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四川省韩式半永久定妆学校飞度专家邛崃市学眉毛的画法多少钱

来源:搜医口碑    发布时间:2017年11月25日 15:23:43    编辑:admin         

An elderly husband and wife have announced their plans to die in the world#39;s first #39;couple#39;euthanasia - despite neither of them being terminally ill.日前,比利时一对老夫妇宣布将一起进行安乐死,虽然两人都尚未病入膏肓。这将成为世界上第一对共同安乐死的夫妻。Instead the pair fear loneliness if the other one dies first from natural causes.两位老人之所以这么决定是因为他们担心如果其中一位先离开,剩下的那位会孤单地度过余生。Identified only by their first names, Francis, 89, and Anne, 86, they have the support of their three adult children who say they would be unable to care for either parent if they became widowed.89岁的弗朗西斯和86岁的安妮育有3个孩子,这3个已经成年的孩子表示父母有一位先去世,他们则无法照看剩下的那一位。The children have even gone so far as to find a practitioner willing to carry out the double killings on the grounds that the couple#39;s mental anguish constituted the unbearable suffering needed to legally justify euthanasia.他们甚至已经找到了愿意为父母进行共同安乐死的医生,理由是两位老人的心理痛苦已到了无法承受的地步必须进行安乐死。The couple, from Brussels, are receiving regular medical treatment for age-related ailments.这对来自布鲁塞尔的老夫妇由于年老,正在进行定期治疗。Francis has received treatment for prostate cancer for 20 years and is unable to spend a day without morphine and Anne is partially blind and almost totally deaf.弗朗西斯由于前列腺癌已经接受了20年的治疗,他一天都离不开吗啡,而部分眼盲的安妮也几乎要成聋子了。They always go out shopping together because they are both scared that one day the other will not return home.他们经常一起外出购物,因为两人都担心有一天另外一个会回不来。They decided that life in a care home was not an option because of their fear they would end up bedridden without the strength to insist on euthanasia.他们不想去养老院,因为他们担心在养老院中卧床不起,连坚持安乐死的力气都没有。They planned to commit suicide on February 3 next year, their 64th wedding anniversary, by placing plastic bags over their heads after taking an overdose of sleeping pills.他们之前还打算在明年2月3日—他们结婚64周年纪念的那天自杀,他们计划先用过量安眠药,然后把塑料袋套在自己头上。#39;We want to go together because we both fear of the future,#39; said Francis. #39;It#39;s as simple as this: we are afraid of what lies ahead.“我们想要一起离世,因为我们都对未来不报什么希望了。”弗朗西斯说:“很简单,我们都害怕接下来要发生的事。”#39;Fear of being alone and above all, fear of the consequences of loneliness.#39;“其实就是害怕一个人孤孤单单地活着。” /201410/336235。

Nelson Mandela#39;s daughter Makaziwe has told the B about the ;wonderful; final hours of the former president, who died aged 95 last Thursday.南非已故前总统纳尔逊·曼德拉于2013年12月5日(星期四)逝世,享年95岁。其女马卡兹维在接受英国广播公司采访时,谈到了父亲临终前的“美好时刻”。Ms Mandela said his wife Graca, the children and grandchildren were all there to say goodbye.曼德拉女士称,在父亲逝世前,曼德拉的妻子格拉萨以及他的子孙们都陪伴在他身边,直到最后时刻。South Africa is observing a series of commemorations over the next week, leading up to the funeral on Sunday.南非将在未来的一周内举行各类纪念活动,12月15日(星期日)将举行国葬,并将曼德拉先生的遗体安葬在他的家乡古努镇。More than 100 current or former heads of state or government will attend the funeral or Tuesday#39;s national memorial.预计将有上百名各国现任及前任国家元首以及政府首脑出席曼德拉的葬礼。Makaziwe Mandela told the B#39;s Komla Dumor: ;Until the last moment he had us, you know... The children were there, the grandchildren were there, Graca was there, so we are always around him and even at the last moment, we were sitting with him on Thursday the whole day.;马卡兹维·曼德拉接受英国广播公司采访时说:“我们陪伴他直到生命的最后一刻……子孙们都陪伴在他身边,格拉萨也在他身边。