原标题: 成都不孕不育咨询网当当热点
想要保持好身材 每周一次“马拉松”It will make unpleasant ing for dieters who have been hoping that light exercise was the key to weight loss.For it seems the most successful slimmers chalk up a marathon a week, according to research.A study found that those who exercised for 60 to 90 minutes a day - walking the equivalent of a marathon each week - tended to shed at least two stones and kept the weight off for six years.The data contradicts the popular theory that gentle exercise is enough to stay slim.The American Association for Advancement of Science's conference on Sunday also heard fresh calls from a British expert for a more urgent global response to the obesity crisis.Professor Philip James, chairman of the International Obesity Task Force, believes the obesity epidemic is now too serious to be treated as a "lifestyle choice" issue."Just as the threat of climate change has begun to be taken seriously when it may be almost too late, the threat of an obesity-related health disaster around the world needs urgent action because, like climate change, its effects are exceptionally difficult to reverse," he said.The professor wants governments and industry to work together to tackle the causes of obesity - just as they have done to cut carbon emissions.And he warned the crisis would not be resolved simply by telling people to exercise and eat less.Calling on world leaders to agree a pact on fighting obesity, Professor James said major changes were needed in food production, advertising and town planning.Healthy food should be made cheaper, the advertising of junk food to children clearly regulated and towns built not around roads and cars but around walking and public transport."We can no longer afford to wait," he said."If we fail to act until we have the perfect solution, it will be too late."In Britain, a quarter of women and a fifth of men are classed as obese, at a cost to the NHS of pound;1billion a year. 一直希望通过少量运动即可减肥的人士看到这篇文章后一定会不开心。因为研究表明,最成功的瘦身人士每周坚持走一次“马拉松”。一项研究发现,每天锻炼60分钟至90分钟的人(相当于每周走一次马拉松)至少可以减掉两英石(相当于28磅)的体重,而且六年不会反弹。这一数据否认了“少量运动即可保持身材”的普遍说法。在美国科学促进协会上周日举行的研讨会上,一名英国专家呼吁世界各地对肥胖危机做出更为积极的回应。国际肥胖特别机构主席菲利普#8226;詹姆斯教授提出,目前肥胖流行问题十分严重,已不能将其视为一个“生活方式选择”的问题。“就像气候变化问题现在开始得到重视,但为时已晚;所以世界各地由肥胖引起的健康威胁急需解决,因为肥胖与气候变化一样,产生的后果极难挽回。”詹姆斯教授希望政府与行业部门通力合作,根治肥胖问题——就像治理气候变化过程中控制二氧化碳的排放一样。他提出警告,单靠让人们运动、节食是无法解决肥胖问题的。詹姆斯教授呼吁世界各国领导人签署抵制肥胖协议,他说,食品生产、广告和城镇规划等领域都需要“大动作”。要降低健康食品的价格、明确禁止针对儿童的垃圾食品广告、城区不应以马路和车为主,而应多设人行道和公交设施。他说:“我们再也等不起了。”“如果我们等找到最完美的解决方案再行动,那就太晚了。”英国有四分之一的女性和五分之一的男性存在肥胖问题,全国卫生务系统每年要为此付10亿英镑。 /200803/317961. Learn From Your environment.1.从你的周围环境学习Your competitors have done a lot of legwork for you. Use that to your advantage by searching the web and checking out their sites. Write down all of the amazing features you see so you can incorporate them into your own stunning site.你的竞争者已经为你做了许多详细调查。通过搜索他们的网站,检索他们的网站信息,将这些资料应用为自己的优势。写下你看到的所有令人赞叹的特色,然后将这些特色融入自己的精美网站里面。2. Create the Site2.制作网站Now it’s time for the fun to begin. While you can pay someone thousands of dollars to develop a website from scratch, that is unnecessary. Instead, utilize a free template to create your site yourself.现在就可以开始这一有意思的制作了。尽管你可以付给某人几千美元来写一个网站,但是这也并不是必要的。其实,你可以用一个免费的模板来制作自己的网站。