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来源:医护新闻    发布时间:2019年08月19日 12:55:48    编辑:admin         

Several years ago, I was standing at a bus stop when suddenly a couple emerged from a nearby alley, arguing loudly. More or less in unison, we at the bus stop all turned and looked them.几年前,我站在公交车站,突然有一对情侣从附近的巷子冒出来大声争吵。在公交车站的人全都不约而同地转头看他们。Then the man grabbed the woman by the shoulders and, yelling, began to shake her till she was about to fall to the ground.之后男子抓住女子的肩膀大声咆哮,并开始摇晃她,直到她几乎要跌倒在地。I walked quickly to the couple and called out, ;Please, sir, please stop doing that. Youre hurting her.;我迅速走向那对情侣,并大声说:“先生,请你住手。你伤到她了。”The man did stop. His mouth agape, he stared me down and let go of the woman. Two things then occurred. The group of strangers at the bus stop turned and looked away as if nothing had happened. And, a moment later, the man and woman sauntered arm in arm back into the alley.那男子停手了。他目瞪口呆,用目光盯着我使我不敢与他对视,然后他放开了那个女人。之后发生了两件事情。公交站旁的人群转过脸去,看向别处,仿佛什么事情也没发生一样。过了一会儿,男子和女子手挽着手悠闲地走回了那条巷子。It is not easy to discern when to hold back and when to get involved in a potentially sticky situation. When should we say ;Enough is enough,; and stick our noses into something that is not ours? I can understand a person being afraid to get involved in someone elses problem because they fear first, physical danger, secondly, financial damage, and thirdly, general inconvenience.面对一个可能很棘手的情况,要辨别何时该忍,何时又该介入并不容易。我们该何时说出“够了”,然后介入到与自己无关的事情中去?我理解人们之所以害怕介入别人的事原因有三:第一,害怕身体上的危险;第二,担心财物损失;第三,怕惹麻烦。I still feel I did the right thing that day. Would I do it again today? I hope so.我仍然觉得那天自己做了该做的事。要是在今天我还会这样做吗?我想是的。原文译文属!201209/198097。

Obitury;Otto von Habsburg;讣告;奥托·冯·哈布斯堡大公;Archduke Otto von Habsburg, son of the last Austro-Hungarian emperor, died on July 4th, aged 98.奥托·冯·哈布斯堡大公,奥匈帝国末代皇帝之子于7月4日逝世,享年98岁。 If only his great-uncle had died earlier. Franz Joseph I was a masterful ruler of the Austro-Hungarian empire, but his 86 years brought rigidity when the times called for reform. This doomed the noble legacy that his great-nephew (full name Franz Josef Otto Robert Maria Anton Karl Max Heinrich Sixtus Xavier Felix Renatus Ludwig Gaetan Pius Ignatius) could have inherited. He remembered the old man, as well as the coronation of his father Charles in December 1916. It was a short and gloomy reign, in a botched war that left Europe’s most successful multinational state, the 11-nation monarchy run from Vienna and Budapest, beyond saving. The four-year-old—first crown prince and then uncrowned pretender—served nine decades longer, with brains and charm.要是他那个伟大的叔叔去的早点就好了。Franz Joseph I是奥匈帝国的一位优秀的统治者,只是当那个被称为改革的时代来临时,他86年岁月所带来的就只能算是顽固保守。这就注定他的侄子(全名Franz Josef Otto Robert Maria Anton Karl Max Heinrich Sixtus Xavier Felix Renatus Ludwig Gaetan Pius Ignatius)会继承这个“崇高”的使命。他记得叔叔,也记得父亲在1916年12月的加冕礼。那是一个短暂而阴暗的朝代,在那场你争我夺的战争里,欧洲最强盛的多民族政府,从Vienna到Budapest,横跨11个民族的君主制国家未能幸免于难。