即使在他生命的最后一刻,我们也一直坐在他身边,和他共度了周四一整天的时光。”She said: ;I think from last week, Friday until Thursday, it was a wonderful time, if you can say the process of death is wonderful. But Tata [Nelson Mandela] had a wonderful time, because we were there.她说:“在Tata(纳尔逊·曼德拉)逝世的前一个星期,即从上周五开始一直到周四的时间里,因为有了我们的陪伴,父亲度过了这段最后的‘美好时光’。”;When the doctors told us I think Thursday morning... that there was nothing that they could do, and said to me #39;Maki call everybody that is here that wants to see him and say bye bye#39;, it was a most wonderful day for us because the grandchildren were there, we were there.;“周四早上,医生告诉我们他们已尽最大努力,并建议我‘电话通知大家见他最后一面,和他道别’。孙子们都来到了他的跟前,我们也在他周围陪着他,那是美好的时刻。”Ms Mandela paid tribute to the doctors for the 24-hour care.曼德拉女士感谢医生对曼德拉24小时的照顾。She said: ;It was like there were soldiers guarding this period of the king - yes my father comes from royalty - without them knowing they were actually practising our rituals and culture, they were there in silence and when we as family members come in they would excuse themselves and just a few of them would be there to give us the time to be around my dad#39;s bed.;她说:“他们就像士兵一样,守卫着这个时代的王者——是的,我的父亲出身部落王室——也许他们不知道,他们正以实际行动践行我们的仪式与文化传统。在我们进来前,他们安静地守卫在一旁;当看到作为家属的我们进来时,他们中的大部分人找借口退了出去,仅留下小部分人守在房中,以便我们有更多时间陪在父亲的病床前。”Ms Mandela said that, for the past few months, she would tell her father that she loved him and that would see him again tomorrow.曼德拉女士说,在过去的几个月中,她多希望每一天都和父亲说,她深爱着他并希望第二天能再见到他。“即使他可以仅仅将眼睛睁开几秒,然后再闭上双眼,”;And maybe he would open his eyes for just a second and close those eyes,; she said.Ms Mandela said she believed her father had fought not just for political freedom but also for spiritual freedom.曼德拉女士说,她相信他的父亲不仅为政治自由而战,也为精神自由而战。;He talks about the fact that it takes courage to forgive. Forgiveness is a very difficult thing,; she said.“曼德拉曾说过,原谅需要勇气;而饶恕更是一件非常困难的事情。”;I think he knew that if he didn#39;t forgive, he would be forever imprisoned spiritually. The lesson we can take from his life is to have the courage to forgive other people.在曼德拉女士看来,如果曼德拉不曾宽恕,他将永远被禁锢于精神监狱之中。他用实际行动告诉我们,我们需要用勇气其宽恕他人。;None of us are born hating another - we are taught to hate and if you can teach a human being to hate you can also teach a human being to love, to embrace and to forgive.;“没有人生来就怨恨他人——既然我们是在成长中学会怨恨,那么我们也能在人类成长的过程中教会他们如何去爱,去拥抱,去宽恕。” /201312/268213。

Singer and ;Voice; judge Christina Aguilera has come a long way from her disastrous red carpet look at last year#39;s American Music Awards. In a stunning white gown with a plunging neckline, Aguilera completely redeemed herself with this year#39;s carpet sashay.身为流行歌手并兼任美国版“好声音”评委的克里斯蒂娜·阿奎莱拉,在今年全美音乐奖上的表现是大大超越她去年灾难性的红毯形象。惊艳的白色礼配上深V领口,阿奎莱拉在今年的红毯上摇曳生姿赚足了风头,也完完全全地打了个翻身仗。Last year#39;s fashion tragedy featured Aguilera in a cinched lavender Pamella Roland dress and platinum bob. The ensemble could#39;ve been a ;yes; look for the singer, but it was run off the tracks when paired with her profoundly orange tragi-tan.在去年的全美音乐奖上,阿奎莱拉的淡紫色的罗兰收腰礼和铂金色波波头可谓是去年的时尚界悲剧。