There are many DIY website building platforms out there and Wix is one of the most common and highly recommended. You can find a free template for anything you need. You might have an e-commerce site where visitors buy products, or you might have an information site full of articles. It doesn’t matter what kind of site you have-there is a template just waiting for you to use.有许多自己制作网站的模板素材,维克斯就是其中最普遍而且最推崇的一个网站。你可以找到任何你需要的免费模板素材。你或许已经有一个电子商务网站,用户可以在网站上购物,或者你有一个文章内容丰富的网站。不论你需要什么类型的网站,都会有合适的模板供你使用。3. Create Killer Content3.创作一些吸引眼球的内容With the help of a template, you have now built a beautiful site. There is only one problem-it’s empty. So it’s time to populate it with some content that grabs your er#39;s’ attention and doesn’t let go.在模板的帮助之下,你现在已经制作了一个好看的网站。现在就只有一个问题了——网站内容为空。现在就是时候填充一些可以吸引并留住读者的一些内容了。Think about what you know, and turn it into content. First, make sure all of your content passes a test. Ask yourself:想想你知道的东西,然后将这些转换为网站内容。首先,要确保你的所有内容都能通过一个测试。问自己:Is it edgy?很尖锐吗?Is it engaging?动人吗?Does it enrich people’s lives?能丰富人们的生活吗?Does it answer your visitor’s questions?能回答用户的问题吗?Is it interesting?有趣吗?If it passes the test, you are y to populate your site with your content.如果通过了这一测试,你就可以将这些内容填充到你的网站里面了。 /201607/452861

Microsoft Rewards has launched in the UK, and aims to tempt more people over to Bing.“微软奖励”计划已经在英国推出,旨在吸引更多人使用必应搜索引擎。It’s the company’s latest attempt to poach Google’s users, and arguably the most desperate so far.这是该公司吸引谷歌用户的最新尝试,也可以说是迄今为止最“不顾一切”的举措。Microsoft will reward you for using the Bing search engine, with points you can exchange for a number of freebies.使用必应搜索引擎会得到微软的奖励,你可以使用获得的奖励积分兑换一些免费赠品。You’ll need to be signed into Bing with your Microsoft account, in order to earn points.你需要用你的微软账户登陆必应,以赚取积分。Each Bing search will get you three points, but this will be doubled if you’re also using Edge, Microsoft’s answer to Google Chrome.每次使用必应搜索,你就会得到三分,但是如果你还使用Edge浏览器的话,积分将会翻番,Edge是微软对抗谷歌Chrome的浏览器。‘Level 1’ users can earn up to 60 points per day, simply by searching for 10 things through Bing.“一级”用户每天最多可以赚到60分,只需通过必应搜索10次即可。If you manage to reach 500 points in a month, you’ll become a ‘Level 2’ member, and will be able to earn up to 150 points per day through search.如果你能在一个月内得到500分,你就会成为“二级”会员,之后通过搜索,你每天可以赚到最多150分。“The search limit resets every day, so you can start earning again tomorrow.”“搜索次数限制每天重置,这样你就可以在第二天重新开始赚取积分。”You can get your hands on extra points by taking quizzes at Microsoft Rewards, though you’ll have to sign up for an account first.你可以通过参加“微软奖励”的小测验活动来获得额外的积分,不过你必须先注册一个账户。You can exchange those points for a selection of prizes, such as an Xbox Live Gold Membership that usually costs £9.99 (6,000 points), a one-month Groove Music Pass that usually costs £8.99 (9,500 points) and a 12-month Groove Music Pass (110,000 points, or 99,900 for Level 2 members).你可以利用这些积分兑换奖品,比如使用6000积分兑换价值9.99英镑的Xbox Live黄金会员;使用9500积分兑换价值8.99英镑的为期一个月的Groove Music Pass订阅务;或者使用11万积分兑换为期一年的Groove Music Pass订阅务(二级用户只需99900积分)。In 2012, Microsoft launched the ‘Bing It On’ challenge, which displays Bing search results and Google search results side-by-side and invites users to blindly choose which set they prefer.2012年,微软推出了“必应挑战”活动,将必应搜索结果和谷歌搜索结果并排显示,并邀请用户盲测,选择自己认为最满意的结果。 /201706/512985

