antennas that do a better job of assembling signals and beaming energy toward devices that are moving around.弗雷泽表示,最近在改善Wi-Fi技术时,路由器厂商考虑到了移动设备的需求。新款路由器往往有更智能的天线,可以更好地聚集信号并向移动中的设备传送信号。Some features inside newer routers also help reduce signal interference. Newer routers typically can transmit data over two radio frequencies — 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz — and give you the option to split them up into two separate Wi-Fi networks. In general, the 2.4 GHz band transmits data farther and is more crowded because many types of devices, like cordless phones and microwaves, use that frequency. The 5 GHz band is less congested but typically travels a shorter distance.新款的路由器还具有一些可以帮助减少信号干扰的功能。新款路由器往往能以两种无线电频率——2.4吉赫兹和5吉赫兹——传输数据,让你可以将它们分成两个独立的Wi-Fi网络。一般而言,2.4吉赫兹的波段传输数据更远,但网络负荷比较大,因为包括无绳电话和微波炉在内,各种类型的设备都使用这一频率。5吉赫兹波段相对没那么挤,但传输距离通常较短。Consumer behavior is also to blame for Wi-Fi headaches. People may wait years before buying a new router, so their devices might be more up-to-date than their infrastructure. An outdated router becomes a bottleneck that hinders the speeds of web downloads and file transfers between connected devices.消费者的行为方式也是造成Wi-Fi头痛的原因之一。人们可能会等好几年才会买一个新路由器,所以他们使用的上网设备可能比这种基础设施更跟得上时代。过时的路由器阻碍人们获得更高的网络下载速度和在不同设备之间进行文件传输的速度。Some people never upgrade their routers, especially those who still use the router that their Internet service provider lent them years ago. Those routers, which often double as modems, are often slow and short-ranged. That means it is time to buy a newer, faster router.有些人从不升级自己的路由器,甚至到现在还在使用多年前网络务提供商提供的路由器。这些路由器往往同时兼作调制解调器,一般速度都很慢,而且网络覆盖范围小。这意味着,是时候买个更新更快的路由器了。The Wirecutter performed a battery of tests on two top-performing routers with six devices, and the results were unmistakable: If your current router is at least three years old, there is no reason not to upgrade to a new router.The Wirecutter用六种设备对两款表现出色的路由器进行了一系列测试,结果很清楚:如果你目前的路由器已经使用至少三年,那就没理由不更换一台新的。Not only can a newer router improve the speed and range for users, the routers typically have upgraded internal components and strong external antennas. Many also support the latest Wi-Fi standard — 802.11ac — which has top speeds that are nearly three times faster than the previous standard, 802.11n, for the fastest wireless devices you can buy today.新的路由器不仅可以提高使用者的网速并扩大网络覆盖,这些机器往往还升级了内部组件,有性能强大的外置天线。很多还持针对你现在可以买到的速度最快的无限设备制定的最新的Wi-Fi标准——802.11ac。相比于之前的802.11n标准,这一标准下的网速提高了将近三倍。Many smartphones, tablets and laptops released since 2013 support 802.11ac. But even older devices that support only the previous standard, 802.11n, can enjoy faster speeds at long range with a newer 802.11ac router.2013年以来发布的许多智能手机、平板电脑和笔记本电脑持802.11ac标准。但是,哪怕你使用的是更老的设备,只能持之前的802.11n标准,在更换了802.11ac标准的新路由器的情况下,也可以获得更快的网速和更广的网络覆盖。For these tests, The Wirecutter used two routers: its top 802.11ac router recommendation, TP-Link’s Archer C7, and an older 802.11n router, Netgear’s WNDR3700. It tried them with a 2012 iPhone 5, a 2014 iPhone 6 Plus, a 2013 HTC One M7, a 2015 Samsung Galaxy S6, a 2012 MacBook Air and a 2014 MacBook Air.The Wirecutter在这些测试中使用了两款路由器:该网站最为推荐的802.11ac标准路由器TP-Link的Archer C7,和一款更老一些的802.11n标准路由器Netgear的WNDR3700。用以测试这两款路由器的设备包括:一部2012年的iPhone 5手机、2014年的iPhone 6 Plus手机、2013年的HTC One M7手机、2015年的三星Galaxy S6、2012年的MacBook Air笔记本,和一台2014年的MacBook Air。To get an idea how each device performed with each router, The Wirecutter’s Wi-Fi expert, David Murphy, tested file transfer speeds, streaming speeds, music streaming quality and call quality at a short range of 11 feet and a long range of 43 feet.为了解每台设备在适配每款路由器的情况下的网络表现,The Wirecutter的Wi-Fi专家戴维·墨菲(David Murphy),在11英尺(约合3.4米)的近距离和43英尺的远距离下,分别测试了文件传输速度、视频流媒体速度、音频流媒体质量和视频通话质量等项目。Most tested devices had 19 percent to 54 percent faster download speeds and shaved 3 to 48 percent off their file-transfer times when paired with the Archer C7 compared with the older 802.11n Netgear router. The devices also did better on the Archer C7’s 5 GHz Wi-Fi network than on its 2.4GHz network at the same locations. In comparison, The Wirecutter could not connect to the Netgear router’s 5 GHz Wi-Fi at its long-distance test location.相比于使用更老的802.11n标准的Netgear路由器,大部分被检测的设备在与Archer C7路由器适配的情况下,网络下载速度可以快19%到54%,文件传输时间可以减少3%到48%。在同一地点,这些设备使用 Archer C7的5吉赫兹Wi-Fi比使用2.4吉赫兹,上网效果更好。相比之下,在远距离测试中,The Wirecutter无法连接到Netgear路由器的5吉赫兹Wi-Fi。The Archer C7’s exceptional performance on a 5 GHz signal is its strength. Devices often had the same download speeds at long range as short range when connected to the Archer C7’s 5 GHz Wi-Fi. But at the longer distance, when switched to the Archer C7’s 2.4GHz network, each device’s download speeds dropped, sometimes by more than 80 percent.Archer C7在5吉赫兹波段的卓越表现,显示出它的优势。在连接到Archer C7的5吉赫兹Wi-Fi时,这些设备往往在近距离和远距离能获得同样的下载速度。但连接到Archer C7的2.4吉赫兹网络进行远距离测试时,每台设备的下载速度会下降,有时幅度甚至超过80%。In summary: For a stronger, faster wireless connection, stay on the router’s 5 GHz band for as long as you can. Older routers aren’t the best at that; a newer router like TP-Link’s Archer C7 is a much better option.总而言之:为了获得更强大、速度更快的无线连接,尽量多使用路由器的5赫兹波段。老款路由器在这方面不是最佳选择,像TP-Link的Archer C7这样的新款路由器要好得多。The best router for most people is the Archer C7 (0). It’s a dual-band 802.11ac router, meaning it can run both 2.4GHz and 5 GHz Wi-Fi networks, and it supports the fastest Wi-Fi speeds of every wireless device you can buy, including the MacBook Pro, the Samsung Galaxy S6 or the brand-new iPhone 6s. The Archer C7 is faster over longer distances than most routers that cost 0 or more, and it’s the best value of the more than two dozen routers The Wirecutter tested in the last two years.Archer C7(100美元)对大多数人来说是最佳选择。它是一款双频802.11ac标准路由器,这意味着它可以提供2.4吉赫兹和5吉赫兹Wi-Fi两种网络。它还能持你能买到的各种无线设备获得最快的Wi-Fi速度,不管是MacBook Pro、三星的Galaxy S6,还是全新的iPhone 6s。相比于大多数价位在150美元,甚至更高的路由器,Archer C7可以让用户在更远距离获得更快网速,它是The Wirecutter过去两年测试的二三十种路由器中最物有所值的一款。