这位4岁被加冕,之后就无缘的皇储,以他的智慧和人格魅力生活了九十多年。Not that people were grateful, especially at first. A gallant British officer helped the royals escape from Austria, a turbulent and shrunken republic with no taste for the finery of the past. The other realm, Hungary, was nominally a monarchy but run by a regent (who, absurdly in a land-locked country, was styled admiral). Exiled in Spain at a thbare and tiny court, the young Otto was schooled for the empty throne: he was fluent in Croatian, English, French, German, Hungarian and Spanish. And Latin, too—he was perhaps the last politician in Europe able to conduct business in that language.那个人其实也并不伟大,起码在最初是这样。皇室在一位勇敢的英国官员的帮助下逃离了奥地利,这个动荡的、日益缩小的共和国已没有了旧时的优雅品位。而另一个王国,匈牙利,则由摄政者(在一个内陆国家,荒谬地落实典型的海军将领作风)统治,成为了一个君主制的空壳。他们一家被一个又旧又小的西班牙法庭宣判驱逐出境。那会儿小奥托还被教育着要成为帝国继承人,他能讲一口流利的克罗地亚语、英语、法语、德语、匈牙利语和西班牙语。当然还有拉丁语——他也许是欧洲最后一个能用拉丁语办事的政治家。In 1922 he became the head of the House of Habsburg: “Your Majesty” to legitimists, and by the Grace of God “Emperor of Austria; King of Hungary and Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Galicia and Lodomeria; King of Jerusalem, etc; Archduke of Austria; Grand Duke of Tuscany and Cracow; Duke of Lorraine, Salzburg, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola and Bukowina; Grand Prince of Transylvania; Margrave of Moravia; Duke of Silesia, Modena, Parma, Piacenza, Guastalla, Auschwitz and Zator, Teschen, Friaul, Dubrovnik and Zadar; Princely Count of Habsburg and Tyrol, of Kyburg, Gorizia and Gradisca; Prince of Trento and Brixen; Margrave of Upper and Lower Lusatia”. His other titles were more minor.1922年他成为了Habsburg家族的掌门人:正统王朝派的“陛下”,受上帝保佑的“奥地利的皇帝;匈牙利,波西米亚,达尔玛提亚,克罗地亚,撕拉沃尼亚,加利西亚,罗的梅里亚,耶路撒冷的国王等;奥地利大公;托斯卡纳及克拉科大公;洛林,萨尔茨堡,萨利亚,克恩腾,卡尼奥拉及布科维纳公爵;特兰西瓦尼亚大公;拉维亚伯爵;西里西亚,德纳,帕尔马,皮亚琴察,Guastalla,奥斯维辛及Zator, Teschen,Friaul,拉古扎和萨拉的公爵;哈普斯堡及蒂罗尔,Kyburg,Gorizia及 Gradisca皇室;特兰托及Brixen王子;上、下卢萨蒂亚伯爵”。还有其他级别更低的头衔。The Nazis sought his help, hoping for some stardust from a real ex-empire to give lustre to their gimcrack one. But the prince detested them, having slogged his way through “Mein Kampf”. As a student in Berlin, he irked Hitler by refusing to meet him. In 1938, as Austria’s leaders quailed before the Anschluss, the Habsburgs’ scion offered to return and rally resistance. Luckily, he didn’t get there. The Nazis ordered him to be shot on sight.纳粹寻求他的帮助,希望从一个真正的旧帝国那里获得荣耀,为他们自己的小玩意增光。但是奥托憎恶他们,埋首于他自己的“我的战场”。作为一名在柏林上学的学生,因为拒绝见希特勒而惹恼了他。1938年,奥地利的领导者在纳粹德国吞并奥地利时畏缩了,哈普斯堡皇室提议奥托回去,大家集结起来一起抵抗。幸亏他没去,纳粹下令对他就地处决。At Roosevelt’s invitation he spent the war years in America, where he plotted vainly to get Hungary to dump the Nazis, and more successfully to help Austria shed its image as Hitler’s poodle. But post-war Austria stayed nervy and vengeful, declaring him an “enemy of the republic”. He could visit only in 1966, five years after reluctantly renouncing his claim to the throne, becoming—there and there only—humble Mr Habsburg-Lothringen. He found his compatriots’ post-imperial neuroses a tempting target for his jokes. Told of an Austria-Hungary football match, he asked impishly: “Who are we playing?”