An application, or app, developed by researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, has recorded nearly 400 earthquakes since it was launched in February this year.加州大学伯克利分校的研究人员开发的一款应用程序,自今年2月发布以来已经记录了近400次地震。The app, called MyShake, runs in the background on smartphones with the Android operating system, harnesses a device#39;s motion detectors to measure ground motion, and then sends that data back to the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory for analysis.该应用程序名为MyShake,在安卓操作系统的智能手机后台运行,利用设备的运动检测器来测量地面运动,然后将数据发送回伯克利地震实验室进行分析。Designed to build a worldwide network of smartphone earthquake detectors, the eventual goal of the researchers is to send early-warning alerts to users a bit farther from ground zero, giving them seconds to a minute of warning that the ground will start shaking and prompting them to switch off equipment.研究人员旨在建立一个智能手机地震探测器的全球网络,最终目标是向距离地面零点更远的用户发送预警,为他们提供几秒到一分钟的警报,报告地面将开始震动并提示他们关闭设备。The app can detect quakes as small as magnitude 2.5, with the best sensitivity in areas with a greater density of phones.该应用程序可以检测到小至2.5级的地震,在手机密度更大的区域具有最佳灵敏度。The updated app provides an option for push notifications of recent quakes within a distance determined by the user.更新版的应用程序提供了在用户确定距离内的最近地震的推送通知选项。;The notifications will not be fast initially, not fast enough for early warning, but it puts into place the technology to deliver the alerts and we can then work toward making them faster and faster as we improve our real-time detection system within MyShake,; said project leader Richard Allen.项目负责人理查德·阿伦表示:“这些通知最初不会很快,对早期预警的速度不够快,但它实现了提供警报的技术,随着我们不断改善MyShake的实时检测系统,我们会努力使它们变得越来越快。” /201612/485832Today, scientific research in both Asia and the west is providing hard evidence for the health benefits long associated with drinking green tea.Is any other food or drink reported to have as many health benefits as green tea? The Chinese have known about the medicinal benefits of green tea since ancient times, using it to treat everything from headaches to depression.Did you know people are taking green tea extract as an aid to weight loss? Scientific research shows us that this herbal supplement can actually help the body get rid of excess fat by revving up the its metabolic rate, the energy burning process.Metabolism is a chemical process carried out by the body that creates the energy you need to live. Increasing the metabolic rate requires means more fuel is required to be burned and this is where the body will usually draw on its fat reserves to enable the process, this is how your overall weight is reduced.The end result, as desired is of course, is achievement of weight loss. But naturally this only happens as part of an overall effective weight loss program. You still need to eat healthily and take regular exercise.Personally I prefer drinking green tea as it was meant to be and enjoying it that way! But if you do not like the taste then this is a good way to still take advantage of the health benefits.In a grocery store or in a convenience store in front of the beverage cooler you will see green tea this or green tea that. Green tea has turned up in all sorts of products. If you haven’t tried green tea, you might be wondering what all the to-do is about.So now you may be asking what is the difference between green tea and the black tea you are used to drinking. Both teas come from the same plant; the difference is the way the different teas are processed. The