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来源:安心共享    发布时间:2019年10月21日 04:25:22    编辑:admin         

Worrying too much about stressful events can trigger inflammation, according to a new study.一项新研究指出,为一些让人倍感压力的事情过度烦恼可能会引发炎症。Researchers found dwelling on negative events can increase levels of inflammation in the body.研究人员发现,总是为负面事情担心会让体内的炎症水平上升。They discovered that when study participants were asked to ruminate on a stressful incident, their levels of C-reactive protein, a marker of tissue inflammation, rose.他们发现,当他们让研究的参与者们反复思考一件让人倍感压力的事情时,参与者体内的C反应蛋白水平会上升。C反应蛋白是人体组织炎症的一个标记。The study is the first time to directly measure this effect in the body.该研究是首次对身体产生的这一反应直接进行测量。Study lead author Peggy Zoccola, an assistant professor of psychology at Ohio University in the ed States, said: #39;Researchers have asked people to report their tendency to ruminate, and then looked to see if it connected to physiological issues. It#39;s been correlational for the most part.#39;该研究报告的第一作者、美国俄亥俄大学心理学助理教授佩吉?左可拉说:“研究人员让人们报告她们陷入沉思的倾向性,然后研究这一倾向性是否与生理问题有关。结果表明这一倾向性可以和生理问题在很大程度上产生关联。”The research team recruited 34 healthy young women to participate in the project.该研究团队招募了34位健康的年轻女性来参与这一项目。Each woman was asked to give a speech about her candidacy for a job to two interviewers in white laboratory coats, who listened with #39;stone-faced#39; expressions.研究人员让每名女性向两个穿着实验室白大褂的面试官陈述自己如何有资格胜任一份工作。这两个考官听取陈述时都是面无表情。Half of the group was asked to contemplate their performance in the public speaking task, while the other half was asked to think about neutral images and activities, such as sailing ships or grocery store trips.团队中有一半人被要求在公开演讲环节仔细考虑自己的表现,而另一半人则被要求想一些不会让人产生情绪波动的图像和活动,比如帆船或杂货店之行。The researchers drew blood samples that showed that the levels of C-reactive protein were significantly higher in the subjects who were asked to dwell on the speech.研究人员采集了她们的血液样本,样本显示,那些被要求认真思考演讲表现的参与者体内的C反应蛋白水平要高得多。For these participants, the levels of the inflammatory marker continued to rise for at least one hour after the speech.在演讲结束后至少一个小时,这些参与者体内标志着炎症的蛋白水平依然持续上升。During the same time period, the marker returned to starting levels in the subjects who had been asked to focus on other thoughts.而在此期间,那些被要求集中注意力想其他事情的参与者体内的C反应蛋白水平却回到了起点。The C-reactive protein is primarily produced by the liver as part of the immune system#39;s initial inflammatory response. It rises in response to traumas, injuries or infections in the body.C反应蛋白主要由肝脏产生,是免疫系统对炎症初步反应的一部分。在身体遭受外伤、损伤或感染时C反应蛋白水平会相应上升。C-reactive protein is widely used as a clinical marker to determine if a patient has an infection, but also if he or she may be at risk for disease later in life.C反应蛋白被广泛作为确定病人是否被感染的一个临床指标,但也被用来预测病人日后患疾病的风险。Doctor Zoccola said: #39;More and more, chronic inflammation is being associated with various disorders and conditions.左可拉医生说:“慢性炎症被越来越多地与各种失调症和疾病联系起来。#39;The immune system plays an important role in various cardiovascular disorders such as heart disease, as well as cancer, dementia and autoimmune diseases.#39;“免疫系统在癌症、痴呆症、自体免疫疾病和各种心血管疾病(如心脏病)中都起着重要作用。” /201303/230684。

(一)美国货币  美国货币由美元dollar和美分cent组成,one dollar等于100 cents。其纸币bill有一、二、五、十、二十、五十和一百美元等面值;硬币(coin)有一美分(或a penny)、五美分(或a nickel)、十美分(或a dime)和二十五美分(或a quarter)等。在数字前加$表示美元,如:0表示五百美元;在数字后加C表示美分,如:50C表示50美分;表示由美元和美分组成的钱数时,常用$表示,如:.50。   (二)英国货币   英国货币由英镑(pound)和便士(pence)组成,也分为纸币notes和硬币coins。纸币有面值五镑、十镑、二十镑和五十镑;而硬币,即金属货币有一便士、二便士、五便士、十便士、二十便士、五十便士和一镑等。若指一定数额的硬币,通常用piece,如2P(pieces);随身带的硬币可用change表示。100 pence等于1 pound。在数字前加£表示多少英镑,如:£800为800英镑;在数字后加P表示多少便士,如:5P表示五便士(penny的复数);表示由英镑和便士组成的钱数时通常不说出pence,如3镑50便士可说成£3.50或three pounds and fifty。。