The Archer C7 isn’t the best fit for everyone. So The Wirecutter also combed through test results and picked some routers for different living situations, such as small apartments or homes where people primarily use Apple devices.Archer C7并非所有人的最佳选择。所以The Wirecutter也对测试结果进行了梳理,挑选出一些适应其他生活环境的路由器,比如公寓比较小,或家人主要使用苹果设备。Generally, we recommend you upgrade to a new router every three to four years. That accounts for how often people typically upgrade devices like smartphones (every two years) and computers (every three to four years).通常,我们建议每三四年更换一台路由器。这和人们更换智能手机(每两年)和电脑(每三四年)的一般频率差不多。Yet whether your smartphones, computers and tablets are one, two or five years old, now is a good time to buy a new router if you haven’t in the last three years. Newer devices are probably using the 802.11ac standard, so you will get the fastest speeds at long distances with an 802.11ac router. If you hoard old devices, you will also get faster speeds and greater range. These benefits will be especially clear if you stay on a 5 GHz Wi-Fi network for as long as you can.不过,如果你在过去三年不曾购买过新路由器,那么不管你的智能手机、电脑和平板电脑目前使用了一年、两年还是五年,你都该换一台路由器了。较新的上网设备可能采用了802.11ac标准,所以配备一台802.11ac标准路由器,你就可在远距离获得最快网速。如果你还会继续使用旧设备,更换新路由器同样可以让你获得更快的网速和更大的网络覆盖。倘若你能尽量长时间地使用5吉赫兹Wi-Fi,这些好处会更加明显。One caveat: If you use a slower Internet service like DSL, you can probably hold on to a router for longer than three years. A newer router can still be useful because of the improved wireless range, but you won’t experience a big difference in download speeds.但请注意:如果你使用是如DSL等速度更慢的网络务,或许可以超过三年不换路由器。这种情况下更换新路由器还是会有帮助,因为可以扩大无线网络覆盖范围,只不过你不会感觉下载速度有太大改变。If your house is so large that a new router won’t be able to cover every inch with a great Wi-Fi signal, you could install a Wi-Fi extender, which enhances an existing Wi-Fi connection to increase coverage. Powerline networking, which converts a house’s electrical wiring into a wired Internet connection, is another option, but you’ll have to check if your home supports it.如果你的房子很大,一个新路由器无法让每个角落都拥有优质Wi-Fi信号,你可以安装一个Wi-Fi范围扩展器。它可以加强已经存在的Wi-Fi信号,扩大其覆盖范围。还有一种选择是电力线网络,它将房子内的电子线路转换成一种有线网络连接,但你需要首先确认自己家能否持这种设备。As for Mr. McConnell, the retired engineer eventually solved his Wi-Fi headache by setting up his devices to stay on the 5 GHz radio band. To get a Wi-Fi signal to his iPad in the bedroom, he also set up an extender. Now everything is smooth sailing, he said.通过将上网设备设置为始终连接5吉赫兹波段网络,退休工程师麦康奈尔最终解决了他的Wi-Fi头痛问题。为了能在卧室让自己的iPad连上Wi-Fi,他还安装了一个扩展器。他觉得,现在所有的上网体验都很顺畅。“I’ve got my life back,” he said.“我又找回了自己的生活,”他说。 /201510/403010The European Space Agency says a British-built space probe that disappeared more than a decade ago on Mars has been found.欧洲宇航局说,在火星上找到了十多年前失踪的英国建造的太空探测器。The British space agency said Friday the Beagle 2 spacecraft ;has been found partially deployed on the surface of the planet, ending the mystery of what happened to the mission.;英国宇航局星期五说,小猎犬2号探测器一部分被部署在火星表面,从而揭开了探测器失踪之谜。The agency said the partial deployment ;would explain why no signal or data was received; from the Beagle because ;full deployment of all the solar panels was needed; to transmit data and receive commands from Earth.英国宇航局说,探测器只有一部分被部署在火星上,这就是为什么小猎犬2号之前音信全无。探测器的所有太阳能板必须都到位,才能发出数据,并从地球接受指令。The agency said there was ;clear evidence; of the lost lander in satellite images taken by the U.S. space agency NASA#39;s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.英国宇航局说,美国航天局发射的火星勘测轨道飞行器拍摄的卫星图像提供了确凿据。Officials said the find showed that ;the entry, descent and landing sequence for Beagle 2 worked and the lander did successfully touch down on Mars on Christmas Day 2003.;这一发现显示, 小猎犬2号探测器2003年圣诞节成功在火星着陆,下降和着陆程序没有问题。Britain#39;s Beagle 2 was carried to the red planet on ESA#39;s Mars Express. The Beagle was to report back from Mars using instruments designed to help search for signs of life, but nothing was heard after it was dropped off to make its landing.小猎犬2号探测器当年是由欧洲航天局的火星快车送去火星的,任务是利用寻找生命迹象的仪器,向地球发回信息。 但是探测器降落后信息全无。British planetary scientist Colin Pillinger who was the driving force behind the mission died last year at the age of 70.推动建造这一探测器的英国行星科学家科林#8226;皮林格去年去世,享年70岁。 /201501/355504It has become customary to talk of “technology” as if it were a special sector of the economy consisting of the manufacture of sophisticated electronic goods, the creation of software, and the provision of services reliant on information and communications technology.如今人们习惯性地把“技术”说成一个特别的经济部门,包含精密电子产品制造、软件开发、以及提供依赖信息和通信技术的务。This is a ludicrously narrow definition. Every technique human beings have invented, from the stone axe onwards, is “technology”. The ability of humans to invent technologies is their defining characteristic. Furthermore, new general purpose technologies, such as the computer and the internet, have effects that fall far outside the technology sector, narrowly defined.这是一种狭窄得离谱的定义。从石斧开始,人类发明的每一种方法都是“技术”。发明技术的能力是人类的本质特征。此外,计算机和互联网等新型通用技术的影响范围远大于狭义的技术领域。We need to assess contemporary innovations in their broader context. Here are seven points about these changes.我们需要在更大背景下评估当代创新。以下是有关这些变化的7点。First, the penetration of recent innovations in communications technology has been astonishingly rapid. At the end of 2015, there were more than 7bn mobile phone subscriptions, a penetration rate of 97 per cent, up from around 10 per cent in 2000. Penetration of internet access grew from 7 per cent to 43 per cent over the same period. (See chart.)首先,近期的通信技术创新渗透速度快得惊人。2015年末,移动手机订户超过了70亿,渗透率达到97%,远高于2000年的大约10%。同期互联网接入的渗透率从7%升至43%。(见图表)Economically, this has led to the rise of ecommerce, the transformation of industries whose products can be converted into “bits; (music, film and news media, for example) and the rise of the “sharing economy”. Socially, it has altered human interactions. Politically, it has affected relationships between the rulers and the ruled.