green tea in not fermented it has been dried. Because of the shorter processing time the green tea has a lighter flavor than the black tea. Green tea is good for you because the processing keeps all the beneficial elements left in the tea.Green tea doesn’t taste anything like the tea you usually drink. Most green tea drinkers do not add milk or sugar, but you can if you like. Green tea has been described as having a light, fresh, green flavor. Some of the various green teas have just a little sweetness taste to them. Others are a little more astringent. There are several different varieties of green tea each with its own flavor; however they all seem to have one flavor quality in common.To try really good green tea you will want to look in a gourmet tea store rather than a grocery store. The grocery store doesn’t have the selection you will find in a gourmet tea store. You will find a good selection of green teas look in your local Asian food store. Some of the types you will want to look for is; Sencha, Gunpowder, or Dragon Well.Green tea is brewed just like you would brew the tea you normally drink, except you will not want the water to boil. You will want to brew you tea when the water is on the verge of boiling. Green tea is a more delicate tea so you want to the water to be a little cooler.To date, the only negative side effect reported from drinking green tea is insomnia due to the fact that it contains caffeine. However, green tea contains less caffeine than coffee: there are approximately thirty to sixty mg. of caffeine in six - eight ounces of tea, compared to over one-hundred mg. in eight ounces of coffee. 如今,东西方的科学研究不断发现有力的据,明了长期以来人们所相信的饮用绿茶有益健康。还有什么其它食物或饮料如绿茶一般对健康有益吗?中国人自古就知道绿茶的药用价值,用绿茶来治疗从头痛到抑郁的各种疾病。你知道吗,人们正在使用绿茶提取物来辅助减肥。科学研究显示,这种草药添加剂确实能够加速新陈代谢--人体燃烧能量的过程,帮助身体消耗多余的脂肪。新陈代谢是人体制造生存所需能量的化学过程。加速新陈代谢需要燃烧更多燃料,这通常是机体动用脂肪储备的时候,这也是人体减轻体重的原因所在。结果正如人所愿,顺利实现减肥的目标。但是,饮绿茶自然只能作为全面有效减肥计划的一环。你还需要注意膳食健康,进行有规律的锻炼。就个人而言,我倾向于饮用绿茶的原味,因为我喜欢绿茶的味道。但是如果你不喜欢绿茶的味道,你仍然有办法享受它给你健康带来的好处。在杂货店或者便利店,你会在放饮料的冷柜中看到这种绿茶或那种绿茶。早就有了各种各样的绿茶产品。如果你还没有试着喝过绿茶,你可能感到奇怪,这一堆乱七八糟的产品是怎么回事。现在你可能要问了,绿茶和你常喝的红茶有什么不同。两种茶叶都产自同一种茶树;其区别是茶叶的加工过程不一样--绿茶在烘干前没有进行发酵。因为加工过程时间短,绿茶的味道比红茶更清淡。绿茶之所以对你健康有益,因为所有有益成分都保留在茶叶里。绿茶的味道与你通常喝的茶完全不同。大部分喝绿茶的人不往茶里加牛奶,也不加糖,但是如果喜欢,你也可以加。人们常形容绿茶有一种清香、嫩香和青草的香气。一些品种的绿茶带着些许甜味;另外的品种有点苦涩的味道。绿茶有几个品种,各自有各自的香味;可是,它们都具有同一种共同的茶味。要想品尝真正的好茶你应该去精品茶叶店,而不要去一般的杂货店--杂货店的茶叶种类比起茶叶店来太少。到你当地的亚洲食品店看看,你会找到一种好的绿茶。你想要的一些茶有煎茶、中国珠茶、或龙井茶。沏绿茶的方法和沏普通茶一样,只是水不要做开。你要在水将开未开的时候来沏茶。绿茶比一般的茶更嫩,所以水温要低一些。至今为止,喝绿茶有报道的唯一负作用就是由于绿茶中含有的咖啡因造成失眠。不过绿茶中的咖啡因含量比咖啡少得多:6~8盎司茶叶中大约含有30~60mg的咖啡因,而8盎司的咖啡中含有超过100mg咖啡因。 /200804/36814

In the past few weeks something we always knew to be true, but which we preferred to overlook for convenience’s sake, is proving harder to ignore. 过去几周,我们一直都知道是怎么回事、但为了省事而不去深究的某些事情,变得更难忽视了。The fact is that digital services are not free, they never were and that any entity from Silicon Valley that ever claimed they could be did so only because it suited their agenda or that of someone else.事实是,数字务并非免费,它们从未免费过,硅谷任何声称能够提供免费数字务的公司之所以那么说,只是因为这话符合它们或其他什么人的利益。Think of all the free digital services you use every day without paying a penny: email, travel apps, social media, YouTube, search, Wikipedia. 想想我们每天不花一分钱就可以使用的所有免费数字务:电子邮件、旅行应用、社交媒体,YouTube、搜索、维基百科(Wikipedia)。If you had to pay for all of them, how many would you use?