应罗斯福的邀请,战争期间奥托移居美国,在那里他徒劳的帮助匈牙利摆脱纳粹,然而有比较成功地帮奥地利褪去了“希特勒的卷毛小”的形象。不过战后奥地利依然焦虑并图谋报复,称他为“共和国的敌人”。直到1966年,在他不情愿地宣布放弃王位五年后,才得以重访故土,成为(也只有在那里)谦逊的哈普斯堡-洛林先生。发现他那些前帝国的子孙们貌似因为他而被人们笑话。听说在一场奥地利对匈牙利的足球赛中,他曾孩子气地问道“我们算奥地利还是匈牙利那边的?”Exiled monarchs mostly find it hard to keep their dignity: absurdity, and a court full of creeps and fantasists, are never far away. That was not the Habsburg style: his family maintained cordial relations with Europe’s other émigré royals, but his business was more serious. First he had to restore the family fortune on the lecture circuit, which well rewarded his erudition and wit. He brought up seven children (five glamorous daughters, then two much-awaited sons) with his wife Princess Regina at a lakeside villa in Bavaria. Real politics followed: “opium”, as he fondly called it. He became a member of the European Parliament in 1979 when that body was just a talking shop, seeing it as a harbinger of bigger things to come.大多数被流放的君主难以保守他们的尊严:总会有那么个无礼的,渺小而又天真的法庭在那里等待着他们。但这不是哈普斯堡的风格:他的家族仍和其他欧洲皇室保持着密切的联系,只是他的事业来的更为重要。首先他得从循环讲座中把家庭财富挣回来,而这多亏了他的学和智慧。他和妻子——Regina公主住在巴伐利亚湖边的别墅,育有7个孩子(5个漂亮的女儿和2个年幼的儿子)。真正的政治生涯从“鸦片”开始,正如他所热衷称呼的那样,对政治上瘾了。1979年成为了欧洲议会的一员,那会儿这个组织还只是个耍耍嘴皮子的地方,他们将他的加入视为天降大任的一个预兆。A family history going back to the eighth century helped him see the continent’s destiny in grand terms, with the European Union a wider and better version of the Holy Roman Empire (his family had headed that lamented outfit until history caught up with it in 1806). He was no fan of the Brussels bureaucracy, but promoted the integration his name epitomised: common culture, open borders and, above all, no more wars. Only the meanest Austrians remained uncharmed.有个能追溯到8世纪的家族史使奥托能从宏观上看出欧洲大陆的命运:欧盟是个比神圣罗马帝国(他的家族曾统治着那个令人遗憾的帝国直至1806年被历史淘汰)更好,更宽泛的形式。他不是布鲁塞尔官僚作风的追随者,但仍提议将他的名字视为大陆融合的缩影:共同的文化,开放的边疆,还有最重要的——不再有战争。只有最不入流的奥地利人才抱着历史不放。Putting the clock back让我们把时钟的指针往回拨His glory days came late, in 1989, when what had seemed a sentimental preoccupation with Mitteleuropa—merely a meteorological term, cynics sniffed—was suddenly practical politics. A lifetime foe of the communist usurpers in eastern Europe, he plotted with reformist politicians in Budapest to stage a symbolic cross-border Austro-Hungarian picnic in the summer of 1989, breaching the Iron Curtain for ever. Once drenched with blood and tears, the division of Europe was washed away with tea and lemonade. Some of his fans wished he had run as the first president of a free Hungary, providing a way back from the disastrous turning taken 70 years before. Sadly, his modesty prevailed. He concentrated instead on lobbying for speedy and generous expansion of the EU to the east, most recently Croatia.1989年,他总算迎来了属于他的荣耀,当时原本被视为文艺的中欧(愤世嫉俗者对其嗤之以鼻,这个词几乎已成为了一个气象数语)突然就有了实际的政治意义。一生仇视东欧的共产主义篡夺者,他在布达佩斯与革命派政治家秘密谋划,于1989年夏上演了具有象征性的范欧野餐计划,彻底粉碎了铁幕。一旦浸染了血泪,欧洲分裂主义就被茶和柠檬汽水冲走了。奥托的一些崇拜者希望能由他成为匈牙利自由后的第一位总统,就好像回到了70年前,一切灾难还未开始时。只是,他的谦逊占了上峰,转而投身于游说让欧盟快速而优雅地向东延伸,最近已拓展到了克罗地亚。He died a happy man, right about almost everything, if usually too early.他死的明目,几乎在所有事情上都是正确的,只是还太早了点。201206/188442。