她的团队本可以为她设计一套看起来很棒的衣着,但在配上她晒成深橘色的皮肤之后,意外地跑偏了。The singer also appeared at her all time highest weight (which by the way, she said she loved. You go girl!), forcing her to take a different but ultimately unsuccessful attempt at prepping for the red carpet.那次全美音乐奖也是阿奎莱拉有史以来最胖的时候(顺带说一句,阿奎莱拉说自己喜欢这样的体重。姑娘你可以了!),这样的体重也迫使她采取不同战术,但最终却导致了红毯秀的失败尝试。But thank goddess, Xtina is back to a natural hue this year, looking classically glamorous in a white Maria Lucia Hohan dress. With cut out panels to accentuate her once again svelte waist, and a slit to show off her fit legs, Aguilera dazzled in the elegant dress accentuated with blinged-out Christian Louboutin peep-toe heels, pave rings and bedazzled clutch.但不过谢天谢地,克里斯蒂娜今年终于让自己的皮肤回到了自然的色调,身着白色的玛丽亚·露西亚合欢礼,显得古典大方而又魅力四射。礼上开出的侧面突显出她重回苗条的腰部,裙部的开襟与腿相称得完美无瑕,配上Christian Louboutin的露趾高跟鞋,镶满钻的戒指和耀眼的鸽子蛋,这套优雅的礼使阿奎莱拉显得相当惊艳。Unfortunately for Aguilera, actress Eva Longoria was spotted in an almost identical dress over a year ago at the 2012 Padres Contra El Cancer’s El Sueno De Esperanza Benefit Gala. The only difference being that Longoria#39;s dress had a mermaid bottom instead of a slit.不过对于阿奎莱拉来说不幸的是,有人发现,在一年多前的2012年Padres Contra El Cancer’s El Sueno De Esperanza Benefit联欢晚会上,女星伊娃·朗格利亚身着一件几乎相同的礼。唯一的区别在于朗格利亚的礼有人鱼底部,而阿奎莱拉的则是开了狭缝。Regardless of who wore what and when, we#39;re thrilled to have Christina Aguilera is back to her amazing self, hopefully ditching her awful spray tan days for good!无论是谁在什么时候穿什么衣,我们都很高兴能看到克里斯蒂娜·阿奎莱拉回到了那个让人惊艳的女神,也希望她能永远摆脱晒成棕色的糟糕肤色! /201311/266353。

Eyes bulging at the steaming plate before her, Lee Soo-#173;kyung eagerly wolfs down a mouthful of rice, unperturbed by the film camera hovering a chopstick’s length from her face. But the constant interruptions by Park Joon-wha give the actress, her pretty features offset by a frumpy collared shirt, little chance to enjoy the meal.李秀景(Lee Soo-#173;kyung,见右图)的姣好面容似乎与领子邋遢的衬衫不相称。此刻,她瞪着眼前热气腾腾的盘子,狼吞虎咽地吃下一大口米饭,对距离自己的脸仅一根筷子开外的摄像机并不在乎。但朴俊华(Park Joon-wha)不停地打断她,她根本就吃不好饭。“Eat as much as you can!” cries the director of the forthcoming soap opera Let’s Eat, scrutinising her from behind two screens and his thick black-rimmed glasses. “If it’s hot then show it – let’s see you gulping! And bring her some more green vegetables to make it more colourful!”戴黑色宽边眼镜的导演一边通过两块视频屏幕观察她的表演,一边大喊:“尽量吃,能吃多少就吃多少!要是感觉饭菜热,你得让人看到你在大快朵颐!来,再给她加点儿绿色蔬菜,让色更鲜艳。”剧组正在制作即将播出的肥皂剧《一起吃饭吧》(Let’s Eat)。As crew members top up her plate once more, Ms Lee discreetly spits a half-chewed morsel into a bucket by her side.剧组人员再次加满菜盘之际,李秀景悄悄地把一小口嚼了一半的饭菜吐进身边的桶里。Making South Korean television drama is hard work, and not always glamorous. Yet the results are consumed avidly by viewers from the Mongolian steppes to the congested streets of Jakarta.拍韩国电视剧是件苦差,也并不总是光鲜的。不过,从蒙古大草原到雅加达拥挤的街道,观众们都非常热衷看韩剧。South Korea’s TV drama exports grew from m in 2001 to 5m in 2011 – the most recent official figure available – and industry executives say there is still room for expansion in Asia and beyond.2001年韩剧出口额为800万美元,2011年(可获得最新官方数据的年份)上升至1.55亿美元。行业高管表示,韩剧在亚洲及其他地区仍有扩张空间。