如果要为所有这些务付费,你还会使用多少?This revelation is not the result of a crash in the share prices of companies providing free internet services. 我们醒悟到这一点并非提供免费互联网务的公司股价暴跌的结果。Nor is it because a plethora of app companies has run out of financing options for their lossmaking operations. 也不是因为众多app开发商的亏损业务的融资选择越来越少。It has hit us because the fake news scandal has led us to question whether the news and information we have been consuming online for nothing was ever being generated in our interests.我们之所以醒悟过来,是因为假新闻丑闻使我们开始怀疑,我们在网上免费消费的新闻和信息,是否以符合我们利益的方式生成?However, the outrage that has followed this realisation — with free services such as Google and Facebook being urged to censor and filter the news — misdiagnoses the situation. 然而,这一认识带来的愤怒——要求谷歌(Google)、Facebook等免费务提供商审查并过滤新闻——是对现实的错误诊断。The right diagnosis is this: over the past 20 years we have normalised a digital economy that funds itself either by appealing to the sort of investors who will tolerate long-term cash burn if the ultimate pay-off is monopoly control or by creating business models that profit from morally ambiguous situations.正确的诊断是:过去20年,我们已经让这样一种数字经济正常化,这种经济通过两种方式募集资金:一是吸引那些愿意为最终获得垄断控制权而忍受长期烧钱的投资者,二是创建能够获利于道德上模糊的情况的业务模式。Where traditional media institutions feared to t with advertising-funded models because of a belief in editorial responsibility, balance and context, social media platforms — free from any industry codes of conduct — moved right in. 传统媒体机构基于对采编责任、平衡与大背景的考虑,不敢随便引入广告赞助模式,这恰好让不受任何行业行为准则约束的社交媒体平台趁虚而入。The lines between editorial, advertising, entertainment and political propaganda became entirely blurred in the quest for clicks.为了追求点击率,编辑、广告、以及政治宣传之间的界线变得完全模糊了。The growing cyber-industrial complex has normalised this further, with cross-subsidisation models that gouge wealthier customer segments for the benefit of non-paying ones referred to euphemistically as ecosystems. 日益壮大的网络工业复合体使这种状况进一步常态化,它们搞出交叉补贴模式——向较富裕客户群体收取较高费用,以补贴非付费客户——还美其名曰生态系统。An ecosystem, in case you do not know, is a state of mutual co-dependence between organisms, often where one organism has to submit to the other in order to achieve balance.一个生态系统(如果你不知道这个)是不同有机体相互依存的一种状态,往往其中一个有机体必须屈从于另一个,才能保持平衡。None of this is new. 这一切都并非新鲜事物。The last time a country normalised a complex web of interdependencies, it was called Gosplan. 上一次一个国家让一个复杂的相互依存网络常态化,还是苏联国家计划委员会(Gosplan)时代的事情。Just like today’s internet economy, this Soviet system was based on the idea that a technocratic and scientific central planning process could justly punish some to the benefit of others.正如当下的互联网经济一样,苏联这一体制基于的理念是,某种技术官僚的、科学的中央规划过程,可以理直气壮地为了造福于某些人而惩罚另一些人。And, like today’s internet economy, it normalised the false idea that scientific progress could cultivate a cornucopia of free resources with no associated costs or losses of freedom.也像当下的互联网经济一样,它让一种错误理念正常化:即科学进步可以培养一种免费资源的聚宝盆,而不会有相关成本,也不会失去自由。That fallacy ended abruptly in 1985. 这种谬误在1985年轰然倒塌。A spate of economic crises, consumer shortages and regional instabilities, including the re-emergence of nationalistic sentiments, revealed that the centralised, cross-subsidised economy of the Soviet Union was bankrupt and had to be reformed.当时一连串经济危机、消费品短缺及地区不稳定(包括再度高涨的民族主义情绪)揭示出,中央集权、交叉补贴的苏联经济模式已经破产,不得不进行改革。What followed was the era of perestroika and glasnost, meaning restructuring and openness respectively. 