Books and Arts; Book Review;Capital punishment in America;文艺;书评;美国的死刑;Justice, delayed and denied正义, 姗姗来迟甚至无处可伸?Anatomy of Injustice: A Murder Case Gone Wrong. By Raymond Bonner.《不公正的剖析:一种谋杀案出的差错》,Raymond Bonner著。What sort of town was Greenwood, South Carolina in the early 1980s? It was the kind of place where a prominent white man could get away with shooting and killing a black man who walked across his property at night. When the local chief prosecutor, William T. Jones, brought the case before a grand jury, he was not looking for an indictment. Surely anyone would have behaved the same way under the circumstances, he argued. Surely, he told the jurors, they too would have picked up a shotgun. The grand jury did not indict.上世纪80年代早期,美国南卡罗来纳州的格林伍德是怎样的一个城镇呢?这是这样的一个地方,一个身份显赫的白人在射击杀死一个晚上穿过他私人土地的黑人后并没有受到什么惩罚。在当地首席检察官William T. Jones将这个案件拿到大陪审团面前时,他并不是在寻求一种控诉。他认为,在同样的情况下每个人肯定都会采取同样的行动。他很坚定地告诉陪审团,他们也会拿起一把猎。陪审团没有起诉。A few months later Jones persuaded the same grand jury to indict Edward Lee Elmore, a 23-year-old black man, for the murder of Dorothy Edwards, a 75-year-old white woman. She was found inside her bedroom closet, bruised and repeatedly stabbed. Mr Elmore was sentenced to death less than 90 days later. This grim case is the subject of “Anatomy of Injustice”, a gripping and enraging book from Raymond Bonner, a veteran investigative journalist at the New York Times.Mr Elmore would spend 27 years on death row, despite strong circumstantial evidence suggesting that he did not commit the crime. His capital sentence was ultimately overturned thanks to the tireless efforts of Diana Holt, his lawyer and the books hero, who spent more than a decade seeking justice on his behalf.几个月之后Jones说这相同的大陪审团起诉 Edward Lee Elmore,一个23岁的黑人谋杀一位75岁的白人妇女Dorothy Edwards。她是在自己的卧室衣橱被发现的,身上青肿并被刺了很多刀。Elmore先生在90天内就被判处死刑。这个残酷的例子就是《不公正的剖析》这本书的主题,这本吸引人的书是一位纽约时报资深调查新闻记者雷蒙德·邦纳(Raymond Bonner)写的。尽管大量的间接推测都表明Elmore先生并没有犯罪,但他也将在死刑房耗尽27年。他死刑的罪状最终在戴安娜·霍尔特(Diana Holt)的不懈努力下推翻了,戴安娜·霍尔特(Diana Holt)是他的律师也是这本书的主人翁,他花费了10多年的时间为Elmore声张正义。Mentally disabled and barely literate, Mr Elmore was 14 years old when he dropped out of school. He could add and subtract using his fingers, but he could not tell the time, he did not know the seasons and he could not understand directions. He became a neighbourhood handyman, and he cleaned Edwardss gutters and washed her windows two weeks before she was killed. He was arrested because his fingerprint was found at her house.智力上的缺陷以及知识的匮乏,Elmore在他14岁的时候就辍学了。他可以用手指进行加减但是他不能识别时间,不知道一年四季,没有方向感。他成了邻居街坊里的勤杂工,就在Dorothy Edwards被杀的前两周,他还在清洗她家的水沟,擦洗他的窗户。