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2019年07月18日 01:36:35 | 作者:爱问典范 | 来源:新华社
No matter how sharp you are, a new computer program will always win at this type of poker.在纸牌游戏中不管你是个多么厉害的角色,新电脑程序总是会赢过你。The best poker player in the world doesn#39;t have a poker face. In fact - it has no face at all.世界上最好的纸牌玩家没有扑克脸(面无表情),甚至连有没有脸都谈不上。The new poker expert is an algorithm (AL-go-RITH-em), or problem-solving program. Called Cepheus, it has solved one form of this card game. ;Solved,; in this case, means the program knows the game well enough to win against any human.最新纸牌专家是一种演算法,一种叫做Cepheus能解决问题的程序,它已经solved(搞定)了这种纸牌游戏中一种玩法。;solved;在这里指该程序对这个游戏了如指掌,无论和谁比,它都会赢。And this new algorithm may be useful beyond the card table. It can win at poker even without knowing what cards the other players are hiding. That skill may be useful elsewhere. For instance, it might help guide business decisions or predict terrorist attacks. In those circumstances, a decision-maker will seldom have all of the information he or she feels are needed.这种新的改进算法可用于牌桌上。使用这种方法无需知道其他玩家手里的藏牌你就能轻而易举夺冠。此外这项技能也会在应用到其他方面。比如说引导商业决策,预测恐怖袭击等。在这些情况下,一个决策者几乎没有他或她感觉应该所需要的信息。The algorithm is ;a big step toward understanding games that are closer to real-world problems,; says Murray Campbell. This computer scientist works at IBM#39;s Thomas J. Watson Research Center in Yorktown Heights, N.Y. Campbell did not work on the new study. He did, however, help develop a computer called Deep Blue. In 1997, it defeated world champion Garry Kasparov at chess.就职于美国约克敦海茨国际商用机器公司托马斯·沃森研究中心的计算机科学家Murray Campbell称能够透彻的了解一个如此接近现实世界问题的游戏,algorithm可谓是个很大的进步。N.Y. Campbell没有参与此次新研究,但他助力开发了一款叫做深蓝的计算机,并于1997年战胜了国际象棋冠军Garry Kasparov。For decades, scientists have been designing computers that can win games. There#39;s even a branch of mathematics - game theory - that focuses on finding the best strategies in competitive situations. And using such strategies, some computers have performed quite well.几十年来,科学家一直致力于开发一款能在游戏方面所向披靡的电脑,甚至还涉及到一大堆数学公式,即弈论,这是一种专注于在竞争情况下找到最好对策的方法,并且很多电脑对于这一策略的运行已经相当出色。But poker is a harder game. Unlike in checkers, poker players cannot see everyone#39;s pieces (or here, cards). Another difference: In checkers, every turn has a best move. But for poker, champs don#39;t always play the same way. To win, a good player might choose to fool his or her opponents, known as bluffing.但纸牌属于更难的游戏。它不像跳棋那么明显,纸牌玩家看不到任何人的牌。另一个不同之处在于:在西洋跳棋中,每一步都会有最好的选择。但对于纸牌玩家来说,厉害角色不总是按套路出牌。如果你想赢,那么你就要学会怎样迷惑对手,学会怎样去唬人。译文属 /201506/383382

The rich are set to become God-like cyborgs in what could be the #39;biggest evolution in biology#39; since life emerged.富人们将变成会成为上帝般的电子人,这将可能是人类有史以来“在生物方面最大的进化”。This is according to Yuval Noah Harari, a professor at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, who believes the radical shift will take place in the next 200 years.这是来自耶路撒冷希伯来大学(Hebrew University of Jerusalem)的教授尤尔瓦#8226;诺亚#8226;哈拉里(Yuval Noah Harari)的预言,他相信这种巨变会在未来200年内发生。Using biotechnology and genetic engineering, Professor Harari claims the wealthy will transform into a new type of divine, immortal human with complete power over life and death.哈拉里说,富人们使用生物技术和基因工程技术,能够转化成新人类——神圣,永恒,对生与死有完全的掌控权。He argues that humans are unable to resist the temptation to #39;upgrade#39; themselves, according to a report by Sarah Knapton in the Telegraph.萨拉#8226;卡普顿(Sarah Knapton)在《电讯报》(Telegraph)的报道称,哈拉里提出,人类无法拒绝“升级”自身的诱惑。#39;We are programmed to be dissatisfied,#39; said Professor Harari, during a recent speech at the Hay literary festival in Wales.哈拉里教授最近在威尔士干草文学节发表演说,称,“我们已被设定为不满足现状。”#39;Even when humans gain pleasure and achievements it is not enough. They want more and more.“即使人类获得了快乐和成就,仍然感到不满足。他们想要更多。”#39;I think it is likely in the next 200 years or so homo sapiens will upgrade themselves into some idea of a divine being, either through biological manipulation or genetic engineering or by the creation of cyborgs, part organic part non-organic.“我认为在接下来的约200年里,现代人很可能会通过使用生物操控或基因工程,或通过创造半有机半无机的电子人,使自身升级为神人。”#39;It will be the greatest evolution in biology since the appearance of life. Nothing really has changed in four billion years biologically speaking.“这将是自人类生命诞生以来,在生物方面最大的进化。从生物学上来讲,400亿年来,人类的身体构造并没有真正发生变化。#39;But we will be as different from today#39;s humans as chimps are now from us.#39;“就像猩猩已经离我们很遥远了,我们也将会与今天的人类截然不同。”The technology to do this, however, will be restricted to the very wealthy, claims Professor Harari.然而,哈拉里教授称,改造人类这一技术将只属于富人。Up until now, he says society has been held together by inventing #39;fictions#39;, such as religion, money and the idea of fundamental human rights.他说,在目前为止,社会被创造的“虚幻”团结在一起,如宗教,金钱,人权思想等。As long as humans believed they relied more and more on these gods they were controllable, he said.他说,只要人类相信这些,越来越依靠这些“神”,他们就是可控的。#39;But what we see in the last few centuries is humans becoming more powerful and they no longer need the crutches of the Gods.#39;但是我们在过去几个世纪里所看到的是,人类变得越来越强大,不再需要上帝的拐杖。He added that the most interesting place in the world from a religious perspective is not the Middle East but Silicon Valley.他补充道,从宗教的观点来看,世界上最有趣的地方不是中东,而是硅谷。Here, people are developing what he describes as a #39;techno-religion#39; in which they believe death is just a technological problem.这里的人们发展出这样一种他称之为“技术宗教”的观念:他们相信死亡只是一个技术问题。#39;Now we are saying we do not need God just technology,#39; he added.他补充道,“现在我们不需要上帝了,只需要技术。” /201505/377621