随之到来的是改革(perestroika)和开放(glasnost)的时代。By that point, however, it was too late to save the Soviet system. 然而,那时要挽救苏联体制已经太晚。Its internal imbalances had become too large. 其内部失衡过于严重。In 1991, the USSR collapsed under the weight of its own failing economy.1991年,苏联在经济每况愈下的重压下解体。Yet, in the wake of that collapse, something else happened. 但在苏联解体后,又出现了新情况。The removal of subsidies from those who had grown so hopelessly dependent on the system that they could not fend for themselves outside it led to a backlash. 对于那些已经无可救药地依赖于苏联体制、没有这个体制就无法养活自己的人,取消补贴引发了强烈抵制。Many yearned for the return of the old system, no matter the totalitarian cost. 许多人渴望回归旧体制,无论极权政权的代价有多高。Political freedom, it turned out, was in some cases just too costly.事实明,有时候政治自由的代价实在太大。Imagine what the outcome would be if the digital economy experienced a similar adjustment.想象一下,如果数字经济经历类似的调整,会有什么样的结局。 /201611/479998为什么肤色白皙的女子受到偏爱?Gentlemen do not just prefer blondes, but lighter-skinned women in general, a study has suggested.Scientists looking into attractiveness in men and women suggest that men from all races find fairer-skinned woman most alluring, while women are the polar opposite and favour darker, brooding men.They said the attraction is driven by preferences based on moral assumptions.Men are subconsciously attracted to fairer-skinned icons such as Nicole Kidman or Kylie Minogue because of the skin tone's association with innocence, purity, modesty, virginity, vulnerability and goodness.Women, on the other hand, pick men with darker complexions - such as film stars Johnny Depp, Colin Farrell or Jamie Foxx - because these are associated with sex, virility, mystery, villainy and danger.The latter two actors were paired together in the recent Miami Vice movie, which topped the box office on both sides of the Atlantic despite lukewarm reviews.Academics at the University of Toronto in Canada say their study proves the fair maiden of myth has a basis in scientific reality.They studied more than 2,000 advertising photographs and found that the skin of white women was 15.2 per cent lighter than the skin of white males, and the skin of black women 11.1 per cent lighter than the skin of black men.Dr Shyon Baumann, a sociologist involved in the study, said: "What the research shows is that our aesthetic preferences operate to reflect moral preferences."Within our cultures we have a set of ideals about how women should look and behave."Lightness and darkness have particular meanings attached to them and we subconsciously relate those moral preferences to women."In effect, men drawn to darker looking women - such as actress Monica Bellucci - are expressing a preference for danger.Dr Baumann said this appreciation of a darker complexion in women is "less common" but "appears to coexist with a view of such women as more overtly sexual. 一项研究表明,男士不只青睐皮肤白皙、金发碧眼的女士,总的来说,他们对浅肤色的女性都比较感兴趣。科研人员对男性和女性的吸引力特征进行探究后发现,所有种族的男性都认为肤色较浅的女性最具吸引力,而女性的观点则正好相反,她们更青睐肤色黝黑的深沉男士。研究人员称,这种喜好取决于对异性的“道德假定”偏好。男性潜意识里更青睐皮肤白皙的女明星,比如妮可#8226;基德曼、凯莉#8226;米洛,因为这种肤色让人联想到天真、单纯、端庄、纯洁、柔弱和善良。然而,女性则更青睐肤色较深的男性,比如影星强尼#8226;戴普、柯林#8226;法勒尔和杰米#8226;福克斯,因为这样的肤色给人一种性感、阳刚、神秘、邪恶和危险的感觉。柯林#8226;法瑞尔和杰米#8226;福克斯联合主演的(饰演两位警察卧底)新片《迈阿密风云》尽管得到的评价并不高,但它在大西洋两岸均取得了票房冠军。加拿大多伦多大学的研究人员称,该研究明传说中的窈窕淑女是有现实的科学依据的。研究人员对两千多张广告照片进行了研究,发现白人女性的肤色白皙度比男性高15.2%,黑人女性的肤色白皙度比男性高11.1%。研究小组成员之一、社会学家施恩#8226;鲍曼恩说:“研究表明,我们的审美喜好能反映出我们的‘道德喜好’。”“我们的文化中存在一套有关女性外表和举止的完美典范。”“因此,肤色深浅也被赋予了特殊含义,我们潜意识里会将那些‘道德喜好’与女性联系在一起。”实际上,有的男性喜欢像(意大利)影星莫妮卡#8226;贝鲁奇这种深肤色的女性,这说明他们偏爱“危险感”。鲍曼恩说,喜欢深肤色女性的人“并不多见”,但“同时有观点认为,这种肤色的女性显得更加性感”。 /200803/31207