由于在Edwards家发现了他的指纹就被逮捕了。At his trial, Mr Elmore was given two lawyers. One was known as the “bourbon cowboy”. He was twice arrested for drunk driving, and his breath smelled of alcohol in court. The other lawyer referred to his client as a “redheaded nigger”. They had Mr Elmore testify, a rarity in murder trials, and they called no other witnesses. The judge dismissed four potential jurors because of their opposition to capital punishment. (This judge later served on South Carolinas Supreme Court, and landed in some hot water by professing to find racist jokes inoffensive and funny.) It took the jury less than three hours to convict Mr Elmore, and an additional 50 minutes to sentence him to death.在审讯过程中,Elmore有两位律师。一位被称作“波旁牛仔”(“bourbon cowboy”)。这位律师曾两次酒后驾驶被拘留,同时在法庭上他呼吸里有浓重的酒味。另一位提到的律师对于他的客户来说就是“红发黑人”。他们让Elmore自己作,这是在谋杀案件中少有的事,他们称没有其他人了。法官解散了四个潜在的陪审团,正由于他们对死刑裁决的反对。(这位法官后来务于南卡罗来州的最高法院,……自认发现有关种族主义的没有恶意且又有趣的笑话)这就使得陪审团在不到3个小时就判Elmore有罪,并在额外的50分钟内就对他判了死刑。But Mr Elmore did not die in jail. After the Supreme Court ruled in 2005 that states could not execute the mentally disabled, his sentence was commuted to life in prison, where he still sits. Opponents of capital punishment may be familiar with arguments about its expense, unjust application and inefficacy as a deterrent. But it is another thing entirely to about patently biased judges, policemen who lie under oath (and may well have planted evidence) and bloodthirsty prosecutors.但是Elmore并没有死于监狱。在2005年最高法院裁决认为美国各州不能对精神障碍者进行处死之后,他的宣判减刑成终生监禁。死刑的反对者可能熟于争论其代价,即不公正的运用以及威慑性不强。但是这对于带有明显偏见的法官、可以在宣誓下撒谎的警察(很可能已经有了栽赃的据)、嗜血的检察官理解起来完全是另外的一回事。In telling Mr Elmores story, Mr Bonner deftly weaves in a brief history of American capital punishment and its discontents. Following a brief moratorium in 1972, when the Supreme Court ruled that the death penaltys application violated the Eighth Amendments ban on cruel and unusual punishment, it was reinstated in 38 states from 1976. By 2010, 1,226 more executions had taken place, 1,010 of them in the South. Most of these executed inmates have been black; a vast majority of the victims in capital cases were white. But Mr Bonners book is not a treatise against the death penalty. Rather, it is a dismal look at what happens in Americas justice system when justice is absent.在讲述Elmore的故事的时候,奥·邦纳(Mr Bonner)很快的就编织出了关于美国死刑刑罚的简洁历史,并表示不满。随后就是1972年的一个简洁的禁令在那时,这最高法院裁定这死刑刑法的运用违反了第八修正案禁止“残忍与异常的刑罚”条款,到了1976年在38个州才恢复使用。截止2010年,执行了1226多次死刑的裁决,其中南方占到1010例。大部分的死囚犯是黑人,而大多数的受害者是资本阶级白人。但是Bonner的书不是一本反对死刑的论述。然而,它是对美国的司法系统当公正不在时所发生的事的一点心痛的看法。 /201212/216552。

