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2019年06月25日 16:49:38来源:百度互动

Chinas family planning中国计划生育政策Illegal children will be confiscated违法生育就没收孩子The one-child policy is not just a human-rights abomination; it has also worsened a demographic problem独生子女政策不仅在人权方面广受诟病,它也使得人口问题雪上加霜Jul 21st 2011 | from the print edition“BEFORE 1997 they usually punished us by tearing down our houses for breaching the one-child policy…After 2000 they began to confiscate our children.” Thus Yuan Chaoren, a villager from Longhui county in Hunan province, describing in Caixin magazine the behaviour of family-planning bureaucrats. According to Caixin, local officials would take “illegal children” and pack them off to orphanages where they were put up for adoption. Foreign adoptive parents paid ,000-5,000 per child. The bureaucrats collected a kickback.“1997年以前,对违反独生子女政策的处罚是打烂房子…2000年以后,不砸房子了,没收小孩。”安徽省隆回县村民袁朝仁接受财新《新世纪》采访时,这样讲述了计生干部的所作所为。据财新报道,当地官员抓住“非法儿童”,把他们送到孤儿院(即社会福利院,译注),用来被人收养。外籍家庭收养一个孩子付3000至5000美元,官员们则收取提成。Stealing children is not an official part of Beijing’s one-child policy, but it is a consequence of rules that are a fundamental affront to the human rights of parents and would-be parents. The policy damages families and upsets the balance between generations. It is so hated that even within China it is now coming under political attack. For the first time a whole province, Guangdong, with a population of over 100m, is demanding exemptions (see article).盗抢孩子并不是中国政府独生子女政策的法定组成部分,但却是其恶果之一。这一政策侵犯父母和准父母的基本人权,破坏家庭,打乱代际平衡。人们如此厌恶它,即使在中国国内它也正成为一个政治问题而受到批评。人口过亿的广东省正请求放宽独生子女政策,这在省级层面尚属首次(参见文章)。A thousand-mile journey begins with a single step千里之行始于足下Chinese officials are fiercely attached to the one-child policy. They attribute to it almost every drop in fertility and every averted birth: some 400m more people, they claim, would have been born without it. This is patent nonsense. Chinese fertility was falling for decades before the one-child policy took effect in 1979. Fertility has gone down almost as far and as fast without coercion in neighbouring countries, including those with large Chinese populations. The sp of birth control and a desire for smaller families tend to accompany economic growth and development almost everywhere.中国官员们不遗余力地严格奉行独生子女政策。生育率有一点下降,出生人数有一点减少,他们都要归功于独生子女政策:他们宣称,要是不实行独生子女政策中国要多生出4亿人。这显然是无稽之谈。中国1979年实行计划生育前,生育率就已持续下降了几十年。中国的邻国,包括那些有大量华人的国家,没有采取过强制措施,生育率下降的速度及程度也和中国差不多。经济增长、社会发展与越来越多的人节制生育、希望家庭规模小些,二者之间通常是相关的,世界各地大体上一样。201107/146454。

  • Intellectual property知识产权Inventive warfare创智财富Battles over patents are becoming fiercer and more expensive专利之争更猛烈,更烧钱Aug 20th 2011 | from the print edition THIS deal is all about patents. That was the near universal view of Google’s announcement this week that it was taking over Motorola Mobility, a maker of handsets and other devices, for a colossal .5 billion. Indeed, the purchase will provide Google with an awful lot of patents: around 17,000 of them issued and another 7,500 pending. They should help Google in its efforts to get more smartphones and other mobile devices running on its Android operating system. But it could also make the battles over patents nastier and more costly.这笔交易也是彻头彻尾关于专利的。谷歌本周宣布以高达125亿美元收购手机及相关配件的制造商托罗拉移动部门的消息引起了全球关注。此外,此次交易将提供给谷歌大量的专利:大约17,000个已经获得专利权,另外有7,500个正在申请中。这将有助于谷歌拓展其基业以使更多地智能手机和其它移动终端使用安卓操作系统。但这也会使得专利之争更卑劣更烧钱。A scramble for patents had aly begun. In December four companies, including Microsoft and Apple, paid 0m for around 880 patents and applications owned by Novell, an ailing software firm. In July those two and four others, including Research in Motion, maker of the BlackBerry, spent .5 billion on 6,000 patents owned by Nortel, a bankrupt Canadian telecoms-equipment maker. Before its latest deal, Google bought 1,000 patents from IBM. Firms are also suing each other. Apple claims its technology has been copied by Samsung and Motorola in their Android phones. Oracle is suing Google for up to billion, claiming that Android infringes its patents. Microsoft is suing Motorola over Android too. Nokia recently settled a similar quarrel with Apple.对专利权的争夺已经开始了。12月,包括微软和苹果在内的四家企业为了大约880项专利向专利所用者——一家面临窘境的软件企业——诺勒付了4.5亿美元。7月,前述四家企业中的两家和另外四家企业——包括捷讯移动和黑莓手机制造商——为了6000项专利向一个破产的加拿大电信设备供应商北电网络费了450亿美元。在最新的一笔交易中,谷歌从国际商业机器公司购买了1000项专利。企业间也互相控诉。苹果声称其技术被三星和托罗拉抄袭在其各自的安卓手机内。甲骨文诉谷歌侵害了其专利,并要求索赔高达60亿美元。微软也以安卓诉托罗拉。最近,诺基亚和苹果也开始了专利权的纷争。201108/150424。