Imagine this futuristic scenario: a US-led coalition is closing in on Raqqa determined to eradicate Isis. The international forces unleash a deadly swarm of autonomous, flying robots that buzz around the city tracking down the enemy.想象一下这样的未来场景:以美国为首的联军正在逼近叙利亚的拉卡(Raqqa),决心消灭“伊斯兰国”(ISIS)。多国部队出动一批致命的自主机器人,围着城市四处飞行,追踪敌人。Using face recognition technology, the robots identify and kill top Isis commanders, decapitating the organisation. Dazed and demoralised, the Isis forces collapse with minimal loss of life to allied troops and civilians.利用面部识别技术,这些机器人识别和杀死ISIS的指挥官,斩落了这个组织的头目。在联军和平民伤亡最少的情况下,瓦解了不知所措、士气低落的ISIS部队。Who would not think that a good use of technology?有谁不认为这是很好地运用了技术呢?As it happens, quite a lot of people, including many experts in the field of artificial intelligence, who know most about the technology needed to develop such weapons.事实上,有很多人不这么认为,包括人工智能领域的很多专家,他们最了解研发这种武器所需要的技术。In an open letter published last July, a group of AI researchers warned that technology had reached such a point that the deployment of Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems (or Laws as they are incongruously known) was feasible within years, not decades. Unlike nuclear weapons, such systems could be mass produced on the cheap, becoming the “Kalashnikovs of tomorrow.”去年7月,众多人工智能研究人员发表了一封公开信,警告称这种技术已经发展到一定程度,几年以后——而无需几十年——就有可能部署“致命自主武器系统”(Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems,它还有一个不相称的简称,Laws,意为“法律”)。不像核武器,这类系统可以以低廉成本大规模生产,成为“明天的卡拉什尼科夫步(Kalashnikov,即AK-47)”。“It will only be a matter of time until they appear on the black market and in the hands of terrorists, dictators wishing to better control their populace, warlords wishing to perpetrate ethnic cleansing,” they said. “Starting a military AI arms race is a bad idea, and should be prevented by a ban on offensive autonomous weapons beyond meaningful human control.”“它们早晚会出现在黑市上,落入恐怖分子、希望更好地控制民众的独裁者和想要进行种族清洗的军阀的手中,”他们表示,“在军用人工智能领域开启一场军备竞赛是一个坏主意,应该对超出人类有效控制的攻击性自主武器施加禁令,以防止这样的军备竞赛。”Aly, the US has broadly forsworn the use of offensive autonomous weapons. Earlier this month, the ed Nations held a further round of talks in Geneva between 94 military powers aiming to draw up an international agreement restricting their use.美国大体上已承诺放弃使用攻击性自主武器。本月早些时候,联合国(UN)在日内瓦举行了有94个军事强国参加的新一轮谈判,旨在拟定一项限制此类武器使用的国际协定。The chief argument is a moral one: giving robots the agency to kill humans would trample over a red line that should never be crossed.主要论据是道德层面上的:赋予机器人杀人的代理权,将越过一条永远不应被越过的红线。Jody Williams, who won a Nobel Peace Prize for campaigning against landmines and is a spokesperson for the Campaign To Stop Killer Robots, describes autonomous weapons as more terrifying than nuclear arms. “Where is humanity going if some people think it’s OK to cede the power of life and death of humans over to a machine?”因为开展反对地雷的运动而获得诺贝尔和平奖的乔迪#8226;威廉斯(Jody Williams)是“阻止杀手机器人运动”(Campaign To Stop Killer Robots)的发言人,他表示自主武器比核武器更可怕。