在经济层面,这导致电子商务崛起、产品能够“比特化”(比如音乐、电影、新闻媒体)的行业发生转变、“共享经济”兴起。在社会层面,这改变了人际交往。在政治层面,这影响了统治者和被统治者之间的关系。Second, a substantial “digital divide” exists. In 2015, 81 per cent of households in the developed world had internet access, the proportion in all developing countries was 34 per cent and the proportion for the least developed countries was a mere 7 per cent.第二,存在一道深深的“数字鸿沟”。2015年,发达国家81%的家庭能够接入互联网,而所有发展中国家的互联网接入比例为34%,最不发达国家的接入比例仅为7%。Information is power. It is not yet clear whether the rapid sp of access will prove more important than the persistent differences in its availability. But there is reason for optimism. The ability to leapfrog poor communication and financial networks has aly transformed some developing countries.信息就是力量。目前还不清楚,互联网接入的迅速普及会不会比互联网可用性方面的持久差异更重要。但我们有理由抱乐观态度。越过糟糕的通信和金融网络、实现跳跃式发展的能力已经转变了一些发展中国家。Third, the arrival of the internet and mobile phones has failed to generate a sustained upturn in the growth of productivity. This is shown best by the US, the leader in the development of the new technologies and, for more than a century, the world’s most productive and innovative large economy.第三,互联网和手机的普及并未带来生产率增速的持续提高。美国就是最好的例。美国是新技术发展的领导者,而且在一个多世纪期间一直是世界上生产率最高、最创新的经济大国。Output per hour worked in the US grew at rate of 3 per cent a year in the 10 years up to 1966, after which the growth rate declined, falling to just 1.2 per cent in the 10 years to the early 1980s. After the launch of the worldwide web, the moving average rose to 2.5 per cent in the 10 years to 2005. But it then fell to just 1 per cent in the decade to 2015.在截至1966年的10年里,美国的每小时工作产出每年增长3%,其后增长率下降,在截至上世纪80年代初的10年里跌至1.2%。在万维网问世后,该增长率在截至2005年的10年里提高到2.5%。然后又在截至2015年的10年里降至1%。A decomposition of the sources of growth in productive capacity underlines the point. Over the 10 years up to and including 2015, the average growth of “total factor productivity” in the US — a measure of innovation — was only 0.3 per cent a year.对生产力增长的来源进行解构突显了这一点。在截至2015年底的10年里,美国的“全要素生产率”(一种衡量创新的指标)平均每年只增长0.3%。We should not be surprised. As Robert Gordon of Northwestern University argues, clean water, modern sewage, electricity, the telephone, the radio, the petroleum industry, the internal combustion engine, the motor car and the aeroplane — all innovations of the late 19th and early 20th centuries — were far more transformative than the information technologies of the past 75 years.我们不应感到惊讶。正如美国西北大学(Northwestern University)的罗伯特戈登(Robert Gordon)所指出的,清洁水、现代下水道、电力、电话、收音机、石油行业、内燃机、汽车以及飞机都是19世纪末到20世纪初问世的创新,它们带来的变革远远大于过去75年期间的信息技术。Some argue, against this, that statisticians are failing to measure output correctly, partly by failing to capture free services, such as search, which generate vast unmeasured surplus value.针对这一点,一些人主张,统计学家未能正确地衡量产出,部分原因是未能把搜索等免费务计算在内,这些务产生了未经测量的巨大剩余价值。Yet it is not at all clear why statisticians should have suddenly lost their ability to measure the impact of new technologies in the early 2000s. Again, most new technologies have also generated vast unmeasured surplus value. Think of the impact of electric light on the ability to study.然而,我们不清楚为何统计学家会在21世纪之初突然失去衡量新技术影响的能力。与上文阐述的道理一样,大多数新技术都会产生未经测量的巨大剩余价值。想想电灯对学习能力的影响吧。Fourth, the new technologies have reinforced tendencies towards greater inequality, in at least three respects. One is the rise of “winner-takes-all” markets in which a few successful people, businesses and products dominate the world economy. Another is the rise of globalisation. A last is the explosion in financial trading and other rent-extracting financial activities.第四,至少在三个方面,新技术加强了不平等扩大的趋势。第一是“赢者通吃”市场的崛起——少数成功人士、企业和产品主导了世界经济。第二是全球化的兴起。第三是金融交易和其它抽租金融活动的爆炸式增长。Some argue that the arrival of robots and artificial intelligence will transform labour markets, rendering even quite sophisticated skills redundant. This could, if true, generate divisions between the owners of the robots and the rest of the population as fundamental as those between landowners and landless labourers.一些人主张,机器人和人工智能的出现将改变劳动力市场,使一些相当复杂的技能变得多余。若果真如此,这可能会使机器人的主人与其他人之间出现根本鸿沟,就像当年的地主和无地劳动者之间的鸿沟那样。Sixth, the rise of global communications, of our reliance on cyberspace, of behemoth technology-enabled corporations and of “big data” raises difficult questions about privacy, national security, the ability to tax and, more broadly about the relationship between governments, corporations and individuals.第六,全球化通信的兴起、我们对网络空间的依赖上升、巨型技术公司的崛起和“大数据”的发展给隐私、国家安全、征税能力,以及更广义的政府、企业和个人之间的关系提出了许多棘手的问题。Finally, the rise of pluralistic interactive media is affecting politics. Wider access to knowledge is a potential boon. But the new technologies can also be used to disseminate lies, hatred and stupidity.最后,多元化的互动媒体的发展正在影响政治。更广泛的获取知识的途径是一个潜在的福音。但新技术也可能被用于散播谎言、仇恨和愚昧。Technologies are tools. They offer opportunities and dangers. What we make of them is, as always, up to us.技术是工具。它们提供机会,也暗藏危险。古往今来,我们如何利用技术始终取决于我们自己。 /201602/424119

Indian soil has played host to many a fight involving invading foreign powers, from the Mughals to the British. Its ecommerce sector faces a similar prospect. The largest technology companies are piling in, seeking to replicate in India the dominance they enjoy in their home markets. The contest will pit US tech groups against rivals from Asia, and China in particular.印度国土上发生过许多史诗般的战斗,从蒙古人到英国人,多个外来强权都曾入侵过这片土地。如今,印度的电子商务领域面临着相似的前景。全球大型科技公司正蜂拥而至,试图将自己在本土市场的主导地位复制到印度。很快,美国科技集团将与来自亚洲、尤其是中国的竞争对手展开一场争夺战,不知最后谁能胜出?The attractions of India for both sides are obvious. The market is potentially very large but technologically underdeveloped. About 130m Indians owned smartphones last year, a number that is set to hit 750m by 2020, according to Ericsson. The prospect of such rapid growth has prompted a record funding rush from venture capital groups over the past year. It gives the southern IT hub of Bangalore a boomtown feel.