  • Schumpeter熊彼特Angst for the educated大学毕业生的担忧A university degree no longer confers financial security大学学历已经不再保金融安全Sep 3rd 2011 | from the print editionMILLIONS of school-leavers in the rich world are about to bid a tearful goodbye to their parents and start a new life at university. Some are inspired by a pure love of learning. But most also believe that spending three or four years at university—and accumulating huge debts in the process—will boost their chances of landing a well-paid and secure job.发达国家数百万的高中毕业生将要含泪告别他们的父母,开始新的大学生活。有些人被纯粹热爱学习鼓舞着。但是大部分人同样相信在大学待三、四年,虽然在这个过程中累积了大量的债务,但他们获得高薪稳定工作的几率将会大大增加。Their elders have always told them that education is the best way to equip themselves to thrive in a globalised world. Blue-collar workers will see their jobs offshored and automated, the familiar argument goes. School dropouts will have to cope with a life of cash-strapped insecurity. But the graduate elite will have the world at its feet. There is some evidence to support this view. A recent study from Georgetown University’s Centre on Education and the Workforce argues that “obtaining a post-secondary credential is almost always worth it.” Educational qualifications are tightly correlated with earnings: an American with a professional degree can expect to pocket .6m over a lifetime; one with merely a high-school diploma can expect only .3m. The gap between more- and less-educated earners may be widening. A study in 2002 found that someone with a bachelor’s degree could expect to earn 75% more over a lifetime than someone with only a high-school diploma. Today the premium is even higher.他们的长辈们经常告诫他们,教育是武装自己投身于全球化世界的最好的方式。蓝领工人看着他们的工作岗位迁往海外且被自动化代替,相似的言论此起彼伏。中途辍学的学生将要面对资金短缺的无保障生活,但是优秀毕业生则事业有成。有据来明该观点,乔治城大学教育和劳动力中心最近的一项调查认为,“获取高中以上的书总是值得的。”教育上的资格书与收入紧密相关:一位拥有专业学位的美国人终其一生可以赚取360万美元,而仅仅只有高中文凭的人其一生可以赚130万美元。教育程度高与教育程度低之间的差距可能已经扩大。2002年的一项调查发现,本科学历的人一生将比高中学历的人多赚75%,现在,这个数据甚至更高。But is the past a reliable guide to the future? Or are we at the beginning of a new phase in the relationship between jobs and education? There are good reasons for thinking that old patterns are about to change—and that the current recession-driven downturn in the demand for Western graduates will morph into something structural. The gale of creative destruction that has shaken so many blue-collar workers over the past few decades is beginning to shake the cognitive elite as well.但是,过去是未来的可靠向导么?或者我们处于工作和教育之间关系重新解读的起点么?旧模式将要改变的想法是有原因的——目前因经济衰退而导致对西方毕业生的需求减少,这将会转变成结构性的。在过去几十年里曾经抢走很多蓝领工人饭碗的一系列的创新,现在也开始对认知的精英构成威胁了。201109/152518。
  • 应国务院总理温家宝邀请,日本首相麻生太郎29日中午乘专机抵达北京,开始对中国进行为期两天的正式访问。Wen urges Japan to properly handle historical issues Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao has called on Japan to honor its promise and handle historical issues in an appropriate way. In his talks with his Japanese counterpart Taro Aso in Beijing on Wednesday, Wen Jiabao said historical issues are highly sensitive and affected people's feelings. He called on governments and political figures on both sides to stick to the principles of the four China-Japan political documents, and make unremitting efforts to push forward bilateral ties. The premier said China is willing to cooperate with Japan to expand youth and non-governmental exchanges, to boost understanding between the two peoples. Aso is in China for a two-day visit, his first official visit to China since he took office in September.WHO raises pandemic alert level to Phase 5As the swine flu situation is continuing to worsen, the World Health Organization (WHO) has raised the pandemic alert level to Phase 5, indicating that a full pandemic is imminent. WHO Director-General Margaret Chan told a teleconference for the media that influenza pandemics must be dealt with seriously and precisely because of their capacity to sp rapidly to every country in the world. This is the second raise of the WHO's pandemic alert system in three days, indicating the quick worsening of the global swine flu situation. Meanwhile, the US has reported its first death from the swine flu virus.The victim is a 23-month-old child from the state of Texas.Costa Rica has become the first Central American country, to confirm a case.And Germany and Austria, have joined the growing list, of