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重庆九院治疗好不好光明分享

2019年09月19日 15:06:53|来源:国际在线|编辑:最新晚报
You okay, Don?你还好吗,唐?Sorry,Yael . Ive been having trouble sleeping lately.抱歉,我最近睡眠不好。Have you tried thinking warm thoughts about your hands and feet?你有没有想办法暖手暖脚呢?Uh,No. Why would I wanna do that?没有,我为什么要那样做?Because it could help you fall asleep. See, when we’re falling asleep, the body naturally cools down. To make this happen, blood flows from the body’s core out to the legs, arms, hands and feet. This makes the central part of the body cooler and makes the hands and feet warmer.因为那样可以帮助你入睡。想象一下,当你睡着的时候,身体就会自然降温。要做到这一点,血液就会从身体的中心流向腿,胳膊,手和脚。这样身体的中心部分就会降低温度,使手和脚暖和起来。OK. But what does that have to do with thinking about my hands and feet?哦,但是那和我想到手和脚有什么关系呢?Well, for some people, the natural cooling-off process doesn’t work the way it should. But sleep researchers have found that you can sort of kick-start the process by imagining that your hands and feet are becoming warmer.对有些人来说,这个自然降温的过程无法正常进行。睡眠研究人员发现,我们可以启动这个过程,通过想象自己的手和脚变暖。You mean that if I think about holding my hands over a campfire or something like that, I can trick my body into making the blood flow and actually warming up my hands.你的意思是,如果我想象自己把手放在篝火旁或类似的做法,我就可以让身体里的血液流动,这样就可以暖手了。Exactly,at least thats the idea It’s been tested on a handful of people with sleep disorders and there’s some evidence that it actually works.一点儿没错,至少这种想法已经在少数失眠的人身上做过测试,并且也有一些据明这种做法是有用的。 /201304/234775

Science and technology科学技术Forensic zoology法医动物学The elephant in the room房间里的大象—保护大象,刻不容缓!Dating ivory has just become easier. Poachers beware确定象牙年代已变得更容易了,偷猎者们要小心喽!FEW megafauna are more charismatic than elephants, and that charisma gives them political clout.在大型动物里,没有几种动物可以匹敌大象的魅力,这种魅力让大象很有政治影响。On July 1st, for example, Barack Obama used the Tanzanian leg of his tour of Africa to announce an executive order intended to give teeth to Americas obligation, as a party to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, to prevent the smuggling of poached ivory.比如说今年7月1日,奥巴马总统在非洲行程中的坦桑尼亚站宣布了一项行政命令,该命令旨在通过强制实施有效手段来更好地履行美国《濒危野生动植物种国际贸易公约》的一员防止偷运偷猎象牙的义务。The rules on trading ivory, though, are hard to enforce, for if it comes from an animal killed before 1990 such trade is legal.但是,针对象牙贸易的规定很难实行,因为如果象牙来自的大象是在1990年之前被杀的,那么这种贸易是合法的。Not surprisingly, a cottage industry in making ivory look older than it is has grown up.因此,让象牙看起来比实际年代更久的家庭手工业的发展壮大就并不奇怪了。But a paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, by Kevin Uno of the University of Utah and his colleagues, may deal with that.犹他大学的Kevin Uno和他的同事发表在《美国国家科学院院刊》上的一篇论文可以解决这个问题。For Dr Uno has worked out how to use one of sciences less glorious episodes, the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, to work out exactly how old a piece of ivory really is.因为Uno士研究出了如何利用科学不甚光的一段—核武器大气层实验,来算出一节象牙的真实年代是多少。Dr Unos method uses the ivorys carbon-14 content in a way that was not previously employed.士Uno的方法用到了象牙的碳-14含量,他利用碳-14含量的方式从来没人用过。What radiochemists call 14C forms naturally in the atmosphere by the action of cosmic rays on nitrogen atoms.被放射化学家称作碳-14的物质是宇宙射线撞击空气中的氮原子而在大气中自然形成的,It has a half-life of 5,730 years, which makes it ideal for dating objects pertinent to human history, and it can do so to within a few decades of their true age—which is great for archaeology.其半衰期约为5,730年,这让其十分适合测量与人类历史有关事物的年代,其测量误差不超过其真实年代前后几十年。It is not, though, much use for finding out whether a particular piece of ivory was detached from the elephant that grew it before or after a specific date just over 20 years ago.但碳定年法在测量象牙年代,看其生长的时期是在20年前的之前还是之后,则并无甚用武之地。But Dr Uno realised there has recently been a second source of 14C—those bomb tests. And they give him the precision he requires.但是Uno士意识到最近碳-14还有另一个来源—那些核爆试验,而这些试验给了他他所想要的精度。Normally, the amount of 14C in the atmosphere is governed by the rate at which cosmic radiation creates it and the rate at which things like photosynthesis absorb it.通常来说,大气中碳-14的数量取决于宇宙射线产生碳-14的速率和像光合作用一类的反应吸收碳-14的速率。Between 1952 and 1962, however, when bomb tests above ground were commonplace, the amount of 14C in the air shot up until it was nearly double the normal level.但是,在1952至1962年间,地面上的核爆试验十分普遍,因此空气中的碳-14数量骤升,达到了近正常值的两倍。Since then it has fallen, also quite steeply, as plants have absorbed the surplus.但自那以后,碳-14的数量也急剧下降,因为植物把剩余的碳-14吸收掉了。And it will continue to fall until the old equilibrium reasserts itself.并且碳-14的值会不断下降,直到降到原来的平衡值。This bomb curve, as it is known, changes so fast that year-by-year differences in the 14C levels of recent specimens should be detectable.我们知道,这种爆炸曲线的变化如此之快,因此我们就可以探测出近期空气中每年碳-14值的不同。To test this hypothesis, Dr Uno and his colleagues looked at 29 specimens of known age, from 1905 to 2008.为对这一假想进行测试,Uno士和他的同事研究了已知年代,即从1905年至2008年的29个样品。These included elephants tusks, teeth and tail hair, and hippopotamus teeth.这其中包括大象的长牙、牙齿和尾部的毛发,还有河马的牙齿。They measured the specimens 14C content using a sensitive technique called accelerator mass spectrometry.他们使用一项被称作加速器质谱的高灵敏度技术来测量样品中碳-14的含量。For those tissues that had grown after 1955 the 14C concentration did, as the researchers hoped it would, closely match the bomb curve.正如研究者们所预料的那样,对于1955年以后生长的组织,其碳-14浓度与爆炸曲线严格吻合。Indeed, for these the match was so good that their ages could be determined to within a year of the truth.的确,对于这些样品来说,吻合度如此之高,以至于对其年代的确定可精确到一年以内。At the moment Dr Unos technique costs 1,000 a pop, so some places, particularly poorer countries in Africa, might be reluctant to deploy it.由于Uno士的技术每次要耗费一千美元,因此有些地方,尤其是非洲更贫困的地区就可能不愿使用这种技术了。But in the context of an illegal trade in ivory reckoned to be worth about 1 billion a year, that is not a huge amount of money.但是,鉴于非法象牙贸易一年约价值十亿美元,这就不是一个大的数目了。And if it helps preserve elephants, whose numbers in Africa have fallen from 1.3m to 600,000 in the past 40 years, many would see it as money well spent.而且,如果这种技术有助于保护大象,那么很多人会认为这个钱花得很值,因为在过去的40年里,大象的数量已从一百三十万下降到了六十万。 /201310/262180