Science and Technolgy科技Climate change气候变化Good news at last?最终难道是个好消息?The climate may not be as sensitive to carbon dioxide as previously believed气候对二氧化碳的敏感性,可能没有原来认识的那样强CLIMATE science is famouslycomplicated, but one useful number to keep in mind is ;climatesensitivity;. This measures the amount of warming that can eventually beexpected to follow a doubling in the atmospheric concentration of carbondioxide. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, in its most recentsummary of the science behind its predictions, published in 2007, estimatedthat, in present conditions, a doubling of CO2would cause warming of about 3°C, with uncertainty of about a degree and a halfin either direction. But it also says there is a small probability that thetrue number is much higher. Some recent studies have suggested that it couldbe as high as 10°C.气候科学的复杂是出了名的,但;气候敏感度;是已知的一个非常必须被谨记的指标。这一指标用于衡量由于大气中二氧化碳的浓度增长一倍而引起的温度变化总量。最近一份联合国政府间气候变化专门委员会提交的研究预测报告公布于2007年。该报告预测,按照目前的情况,二氧化碳浓度增加一倍将会导致温度上升3°C,不确定度为±1.5°C。同时报告指出,还存在一种很小可能性,实际的数字也许比这个值要高很多。一些近期的研究认为这个指标高达10°C。If that were true, disaster beckons. But apaper published in this weeks Science,by Andreas Schmittner of Oregon State University, suggests it is not. In DrSchmittners analysis, the climate is less sensitive to carbon dioxide than wasfeared.如果这个情况是可靠的,大限将至。但本周,来自Oregon State University的Andreas Schmittner刊登在《科学》杂志上的一篇论文认为,事实并不是这样的。在Schmittner士的研究中,气候对二氧化碳的敏感性并没有达到大众所担心的水平。Existing studies of climate sensitivitymostly rely on data gathered from weather stations, which go back to roughly1850. Dr Schmittner takes a different approach. His data come from the peak ofthe most recent ice age, between 19,000 and 23,000 years ago. His group is notthe first to use such data (ice cores, fossils, marine sediments and the like)to probe the climates sensitivity to carbon dioxide. But their paper is themost thorough. Previous attempts had considered only small regions of theglobe. He has compiled enough information to makea credible stab at recreating the climate of the entire planet.现有的关于气候敏感性的研究大都依赖于那些回述至19世纪50年代的气象站检测数据。Schmittner士选择了非传统的途径。他的数据来自最近一次冰河期的高峰,一个距今19000年至23000年间的年代。他的团队并非第一个采用这种类型数据(来自冰核,化石,海洋沉积物或其他类似情形)来研究气候对于二氧化碳敏感性的团队。但原先做这种尝试的研究团队仅收集全球很小一部分地区的数据。而Schmittner士编制了足够多的信息以制作一个可以信赖的模型用于预计整个地球的气候变化。The result offers that rarest of things inclimate science-a bit of good news. The groups most likely figure for climatesensitivity is 2.3°C, which is more than half a degree lower than the consensusfigure, with a 66% probability that it lies between 1.7° and 2.6°C. More importantly,these results suggest an upper limit for climate sensitivity of around 3.2°C.其结果为气候科学提供一条珍贵的信息,也许是一条好小心。他的团队倾向于将气候敏感度标定为2.3°C,相比公认的数值降低了超过半度,其数值在66%的保率下介于1.7° C至2.6°C间。更重要的是,气候敏感度的上限应该是3.2°C。Before you take the SUV out for acelebratory spin, though, it is worth bearing in mind that this is only onestudy, and, like all such, it has its flaws. The computer model used is of only middlingsophistication, Dr Schmittner admits. That may be one reason for the narrowrange of his teams results. And although the studys geographical coverage isthe most comprehensive so far for work of this type, there are still blankareas-notably in Australia, Central Asia, South America and the northernPacific Ocean. Moreover, some sceptics complain about the way ancient data ofthis type were used to construct a different but related piece of climatescience: the so-called hockey-stick model, which suggests that temperatureshave risen suddenly since the beginning of the industrial revolution. It willbe interesting to see if such sceptics are willing to be equally scepticalabout ancient data when they support their point of view.