infected countries.China is offering Mexico humanitarian aid worth five million dollars.The virus is costing Mexico, close to 60 million dollars, in lost daily tourism income.The world is still developing a vaccine for the virus.China urges swine flu prevention education in schools nationwide The Chinese government has called for education campaigns in schools nationwide to teach all students about the swine flu and its prevention.A circular jointly issued by the ministries of education and health says the campaigns should be launched as soon as possible, in all schools, to raise awareness of prevention and avoid causing unnecessary panic among teachers and students.It says schools should emphasize teaching students to develop good hygiene habits, frequently washing hands with soap and fresh water, and covering the mouth with a tissue when coughing or sneezing. China has no reported swine flu cases, but the possibility could not be ruled out as the swine flu is transnational and aly sping in some countries, according to the circular.04/68453。
  • Anti-bribery laws反商业贿赂法Palms ungreased揩油A long-delayed anti-bribery law will soon come into force 姗姗来迟的反贿赂法即将生效THERE is a lingering assumption among Britons that their country stands for probity and fair play. Ask about it abroad, though, and you sometimes get a different reaction. Anti-corruption campaigners still bring up Tony Blair’s decision in 2006 to abandon an investigation into a 43 billion ( billion) weapons deal with Saudi Arabia. Then there is the peculiar paucity of British “sanctions” imposed under an international bribery convention: two between 1999 and , compared with 88 in America, 26 in Germany and 40 in Italy. 英国人一直自矜的认为他们的国家建立在正直和公正的基石上。然而国外的反应却不尽如此。反腐竞选人依旧利用Tony Blair2006年的决定拒绝调查与Saudi Arabia的一项43亿英镑(70亿美元)的军火交易。因此国际贿赂协议对英国的约束力就罕见的微弱,在1999年和年之间只有2项受到制裁,相较而言美国有88项,德国26项,意大利40项。Stung by such talk, in 2008 the previous Labour government proposed a new law updating the country’s antiquated rules on backhanders and bungs, including those dispensed overseas. Both the Liberal Democrats and the Conservatives, now in government, backed the law in opposition. It reached the statute book in April last year; under it, miscreants risk big fines and up to ten years in prison. It was due to take effect in April this year, after the publication in January of guidelines on how to apply it. But, as the date approached, the Ministry of Justice said the implementation of the law had been postponed to allow the guidelines to be tweaked, following intense lobbying from business groups such as the Confederation of British Industry.被如此言论激怒的前工党政府2008年提出了一项新法律,以改革对回扣和红包的过时规定,在海外具有同等约束力。但是政府里的自由民主党和保守党都反对此法案。它涉及去年4月的法令全书,在该全书中,歹徒将被处以巨额罚款和最多10年监禁。在今年1月实施指导条例公布之后,该法预定4月份生效。但是随着日期临近,在一些商业集团如英国工业联合会紧张的游说之后,司法部说该法会延迟施行以便修改指导条例。On March 30th the ministry said the law would finally come into effect on July 1st and issued a revised set of guidelines. These clarify some of the things that were worrying bosses. To the relief of football clubs, swanky nightclubs and Formula 1, taking clients on company-sponsored jollies seems unlikely to cause any problems. The question of how responsible British firms are for the misbehaviour of contractors in other countries has been clarified. 在3月30日司法部说该法最终将在7月1日生效,并发布了修改后的指导条例。这些阐明了一些正困扰着老板们的麻烦事。为了救济足球俱乐部,骄傲的夜总会和F1方程式赛车,让顾客参加公司赞助的活动似乎不会引起任何麻烦。英国公司为合约商的失误应付多大责任的问题也得到了解答。On the other hand, “facilitation payments”, a euphemistic term for the small bungs sometimes paid to foreign officials to expedite a legitimate service—a licence application, for instance—are discouraged. America’s Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, one of the inspirations for the new law, allows them. 另一方面,“便利费”不受鼓励,实际上这只是有时付给外国官员以加速合法业务如许可申请的小额回扣。而让英国的该新法受启发的美国外国腐败行为法案却允许此类行为。Lawyers are still pondering precisely how much legal force these guidelines will have. One particularly thorny question is whether foreign firms that are listed on British stockmarkets but conduct little other business in the country will be covered. The government has offered no opinion; the question might one day make for a fascinating court case. 律师们仍在深思这些指导条例会有多大的法律效力。一个特别棘手的问题是该法律对那些参与英国股票市场但是几乎没有在英国开展其他业务的外国公司是否有法律效力。政府没有给出选项,或许有一天这会诉诸司法并引起广泛关注。201105/134772。
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