对上述两方来说,印度的吸引力显而易见。印度市场潜力巨大,但技术上仍欠发达。爱立信(Ericsson)数据显示,去年印度智能手机用户约有1.3亿人,到2020年时这一数字将达7.5亿。在如此快速增长前景的激励下,过去一年全球风险投资机构在该市场的投资额创下了纪录。印度南部的IT中心班加罗尔也因此变成了一座充满活力、欣欣向荣的城市。India is attractive to the likes of Google, Facebook and Twitter as they seek to expand into Asia. The trio face severe operating restrictions in mainland China, which would otherwise be an obvious growth market. Those US participants that are allowed to set up shop in Beijing or Shanghai face stiff competition from local incumbents. India is relatively open territory.对谷歌(Google)、Facebook和Twitter等美国龙头企业而言,印度尤其具有吸引力,因为它们正寻求将业务拓展至亚洲。这三家公司在中国内地面临严格的经营限制——那里其实本应是个明摆着的增长市场。而那些获准在北京或上海设立分的美国公司,也仍要面临来自当地既有企业的激烈竞争。相比之下,印度则是个相对的“开阔地”。The Americans have a head start, too. India is Facebook’s second largest market by users and Twitter’s third largest. They are boosted by consumers who warm to western tech brands. In a few years Indians will become the largest market for both companies, even though the country’s minuscule online advertising market means neither has much chance of turning a quick profit. Amazon is also expanding aggressively, having decided to throw bn into India last year, as it takes on domestic online retailer Flipkart. A similarly fierce contest faces Uber as it grapples with local taxi hailing app Ola Cab, and its Japanese backer SoftBank, which has pledged to plough bn into Indian internet businesses over the next decade.而且,美国人还拥有一个优势。以用户数计,印度已是Facebook的第二大市场、Twitter的第三大市场。印度消费者喜爱成熟的西方科技品牌,这一点对Facebook和Twitter有利。用不了几年,印度就将成为这两家公司的最大市场,尽管印度的在线广告市场规模很小、两家公司都没多少机会从中快速获利。亚马逊(Amazon)也在积极拓展,去年该公司决定向印度投入20亿美元,以便与印度国内最大的在线零售商Flipkart抗衡。优步(Uber)也面临同样激烈的竞争,它要努力对付当地的叫车应用Ola Cab及其背后的金主日本软银(SoftBank)。软银已承诺,未来10年将向印度互联网企业投资100亿美元。The Chinese contingent are arriving later, but their intent is no less formidable.“中国队”虽然到得较晚,但其宏图大志一点不逊于对手。 /201507/383926

US Memories Inc may sound like a greeting-card company. In fact, it was the name for a proposed industry-wide joint venture to keep the US in the memory chip business at the end of the 1980s, as the sector reeled from a Japanese corporate onslaught.美国记忆公司(US Memories Inc)听起来可能像一家贺卡公司。实际上,这是上世纪80年代末为保持美国在芯片业中的地位,拟成立的全行业合资公司的名字,当时美国芯片业在日本公司的冲击下茫然失措。US Memories is a forgotten footnote in the technology history books. The attempt at collective action failed when some of the backers got cold feet. Instead, the fight back, when it came, took a far more American form: an entrepreneurial start-up from the unlikely location of Boise, Idaho, called Micron Technology.美国记忆公司在科技史书籍上是一个被遗忘的注脚。当一些持者临阵退缩的时候,集体努力失败了。实际上,最终发起的反击采取了更为美国的形式:一家名为美光科技(Micron Technology)的创业企业,公司所在地令人意外地位于爱达荷州伊西。Now the US faces another challenge from Asia in the chips that act as one of the most basic components of the digital world. News this month that Tsinghua Unicom, an offshoot of Beijing’s Tsinghua University, has been weighing up an offer for Micron has provoked a predictable ripple of nationalist angst. When kites like this are flown in public, it is often to find out what the reaction to a formal offer would be. On cue, Republican senator John McCain worried publicly about the “potential national security implications” if the US lost a significant position in memory chips. That Tsinghua is a Chinese state-owned company was among the factors weighing on the his mind.现在,美国在芯片业面临亚洲的又一次挑战——芯片是数字世界中最基本的部件之一。本月有消息称,清华大学(Tsinghua University)旗下清华紫光(Tsinghua Unigroup)一直在考虑对美光科技发起收购要约,这激起了意料之中的民族主义愤怒。当此类消息被公诸于众,人们往往可以发现,对正式收购要约的反应将是什么。就在这个时候,共和党参议员约翰麦凯恩(John McCain)公开表示担忧:如果美国丧失记忆芯片行业中的重要地位,“可能对国家安全造成什么影响”。清华紫光是一家中国国有公司,这正是他担忧的因素之一。Much has changed in the chip world over the past quarter century — but some things have not, in either politics or technology. Memory chips still occupy the same paradoxical place in the tech universe: though low margin commodity products in a market subject to vicious cyclical swings, they demand advanced design and manufacturing techniques and huge capital investment. They are also key components in military systems — the reason that many analysts believe the US is extremely unlikely to approve a formal takeover offer, should it materialise.在过去25年里,芯片世界已经发生了很大的变化——但一些事情并未改变,无论是政治还是科技方面。记忆芯片在科技领域仍处于和以前一样矛盾的处境:尽管记忆芯片是低利润率产品,所处市场容易受到恶性周期性波动的影响,但它们要求有先进的设计和制造技术,以及巨额的资本投资。它们也是军事系统中的关键部件,正因为此,许多分析师相信,如果清华紫光正式发出收购要约,美国极不可能批准。One thing that has changed since the 1980s is the global ambition of China’s tech industry. Given its massive share of global electronics manufacturing, building a position in silicon — the key component in most systems — has become a national priority. Some 41 per cent of Micron’s sales are to Chinese manufacturers. China’s attempt to consolidate its position as the world’s electronics manufacturing hub relies, in the long term, on being able to establish a domestic chip industry.自上世纪80年代以来,发生了一个变化:中国科技业的全球抱负。鉴于中国在全球电子制造业中的巨大份额,在硅领域占据一席之地已成为一项国家首要任务——硅是多数系统中的关键材料。美光约41%的销售额来自中国制造商。长期而言,中国巩固其全球电子制造中心地位的努力,取决于能否建立本国的芯片产业。Up to now, the efforts have failed dismally. But Tsinghua’s tentative takeover approach seems to point to a change in strategy that could have implications for China’s involvement in global tech markets far beyond chips.迄今为止,这些努力都遭遇了惨淡的失败。但清华紫光的试探性收购举措似乎表明中国策略发生了改变,这可能对中国涉足远不止芯片业的全球科技市场具有重要意义。Chinese companies have often stood accused internationally of copying technology. So joining the free-market takeover game and paying a fair price to acquire the strategic technology of a company like Micron would mark a welcome turn of events, says Mark Anderson, a US tech analyst who has criticised China’s approach to intellectual property. The slow progress made by China’s existing chip industry may explain the boldness of Tsinghua’s move. Shanghai-based semiconductor maker SMIC has represented the most visible attempt at creating a national champion. But it lost a high-profile intellectual property case brought by Taiwan’s TSMC. Nor has licensing technology from US competitors succeeded. Nearly a decade ago, SMIC was granted a licence to IBM’s 45 nanometre chipmaking technology — aly, at the time, a technology that was getting long in the tooth.