The rise of mobile phones has been blamed for a number of social ills, but your smart phone may also be making you physically sick as well.移动电话的广泛使用被指引发了诸多社会弊端,不仅如此,手中的智能机也会让你觉得身体不适。Scientists have identified a condition called #39;cybersickness#39;, which they say is the digital version of motion sickness.科学家们把这种状态称为“晕屏”,是晕车的电子版。The phenomenon, which affects up to 80 per cent of the population who own smartphones or tablets, leads to feelings of nausea and unsteadiness.80%的手机和平板用户会晕屏,他们会有恶心、眩晕的感觉。It is caused by seeing fast motion on a screen and covers anything from a car chase in a film to scrolling through web pages on your phone.造成晕屏的原因是浏览了含移动内容的屏幕,可能是看了有追车镜头的电影,也可能是浏览了手机上滚动的内容页。The more realistic the visual content is, the higher your chances of getting cybersickness.视觉内容越真实,晕屏的发生率就越高。The condition was identified in a piece in the New York Times in which British and US experts said that it needed addressing.《纽约时报》的一篇文章报道了这种症状。英美专家在文章中称,这个问题需要着手解决。Cyriel Diels, a cognitive psychologist and human factors researcher at Coventry University#39;s centre for Mobility and Transport, said: #39;It#39;s a fundamental problem that#39;s kind of been swept under the carpet in the tech industry.认知心理学家、考文垂大学移动运输中心的人为因素研究员西里尔·蒂尔斯表示:“对弊端置之不理算得上是科技产业一个最根本的问题了。”#39;It#39;s a natural response to an unnatural environment.#39;“这是对非自然环境作出的自然反应。”Motion sickness leaves sufferers feeling ill because they feel movement in your muscles and your inner ear but do not see it.晕动症会令患者感到肌肉和内耳在移动,但实际上并没有看到它们在移动。The mismatch in digital sickness is the opposite - you see movement on the screen but do not feel it.而晕屏症恰恰相反——你看到屏幕在移动,实际上却感受不到。The effect is the same and the symptoms include a headache, wanting to throw up, confusion and the need to sit down.二者的影响却是相同的,其症状为头疼、想吐、思绪混乱,需要静坐下来。Often cybersickness manifests itself in a subtle way and sufferers put it down to stress or eyestrain.晕屏症状通常不易察觉,患者会以为是因为压力大或者视觉疲劳引起的。Steven Rauch, a professor of otolaryngology at Harvard Medical School, said: #39;Your sense of balance is different than other senses in that it has lots of inputs.哈佛医学院耳鼻喉科教授史蒂芬·劳奇表示:“与其他感官不同,当有大量信息输入时,人的平衡感会发生改变。”#39;When those inputs don#39;t agree, that#39;s when you feel dizziness and nausea.#39;“当这些信息输入没有被感官接受,你就会觉得头晕、恶心。”Some studies that have been carried out into cybersickness found that women are more susceptible than men, the New York Times reported.《纽约时报》称,一些有关晕屏的研究发现,女性比男性更容易晕屏。Those who have#39;Type A#39; personalities - meaning they are confident and assertive - are more likely to suffer from cybersickness as well.“A型”人格,即果断自信的人,也更容易晕屏。Among those who have reported experiencing the condition have been gamers who spend hours playing fast paced games.有晕屏症状的通常是连续几小时玩快节奏视频游戏的玩家。Cinema-goers have struggled with some scenes in action movies which have quick cuts and fast editing - and virtual reality has made the problem even worse.看动作片的观众在看到快速剪辑和切换的镜头时会不舒,这是因为虚拟实境会加重晕屏。Jonathan Weinstein, a professor at the Kanbar Institute for Film and Television at New York University#39;s Tisch School of the Arts, said: #39;The idea is to get audiences to feel like participants in the action rather than outside observers of the action.纽约大学提斯克艺术学院康贝尔影视研究所的教授乔纳森·温斯坦说:“动作片就是想让观众身临其境,而不是当一个局外人。”Engineers at Oculus VR, the virtual headset manufacturer, have admitted that digital motion sickness is one of their biggest problems.虚拟实境游戏头盔制造商“欧酷拉”公司的工程师们坦言,晕屏也是他们面临的最大问题之一。 /201511/411206

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