“如果一些人认为把人类的生杀大权交给一台机器是可以的,人性又何以处之?”There are other concerns beyond the purely moral. Would the use of killer robots lower the human costs of war thereby increasing the likelihood of conflict? How could proliferation of such systems be stopped? Who would be accountable when they went wrong?除了纯粹的道德问题以外,还有其他令人担忧的问题。杀手机器人会降低战争中的人员成本,爆发冲突的可能性是否会因此提高?如何阻止这类系统的扩散?当它们出问题的时候谁来负责?This moral case against killer robots is clear enough in a philosophy seminar. The trouble is the closer you look at their likely use in the fog of war the harder it is to discern the moral boundaries. Robots (with limited autonomy) are aly deployed on the battlefield in areas such as bomb disposal, mine clearance and antimissile systems. Their use is set to expand dramatically.在一个哲学研讨会上,反对杀手机器人的道德理由已是足够明显。问题在于,你越是近距离地观察它们在战争硝烟中可能的用处,就越难分辨出道德的界限。(有限自主的)机器人已经被用于战场上,应用在拆弹、排雷和反导系统等。它们的应用范围还将大为扩大。The Center for a New American Security estimates that global spending on military robots will reach .5bn a year by 2018 compared with the bn forecast to be spent on commercial and industrial robots. The Washington-based think-tank supports the further deployment of such systems arguing they can significantly enhance “the ability of warfighters to gain a decisive advantage over their adversaries”.据新美国安全中心(Center for a New American Security)估测,到2018年,全球范围内在军用机器人方面的出将达到每年75亿美元。相比之下,该机构预测用于商业和工业机器人的出将为430亿美元。这家位于华盛顿的智库持进一步利用这类系统,主张它们能够显著提高“作战人员取得凌驾对手的绝对性优势的能力”。In the antiseptic prose it so loves, the arms industry draws a distinction between different levels of autonomy. The first, described as humans-in-the-loop, includes predator drones, widely used by US and other forces. Even though a drone may identify a target it still requires a human to press the button to attack. As vividly shown in the film Eye in the Sky , such decisions can be morally agonising, balancing the importance of hitting vital targets with the risks of civilian casualties.军工界用其最爱使用的置身事外的论调,对机器人不同的自主等级进行了区分。第一类被称为“人在环中”(humans-in-the-loop),包括被美军和其他军队广泛使用的“捕食者”无人机。即使一架无人机或许能够识别目标,还是需要一个人类来按下攻击按钮。就像电影《天空之眼》(Eye in the Sky)生动地体现出来的,这类决策可能会给人带来道德上的痛苦,你需要在打击关键目标和造成平民伤亡的风险之间进行权衡。The second level of autonomy involves humans-in-the-loop systems, in which people supervise roboticised weapons systems, including anti-aircraft batteries. But the speed and intensity of modern warfare make it doubtful whether such human oversight amounts to effective control.第二级的自主是“人在环中系统”(humans-in-the-loop system),人对机器人武器系统进行监督,包括防空炮。但现代战争的速度和强度让人怀疑这种人类的监督能否形成有效控制。The third type, of humans-out-of-the-loop systems such as fully autonomous drones, is potentially the deadliest but probably the easiest to proscribe.第三类是“人在环外系统”(humans-out-of-the-loop system),比如完全自主的无人机,这种可能是最致命的,但也很可能是最容易禁止的。AI researchers should certainly be applauded for highlighting this debate. Arms control experts are also playing a useful, but frustratingly slow, part in helping define and respond to this challenge. “This is a valuable conversation,” says Paul Scharre, a senior fellow at CNAS. “But it is a glacial process.”人工智能研究人员通过发表公开信,引起人们对这场辩论的关注,这一举动当然值得赞扬。军备控制专家在帮助定义和应对这一挑战方面起到有用的作用,但他们的行动步伐却慢得让人沮丧。“这是一次有价值的对话,”新美国安全中心的保罗#8226;沙勒(Paul Scharre)说,“但这是一个极其缓慢的过程。”As in so many other areas, our societies are scrambling to make sense of fast-changing technological realities, still less control them.就像在其他很多方面一样,我们的社会在试图理解快速变化的技术现实方面就已穷于应付,更别提加以控制了。 /201605/443202

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