中国企业在国际上常常遭遇抄袭别国技术的指责。曾批评过中国在知识产权方面做法的美国科技分析师马克褠德森(Mark Anderson)称,因此,中国加入自由市场收购大战,并为获得美光之类公司的战略性技术付合理的价钱,标志着一种受欢迎的转向。中国现有芯片产业的缓慢发展或许可以解释清华紫光此举的胆略。位于上海的半导体制造商中芯国际(SMIC)为打造全国行业领军企业做出了最明显的努力。但中芯国际在台湾芯片制造商台积电(TSMC)提起的一起引人关注的知识产权诉讼中败诉。从美国竞争对手那里获得技术许可也未能带来成功。将近10年前,中芯国际从IBM获得了45纳米芯片制造技术许可,但该技术在当时已现老态。China’s ability to access more cutting-edge technology may be growing. IBM, for instance, has changed its business model in China when it comes to high-end servers: rather than trying to sell machines based on its Power chip technology, it is now offering to license the technology to Chinese manufacturers. But a full-blown acquisition of a significant international player like Micron would represent a far more ambitious expansion of China’s chip sector. Micron is currently worth almost bn, making it a significant bite even by the standards of the takeover wave that has swept through the chip industry this year.中国获得更尖端技术的能力可能正在增强。例如,IBM在高端务器领域已经改变了在中国的商业模式:现在,它为中国制造商提供技术许可,而非试图销售基于其Power芯片技术的机器。但是,全面收购类似美光这样的国际芯片巨头,代表着中国芯片行业更加雄心勃勃的扩张。美光当前的市值接近200亿美元,即使按照今年席卷芯片行业的收购潮的标准,这也是一个难以吞下的大块头。Running a far-flung operation like Micron also would be a significant challenge for a company without a record in global business. Micron’s main facilities are in the US, Singapore and to a lesser degree Japan. Effective management of international businesses like this is a major challenge for Chinese companies looking to move overseas, says Joel Backaler, a business consultant and expert on Chinese international investment.管理像美光这样业务广泛的企业,对于一家没有全球业务经验的企业来说也将是一个艰巨的挑战。美光主要的生产基地位于美国和新加坡,在日本也有一少部分。商业顾问、中国国际投资领域专家周乐达(Joel Backaler)说,有效地管理此类国际企业对于期待走向海外的中国企业来说是一个巨大挑战。Given the likely resistance from Washington, a Tsinghua acquisition of Micron looks a stretch. But it could be the first sign that a new phase of Chinese tech expansionism is about to begin.考虑到可能遭到来自华盛顿的抵制,清华紫光收购美光看起来希望渺茫。但这可能是中国科技扩张即将进入新阶段的首个标志。 /201507/388810

CLEVELAND — Six doctors swarmed around the body of the deceased organ donor and quickly started to operate.克利夫兰——六名医生围绕在器官捐献者的遗体周围,迅速开始手术。The kidneys came out first. Then the team began another delicate dissection, to remove an organ that is rarely, if ever, taken from a donor. Ninety minutes later they had it, resting in the palm of a surgeon#39;s hand: the uterus.他们首先取出了死者的肾脏。然后,团队开始了另一项细致的解剖工作,目的是取出一个此前很少——是说,如果曾经有过的话——从捐献者体内摘取的器官。90分钟之后,他们成功了,一名外科医生用手掌捧着它:子宫。The operation was a practice run. Within the next few months, surgeons at the Cleveland Clinic expect to become the first in the ed States to transplant a uterus into a woman who lacks one, so she can become pregnant and give birth. The recipients will be women who were either born without a uterus, had it removed or have uterine damage. The transplants will be temporary: each uterus will be removed after the recipient has had one or two babies, so she can stop taking transplant anti-rejection drugs.这是一次试验性的手术。在接下来的几个月内,克利夫兰诊所(Cleveland Clinic)的外科医生们有望完成美国的首例子宫移植手术。手术的受者将是天生缺失子宫,或因故切除子宫又或者子宫受损的女性,她将因此获得怀和生育的能力。但这只是暂时性的移植:当受者生下一两个孩子后,子宫就会被移除,这样受者就无需继续用抗排斥药物了。Uterine transplantation is a new frontier, one that pairs specialists from two fields known for innovation and for pushing limits, medically and ethically: reproductive medicine and transplant surgery. If the procedure works, many women could benefit: an estimated 50,000 women in the ed States do not have a uterus. But there are potential dangers.子宫移植是一个新兴的前沿领域,它集结了从医学和伦理学上均以创新和突破极限著称的生殖医学和移植手术这两方面的专家。它的成功将为众多妇女带来福音:在美国,估计有5万名女性没有子宫。只不过,这个程序并非全无潜在危险。The recipients, healthy women, will face the risks of surgery and anti-rejection drugs for a transplant that they, unlike someone with heart or liver failure, do not need to save their lives. Their pregnancies will be considered high-risk, with fetuses exposed to anti-rejection drugs and developing inside a womb taken from a dead woman.首先,不同于那些因为心脏或肝脏衰竭而不得不需要依靠移植手术来救命的患者,子宫移植的受者在其他方面都非常健康,该程序却令她们面临动手术和接受抗排斥药物所带来的风险。其次,由于胎儿在从已逝的供者体内摘取的子宫内发育,且将不可避免地接触到抗排斥药物,妊娠风险非常高。Eight women from around the country have begun the screening process at the Cleveland Clinic, hoping to be selected for transplants. One, a 26-year-old with two adopted children, said she still wanted a chance to become pregnant and give birth.目前,已有八名来自全美各地的妇女前往克利夫兰诊所接受筛选,希望能被选为移植受者。其中一名已经领养了两个孩子的26岁女性称,她仍然希望自己有机会可以怀和生育。“I crave that experience,” she said. “I want the morning sickness, the backaches, the feet swelling. I want to feel the baby move. That is something I#39;ve wanted for as long as I can remember.”“我渴望能拥有那样的体验,”她说。“我想要体会吐、腰酸背痛和双脚肿胀的感觉。我想要感受宝宝在我体内活动。这是我自记事以来一直的期望。”She traveled more than 1,000 miles to the clinic, paying her own way. She asked that her name and hometown be withheld to protect her family#39;s privacy.她自费跋涉1000多英里(约合1609千米)来到了克利夫兰诊所。为了保护她家人的隐私,本文按她的要求隐去了她的名字和家乡。She was 16 when medical tests, performed because she had not begun menstruating, found that she had ovaries but no uterus — a syndrome that affects about 1 in 4,500 newborn girls. She comes from a large family, she said, and always assumed that she would have children. The test results were devastating.由于一直没有月经来潮,她在16岁时接受了内科检查,这才发现她虽然有卵巢却没有子宫——这是一种在4500名新生女婴中才有1例的综合征。她来自一个大家庭,她说,她一直以为自己会生很多孩子。这个检查结果对她来说简直是一场灾难。Dr. Andreas G. Tzakis, the driving force behind the project, said, “There are women who won#39;t adopt or have surrogates, for reasons that are personal, cultural or religious.” Tzakis is the director of solid organ transplant surgery at a Cleveland Clinic hospital in Weston, Florida. “These women know exactly what this is about,” he said. “They#39;re informed of the risks and benefits. They have a lot of time to think about it, and think about it again. Our job is to make it as safe and successful as possible.”