They can grow more than two metres long and weigh as much as three men. But the giant tortoises of ice age North America were even larger. Florida does have tortoises today, but on a much smaller scale. This is the gopher tortoise. 他们能够长到3米长,重量可与3个成年人的体重相当。但是在冰河时代的北美洲,巨型陆龟体型甚至更加巨大。佛罗里达现在也有乌龟,但是他们的体型很小。这就是穴居沙龟。Tortoises are cold-blooded animals. They rely on external temperature to keep themselves warm. Although Florida is plenty warm enough for much of the year, during the winter months, it can get cold. So to survive the winter, gopher tortoises must burrow and hibernate underground. The colder it gets, the deeper into their burrow they go. 乌龟是冷血动物。他们依靠外部温度保持自身温暖。尽管佛罗里达一年中的大部分时节都温暖如春,但是在冬天的几个月里,气温还是十分寒冷。因此,为了撑过寒冬,穴居沙龟必须在地下挖掘洞穴来进行冬眠。天气越寒冷,他们挖掘的洞穴越深。Giant tortoises, however, cant burrow. And they sleep above ground. They need relatively warm temperatures all year round. The fact they were in Florida during the ice age means that paradoxically the climate must have been more stable and even milder than it is today. So we know something of the climate, but what about the vegetation and the landscape. How did that look 13,000 years ago? 然而,巨型陆龟却没有挖掘的技能。他们在地上冬眠。他们一年都需要相对温暖的气温。这看起来与现实相驳,而事实上,他们可以在冰河时代的佛罗里达生存正意味着那时的气温一定比今天更加稳定,更加温和。因此我们可以推测出当时佛罗里达的气候,但是13000年前的植被以及地貌又是什么样子呢?Today Florida is one of the wettest parts of the continent, especially the vast swampy area known as the Everglades. Flooded grasslands stretches as far as the eye can see.如今,佛罗里达是北美洲湿度最高的地区之一,尤其是像佛罗里达大沼泽这样的一篇巨大的沼泽地。人们的视线内遍布着在侵泡在水中的草地。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载.201308/254544

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