当你正为此而兴奋地冲入你的SUV来一次飚车,或者诸如此类的行为,稍等片刻,你的大脑应该想一想,这个理论固然有它的瑕疵。Schmittner士承认,计算机模型的精度仅中等水平。这也许是其团队结果具有的一个局限性。另一个方面,尽管研究的区域覆盖范围在这一领域是最全面的,但仍然存在空白,特别是在澳大利亚,中亚,南美和北太平洋。另外,气候科学界一些对此持怀疑态度的人质疑,所使用的这些年代久远的数据,是一堆一个本质上不同但貌似有关联的片段,一个俗称为的曲棍球模型的现象。他们认为温度在工业革命初期,温度徒然升高。如果这些质疑者使用与怀疑那些年代久远的数据相同眼光审视他们持的观点,这将会是一个非常有趣的现象。 /201210/203210。

If youve ever tried to quit smoking, you know that its one of the harder habits to break. Nicotine addiction is a powerful physical and psychological dependency that conditions the body to crave nicotine in order to maintain feelings of basic well being.如果你曾经尝试着戒烟,就会了解这是最难改掉的习惯之一。尼古丁上瘾是生理和心理上的一种强烈的依赖。使其身体迫切需要尼古丁来维持基本健康的情绪。From cold turkey to hypnosis, cigarette smokers have tried various methods to help kick the smoking habit. In recent years, many long-term smokers have turned to an increasingly popular remedy: the nicotine .不管是突然停止抽烟还是催眠戒烟,吸烟者已经尝试过各种各样的办法戒烟。近年来,许多长期吸烟这转向一种很流行的疗法:尼古丁贴片。The Patch, as its commonly known, is a small, Band-Aid-like device applied directly to the skin of the arm, chest, upper back, or hip. Throughout the day the patch releases controlled amounts of nicotine that are absorbed through the skin and directly into the bloodstream.通常这种贴片很小,就像创可贴,可以直接接触皮肤上。贴于手臂,胸,上背或臀部皆可。一天中它释放出一定数量的尼古丁会被皮肤吸收并直接进入血液。How, you may ask, is this any better than smoking? Used properly, over time the patch imparts increasingly smaller doses of nicotine to help the addict gradually break the habit without experiencing the worst symptoms of withdrawal. Plus, the patch releases only nicotine, leaving out all of the dangerous carcinogens and other chemicals found in cigarettes.也许你会问,这种办法会比直接吸烟好吗?在严格使用一段时间后,贴片会逐渐减少尼古丁的剂量帮助吸烟者慢慢地改掉这个习惯,而且没有前功尽弃的风险。另外,这种贴片只释放尼古丁,把香烟中致癌物质和其他化学物质给身体带来的危害排除在外。If you decide to use the patch, its important to stop smoking while wearing it. Combined with nicotine from cigarettes, the extra jolt absorbed from the patch can overload the system and cause illness. Also be aware that the combined side effects of quitting smoking and wearing a patch can include headaches, anxiety, dizziness, fatigue, and constipation.一旦决定用这种贴片,很重要的一点是必须停止吸烟。与香烟中的尼古丁结合,从尼古丁贴片吸收额外少量的尼古丁可能会导致系统超负荷并引发疾病。另外要注意戒烟和贴片伴随的症状有头痛,焦虑,眩晕,疲劳和便秘。Furthermore, in some instances the patch can irritate the skin, causing a burning sensation and even cause swelling and redness. However unpleasant it may sound, the patch is still worthwhile if it helps you stop smoking.此外,一些实例表明,贴片可能会使皮肤疼痛,引起灼烧的感觉,甚至引起皮肤肿胀发红。不管听上去有多不愉快,如果这种贴片能帮助你戒烟的话,还是值得一试。 /201211/209037。