该项目的发起人,克利夫兰诊所医院(Cleveland Clinic hospital,位于佛罗里达州韦斯顿市)的实体器官移植外科主任安德烈亚斯·G·察基斯(Andreas G. Tzakis)士说:“出于个人、文化或宗教原因,有些妇女不能领养孩子或找人。”他还说:“这些妇女很清楚这项程序到底是怎么一回事,她们了解它可能的风险和收益,也有很多时间去反复思考。而我们的工作是使其尽可能地安全和成功。”Laying the Groundwork打下基础The hospital plans to perform the procedure 10 times, as an experiment, and then decide whether to continue. Tzakis said he hoped to eventually make the operation ily available in the ed States.医院计划先实验性地进行10次这样的程序,然后再决定是否继续下去。察基斯士说,他希望终有一天美国可以推行这样的手术。Sweden is the only country where uterine transplants have been completed successfully — all at the University of Gothenburg with a uterus from a live donor. Nine women have had them, and four have given birth, the first in September 2014. Another is due in January. Their babies were born healthy, though premature. Two transplants failed and had to be removed, one because of a blood clot and the other because of infection.瑞典是全世界唯一成功完成过子宫移植手术的国家。所有这些手术均在哥德堡大学进行,而且子宫均来源于活体供者。共有九名女性接受过移植,其中四人已经生育,第一名婴儿在2014年9月出生。还有一名妇女的预产期在明年1月。这些婴儿虽然早产,但都健康地降生了。有两例移植遭到失败(一例是出现了血凝块,另一例是因为感染),不得不摘除了移植物。Two earlier attempts — one in Saudi Arabia, and one in Turkey — failed. Other hospitals in the ed States, and in Britain, are also preparing to try the surgery, but are not as close as the team in Cleveland is.此前,沙特阿拉伯和土耳其也各自进行过一次类似的尝试,但均以失败告终。美国其他医院以及英国也纷纷准备试验这样的手术,但他们的进展都远不及克利夫兰诊所的团队。Tzakis said the anti-rejection drugs were safe, noting that thousands of women with donor kidneys or livers, who must continue taking anti-rejection drugs during pregnancy, had given birth to healthy babies. Those women are more likely than others to have pre-eclampsia, a complication of pregnancy involving high blood pressure, and their babies tend to be smaller. But it is not known whether those problems are caused by the drugs, or by the underlying illnesses that led to the transplants. Because the women receiving uterine transplants would be healthy, Tzakis said, he was optimistic that complication rates would be very low.察基斯士认为抗排斥药物是安全的,并指出,成千上万接受了肾脏或肝脏移植,不得不在怀期间继续用抗排斥药物的妇都生下了健康的宝宝。这些妇比其他人更容易患上先兆子痫(一种与高血压有关的妊娠并发症),且她们的孩子往往个体较小,不过目前尚不清楚这些问题是药物引起的,还是因最初导致受体女性失去子宫的那些疾病造成。察基斯士说,由于接受子宫移植的都是健康的妇女,他乐观地认为,并发症的发生率应该很低。A medical ethicist not connected with the research, Jeffrey Kahn, of Johns Hopkins University, said the procedure did not set off any alarms with him.与该研究无关的一名医疗伦理学家,约翰斯·霍普金斯大学(Johns Hopkins University)的杰弗里·卡恩称(Jeffrey Kahn)表示,该手术并没有令他觉得不妥。“We#39;re doing lots of things to help people have babies in ways that were never done before,” Kahn said. “It falls into that spectrum.”“我们正在以前所未有的方式,大力帮助人们拥有自己的孩子,”卡恩说。“子宫移植手术正是其中之一”。 A Complicated Process 复杂的程序The Swedish team used live donors, and showed that a uterus from a woman past menopause, transplanted into a young recipient, can still carry a pregnancy. In five cases, the donor was the recipient#39;s mother, which raised the dizzying possibility of a woman giving birth from the same womb that produced her.瑞典的团队使用的是活体供者,并明,来自绝经期女性的子宫在移植到年轻受者体内后,依然具备妊娠功能。其中五例手术的供者是受者的母亲,这也就造成了一个能把人绕晕了的可能性——受者将从曾经育她自己的那同一个子宫中分娩出自己的孩子。The Cleveland doctors will use deceased donors, to avoid putting healthy women at risk. For a live donor, the operation is far more complicated than a standard hysterectomy and takes much longer, seven to 11 hours, Tzakis said, adding, “You have to work near vital organs.”克利夫兰诊所的医生们将使用已故捐赠者的子宫,以避免将健康女性置于危险之中。察基斯士说,对活体供者进行手术,远比标准的子宫切除术更为复杂,也需要更长的时间(7至11小时),他还补充道:“(而且)你将不得不在她的重要器官附近完成复杂操作。”The surgeons have to remove part of the donor#39;s vagina and other tissue needed to attach the uterus to the recipient. And they must tease away tiny blood vessels without harming the donor.外科医生需要切除供者的部分阴道以及将子宫连接到受者体内所需的其他组织,还必须在不损害供者的前提下剥离小血管。The uterine vessels are wound around the ureters, which carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder. “They#39;re like worms wrapped around a tube,” Tzakis said. “It#39;s very tedious to separate them.”子宫血管缠绕在负责将尿液从肾脏输送到膀胱的器官——输尿管的周围。“它们像蠕虫一样缠在输尿管上,”察基斯士说。“剥离它们可是非常麻烦的苦差事。”With deceased donors, there is no need to worry about injuries. The organ can be removed faster, and can survive outside the body for at least six to eight hours if kept cold.在已故的捐赠者身上做手术,就不需要这么多的顾虑了。器官可以更快地被摘除,如果保持低温,它可以在体外存活至少六至八小时。Because the fallopian tubes will not be connected to the transplanted uterus, a natural pregnancy will be impossible.因为移植子宫上并未连接输卵管,所以受者不可能自然怀。Instead the recipients will go through in vitro fertilization. Before the transplant, the woman will be given hormones to stimulate her ovaries to produce multiple eggs. Ten will be needed, so she may have to go through more than one cycle of hormone treatment. Doctors will collect the eggs, fertilize them with her partner#39;s sperm and freeze them. Once there are 10 embryos in the freezer, the woman will be put on the waiting list for a transplant.她们将接受体外受精。在移植前,这些妇女会接受激素治疗,刺激她的卵巢排出多个卵细胞。体外受精约需要十个卵细胞,因此激素治疗可能不止一轮。然后,医生将收集这些卵细胞,使用这些女性各自伴侣的精子分别对它们授精,待受精卵发育到一定阶段后再将其冻存起来。待到攒够10个冻存胚胎,这名妇女就会被排入移植等待名单。When a donor with matching blood and tissue type becomes available, the transplant will take place.此时,只要有血液和组织型都匹配的供者,就可以进行移植手术了。The transplant surgery is expected to take about five hours. It requires connecting an artery and a vein on either side of the uterus to the recipient#39;s blood vessels. The organ will have part of the donor#39;s vagina attached, and that will be stitched to the recipient#39;s vagina. Supporting tissue attached to the uterus will be sewn into the recipient#39;s pelvis to stabilize the transplant. No nerves have to be connected.移植手术预计需要五个小时左右。在这个过程中,医生们会将子宫两侧的动脉和静脉与受者的血管相连。该子宫会带有供者的部分阴道,它也将缝合在受者的阴道上。附着于子宫的持组织亦将被缝入受者的骨盆,以稳定移植物。但无须连接神经。The woman will wait one year to heal from the surgery and adjust the doses of anti-rejection medicine before trying to become pregnant.受者将需要一年的时间从手术中痊愈并调整抗排斥药物的剂量,其后才能开始尝试怀。Then doctors will implant one embryo at a time in the uterus, until the recipient becomes pregnant. The baby will be delivered by cesarean section before the due date, to protect the transplanted uterus from the strain of labor.然后,医生将会向子宫内植入胚胎,每次一个,直到受者成功妊娠。为避免移植子宫遭受分娩的压力,婴儿将在预产期前以剖宫产的方式降生。After giving birth, the mother can either keep the uterus so she can try to have one more baby (two is the limit, for safety reasons), or have it removed so she can stop taking the anti-rejection drugs. If she does not want to have surgery to have it removed, doctors said it may be possible to quit the drugs and let the immune system reject the uterus, which should then gradually wither away.生完孩子后,母亲可以选择保留子宫,试着再生一个孩子(出于安全原因,两个孩子是极限),或者将其移除,以便停用抗排斥药物。如果受者不愿意做手术,医生表示也可以选择停药,让免疫系统来排斥子宫,令它逐渐萎缩。 Initial Skepticism 起初的疑虑One of the surgeons working with Tzakis will be Dr. Tommaso Falcone, the Cleveland Clinic#39;s chairman of obstetrics and gynecology. Falcone said he first heard of uterus transplants about 10 years ago, in early research described at medical conferences. Initially, he was skeptical.克利夫兰诊所的妇产科主任托马索·法尔科内(Tommaso Falcone)是察基斯士的合作伙伴之一。他回忆起自己第一次听说子宫移植是在大约10年前,医学会议上介绍了一些早期研究。最初,他是持怀疑态度的。A trip to Sweden changed his mind. He went there in 2013 — like a doubting Thomas, he said — to see what the team was doing. He watched the surgery and spoke to several couples who wanted it.直到一次瑞典之行改变了他的看法。那是在2013年——他说,当时他是本着眼见为实的原则,想要去亲眼看看那个团队的工作。他观看了手术,并采访了几对想要接受手术的夫妇。“I almost cross-examined them,” Falcone said. “I was thinking, `There#39;s got to be something wrong with these people.”#39;“我几乎是在盘问他们,”法尔科内士说。“我当时觉得:‘这些人肯定有毛病。’ ”But, he said, he came to understand how much pregnancy meant to them.不过,他继续说道,后来他慢慢明白了怀对那些人的意义有多么重大。“It#39;s a legitimate request,” he said. “I got on the plane and knew I would be at the forefront of trying to make this program work at the Cleveland Clinic.”“这要求合情合理,”他说。“当我登上回程的飞机时,我就知道我将会带头致力于在克利夫兰诊所尝试同样的工作。”The 26-year-old candidate said that finding out she had no uterus had made her wonder if anyone would ever want to marry her. She did marry, and in addition to adopting children, she and her husband considered surrogacy, but could not afford it. Much of the transplant and pregnancy costs will be paid for by research money from the clinic and health insurance.上文提到的那位26岁的移植候选人说,得知自己没有子宫后,她一度怀疑是否有人愿意娶她。在她结婚后,除了领养了几个孩子外,她和丈夫还考虑过,但他们无法负担费用。而这次子宫移植和妊娠的大部分费用将会由诊所的研究经费和医疗保险付。“I know the risks,” she said. “It#39;s a high-risk pregnancy. But I think we#39;re in the best of hands. I think we can handle anything that comes our way.”“我很清楚个中风险,”她说。“这是一次高危妊娠。不过,我相信我们会得到最棒的医护。我想我们应该可以应对将会发生的任何事情。”She recently began the hormone treatments to stimulate egg production.最近,她开始接受激素治疗,以刺激排卵。She belongs to a nondenominational Christian church, and members are praying she will have the transplant, she said.她说,她所属的无宗派基督教教堂的成员们都在为她祈祷,期望她能获得移植的机会。“I know there will be people who don#39;t understand or agree,” she added. “But this is not a whim.”“我知道一定会有很多人不理解或者不赞同我的选择,”她补充道。“但我绝不是一时冲动。” /201511/410434

There are a lot of next big things in the television industry. In 2010, it was 3D, which promptly flopped.电视行业曾经推广过许多所谓的“下一代重磅产品”。2010年,3D电视被吹得天花乱坠,然而很快就失败了。Two years later, the talk began to focus on 4K/ Ultra High Definition (UHD) sets – and it quickly began to look like history was about to repeat itself.两年后,各大电视厂商又开始集中推广4K电视,也就是超高清电视,但种种情势似乎昭示着历史将很快重演。But a funny thing happened in 2014. 4K/UHD began to carve a foothold. And now experts say the technology may, in fact, live up to the hype.但2014年出现了一个有趣的转折。4K电视开始站稳脚跟。专家们现在表示,这项技术也许将不负众望。“4K is the emerging standard for TVs,” says Paul O’Donovan, principal analyst of consumer electronics at Gartner. “I think it will take some years for the annual number of 4K TVs manufactured to outnumber the total of full HD models, but I would expect that to happen within the next 7 to 10 years.”高德纳研究公司消费电子产品首席分析师保罗o奥多诺万表示:“4K是电视的新兴标准。我认为4K电视的年产量还需要过几年才能超过全高清电视,但我预计这个期限不会超过7到10年。”SandlerResearch agrees, estimating 4K sets will have an annual growth rate of 106.84 percent through 2018.研究公司SandlerResearch赞同这一观点,该公司预计,到2018年底,4K电视市场的年均增长率将达到106.84%。Bill Lee, vice president of television product marketing at Samsung, says the television industry shipped 800,000 4K/UHD sets last year – and Samsung expects to see a four-fold increase to that number in 2015.三星公司电视产品营销事务副总裁比尔o李表示,4K电视去年的出货量为80万台,三星预计这一数值将在2015年翻两番。The sets, which boast four times the visual resolution of today’s high definition sets, certainly boast an incredible image. The problem up until now, though, was the high cost (with a whopping ,851 price point in 2012) and the lack of 4K content for people willing to spend that amount.4K电视的视觉分辨率是高清电视的4倍,可以营造不可思议的画面效果。然而,迄今为止的问题在于高昂的价格(2012年,4K电视的均价高达7,851美元),而对于那些愿意花钱购买的消费者来说,4K节目的缺乏也是一个严重问题。Both of those problems began to resolve themselves last year. And the trend looks to continue in 2015.但这些问题从去年开始逐渐得到解决。而且在2015年,这种趋势似乎仍会继续。Viziolaunched its P-series of 4K sets in September for under ,000, bringing the sets much closer to the flat-panel average of 0. Competitors quickly cut the prices of their own sets– and at this year’s CES, many manufacturers are expected to introduce lower-cost versions of their own 4K sets alongside their new premium models.去年9月,Vizio公司推出了售价不到1000美元的P系列4K电视,大大拉近了这种产品与平板电视的价格差异,后者的平均售价为450美元。竞争对手也迅速降低了各自产品的价格。在今年的CES消费电子展上,许多电视机厂商在推出新型高档4K电视的同时,预计也将推出低价版本的4K电视。Meanwhile, Netflix NFLX -1.71% and Amazon AMZN -2.28% began streaming 4K content to customers, with Netflix offering ultra high definition versions of hits like “House of Cards” and “Breaking Bad” and Amazon adding 4K streaming to its Amazon Instant Video service, including films like “Godzilla” and “American Hustle.”与此同时,Netflix和亚马逊开始为顾客提供4K节目,Netflix正在推出《纸牌屋》和《绝命毒师》等热门电视剧的超高清版本,而亚马逊则在即时视频务中加入了《哥斯拉》和《美国骗局》等电影的4K版本。Comcast, meanwhile, has partnered with SamsungSSNLF 13.64% to delivery 4K content to its sets – and plans to expand the offering to all 4K sets in the coming months.与此同时,康卡斯特公司已经与三星达成合作协议,开始为三星电视提供4K节目。在接下来几个月中,该公司还计划向所有4K电视提供内容务。The increasing success of 4K/UHD sets may be tied, ironically, to a device that’s better known for drawing people’s attentions away from their TVs – the smartphone.颇具讽刺意味的是,4K电视的持续成功也许取决于智能手机的发展。要知道,智能手机就是那个让人们的注意力不断离开电视的小设备。“Mobile phone cameras have higher resolution capability than … full HD TVs,” says O’Donovan. “Nobody would go out today and by a 2 megapixel camera, yet that is the highest resolution available in current full HD TVs. It’s like when we moved from standard definition TVs to HD TVs, lots of folks said ‘who needs HD?’ Well we wouldn’t go back to SD now, and so we will move on from HD to UHD, because it is a natural progression if only to keep up with the resolution of cameras in our phones.”奥多诺万表示:“手机摄像头拥有比全高清电视更高的分辨率。现在没有人愿意出去购买一部200万像素的照相机,但这恰恰是全高清电视目前具备的最高分辨率。当我们从标清电视升级到高清电视时,许多人说‘谁需要高清电视?’但现在没人愿意再去看标清电视了。所以,我们将从高清电视升级到超高清电视,这是自然而然的进步,即便这种升级只是为了跟上手机摄像头分辨率的发展速度。”Meanwhile, 4K/UHD TV manufacturers and content creators, including Disney DIS -0.53% and Netflix, have established a new coalition called the UHD Alliance that plans to set standards for 4K content and delivery.与此同时,4K电视厂商已经同包括迪斯尼和Netflix在内的内容创造商成立了一个名为超高清联盟的新组织,计划为4K内容及其传输建立标准。“This is a game changer – most importantly, for consumers,” said H.S. Kim, executive vice president of Samsung’s displays business, in announcing the alliance.三星公司显示屏业务执行副总裁H. S. 金在宣布联盟结成时表示:“这将会改变行业规则,对消费者而言尤其重要。”In real world terms, that could mean better looking 4K/UHD content – which could, in turn, lure more consumers to the technology. It could also be an opportunity for satellite companies to increase subscribers, notes O’Donovan, since they’re less constricted by bandwidth availability. (Dish Network seems y to capitalize on this, announcing at CES a 4K set-top box that will become available later this year.)从现实世界的角度来看,这将意味着更好看的4K节目,反过来会吸引更多消费者接受这项技术。奥多诺万指出,卫视公司也能借机吸引订户,因为他们不太为带宽所限。(Dish Network似乎已经准备利用这一趋势了,该公司在消费电子展上推出了一款将在今年晚些时候上市的4K机顶盒。)“The industry is rallying behind UHD,” says Samsung’s Lee. “I think now is the time, more than ever, to make sure the quality of UHD is refined.”三星的比尔o李说:“电视业正在集结起来持超高清电视。我认为现在是前所未有的完善超高清品质的好时机。”(财富中文网) /201501/352960

Oracle has suffered another black eye over security flaws in its widely used Java software, as the US tech company on Monday settled a regulatory charge that it had deceived computer users about the safety of the software.甲骨文(Oracle)因旗下使用者众多的Java软件存在的安全漏洞而再次受挫。周一,这家美国科技企业与监管机构就后者提出的一项指控达成和解。这项指控称,甲骨文在Java软件的安全性问题上欺骗了电脑用户。Java was singled out by Larry Ellison, the company’s chairman, as the key asset in his 2010 purchase of server maker Sun Microsystems. The software, which makes possible many features of web browsing, has since become an important weapon in Oracle’s arsenal against other tech companies. It prompted a partially successful lawsuit against Google’s Android mobile operating system that critics warn could have far-reaching effects in the tech world.2010年,在收购务器制造商太阳微系统(Sun Microsystems)时,甲骨文董事长拉里埃利森(Larry Ellison)曾把Java择出来作为一项关键资产。自那以来,这一撑众多网页浏览功能的软件已成为甲骨文对抗其他科技企业的重要武器之一。甲骨文据此发起了针对谷歌(Google) Android移动操作系统的法律诉讼,并在一定程度上打赢了这场官司。批评人士警告称,这场官司或对科技界产生深远影响。But security weaknesses in Java, dating from long before Oracle’s acquisition, have also made the software a problem for the company. In the worst incident, a number of leading tech companies, including Apple and Facebook, revealed in 2013 that attackers had used flaws in the software to penetrate their systems.不过,Java存在的安全漏洞也令该软件成为甲骨文的一大麻烦。这些安全漏洞可追溯至甲骨文收购太阳微系统之前很久。2013年,包括苹果(Apple)和Facebook在内的多家顶尖科技企业披露,攻击者利用Java存在的漏洞攻破了它们的系统,这是Java安全漏洞导致的最严重的事件。On Monday, the Federal Trade Commission accused Oracle of deceiving consumers over the degree to which updating the Java software to newer, safer versions protects their computers from attack. The complaint relates to the Java Standard Edition, which is installed on more than 850m PCs, the regulator said.周一,美国联邦贸易委员会(Federal Trade Commission,简称FTC)指控甲骨文未如实告诉用户将Java软件升级至更新、更安全版本能在多大程度上保护用户电脑免受攻击。该监管机构表示,这一指控涉及的是Java标准版(Java Standard Edition),它安装在逾8.5亿台个人电脑上。According to the complaint, Oracle did not warn computer users that updating Java does not automatically remove older — and less secure — versions of the software, with only the most recent version being deleted. That left millions of users exposed to attacks, including having the usernames and passwords of their financial accounts stolen, the regulator said.该指控称,甲骨文未警告电脑用户升级Java并不自动移除更老(从而安全性更差)版本的Java,移除的只是最近版本的Java。该监管机构表示,这导致数百万用户暴露在攻击之下,他们财务账号的用户名和密码可能会遭到窃取。The problem continued even though Oracle “was aware of the insufficiency of its update process” in 2011, the FTC said.FTC表示,尽管甲骨文在2011年“已知晓其升级流程存在的不足”,但这个问题依然存在。“When a company’s software is on hundreds of millions of computers, it is vital that its statements are true and its security updates actually provide security for the software,” Jessica Rich, director of the FTC’s consumer protection bureau, said.FTC消费者保护局局长杰茜卡里奇(Jessica Rich)表示:“当一家公司的软件安装在数亿台电脑上时,非常重要的一点是,该公司的声明要真实、其安全更新要为该软件提供切实的安全保障。”Under a consent agreement announced on Monday, Oracle has been ordered to notify consumers who are updating Java if they have older versions of the software on their machines and give them option to uninstall it.按照周一公布的一份协议,甲骨文被要求提醒正在升级Java的用户他们电脑上是否装有更老版本的Java,并向他们提供卸载该版本的选项。Oracle declined to comment on the charge.甲骨文拒绝就该指控置评。 /201512/418324

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