Despite the impressive growth, the soap-opera makers are in no danger of overtaking the multibillion-dollar sales of the country’s electronics groups such as Samsung, or shipbuilders. But their rise reflects the growing cultural allure of one of Asia’s richest nations – as well as its fiercely competitive business culture.尽管增长惊人,但电视剧制作公司与该国三星(Samsung)等电子产品集团或造船企业在销售额上仍不可同日而语。但是,该行业的崛起反映了亚洲最富裕国家之一不断增强的文化魅力——也反映了韩国竞争激烈的商业文化。The lonely death this summer of the celebrated director Kim Jong-hak, in the bathroom of a rented apartment, was a reminder of the high stakes at the top of the country’s TV business. Mr Kim had invested millions of dollars in Faith – a 24-part drama about a plastic surgeon who travels back in time – only to find himself facing a commercial flop and an angry cast pursuing him for unpaid wages.今夏,韩国知名导演金钟学(Kim Jong-hak)在一处出租公寓的浴室里孤独地死去,向世人提醒该国电视业高层的风险有多么高。金钟学曾向24集的《信义》(Faith)投入数百万美元,最终遭遇商业失败,而愤怒的剧组人员向他追讨被拖欠的薪酬。该剧讲述的是一位整形外科医生穿越时空回到过去的故事。His suicide prompted soul-searching in an industry that has seen its budgets balloon in recent years. “When I started in this industry 20 years ago it would cost about Won50m (,000) to make a single 70-minute episode,” says Kim Young-seop, a content executive at SBS, one of South Korea’s three terrestrial broadcasters. “Now it’s more like Won450m.”受金钟学自杀的触动,近年来预算快速上涨的电视行业开始了反省。韩国三大电视台之一SBS的内容总监Kim Young-seop说:“20年前我进入这个行业时,拍一集70分钟的电视剧成本大约是5000万韩元(合4.7万美元),如今成本已接近4.5亿韩元了。”SBS and its rivals, KBS and M, have begun to commission most of their TV dramas from independent production companies. The two parties typically split filming and salary costs but the broadcaster usually takes all the domestic advertising revenue. To make a profit, the independent producers must rely on export sales, sponsorship and product placement.SBS及其对手KBS和M都已开始委托独立制片公司制作大多数电视剧。一般情况下,双方分担摄制与工资成本,但电视台通常独占全部国内广告收入。为实现盈利,独立制片公司必须依靠出口销售、赞助和植入式广告。Critics say this system unfairly skews financial risk towards the independent producers. But the ruthless competition between them has helped drive a dynamic industry with broadening international appeal.批评者表示,这一制度不公平地让独立制片公司承担了大部分的财务风险。但是,这些制片公司之间的无情竞争提高了该行业的活力,在国际上产生了越来越大的吸引力。Japan has been by far the biggest foreign market ever since the success in 2003 of Winter Sonata, a mixture of slushy romance and high drama that won a huge following among middle-aged women (see box). Executives see limited room for further growth there, however. The novelty has worn off among the Japanese, with sentiment towards South Korea also darkened by a growing diplomatic dispute over the nations’ past colonial relationship.日本一直是自2003年《冬季恋歌》(Winter Sonata)大获成功以来韩剧最大的海外市场。那是一部多愁善感、情节曲折的爱情片,受到了中年女性的热烈追捧。然而,行业高管们认为日本市场的未来增长空间受限。一方面,日本人对韩剧的新鲜感已逐渐消退,另一方面,历史上两国之间殖民关系引起的外交纠纷日益加深,也使日本人对韩国的印象变差。So the industry is looking further afield. Broadcasters in Iran, Iraq and the ed Arab Emirates have given primetime slots to conservative South Korean medieval dramas. “In those countries they don’t want to see women in short skirts,” explains Jo Han-sang, an overseas distribution executive at KBS.于是,韩国电视业开始把目光投向更远方。伊朗、伊拉克和阿联酋的多家电视台已安排在黄金时段播放保守的韩国古装连续剧。KBS负责海外发行的高管Jo Han-sang解释道:“在那些国家,人们不想看到女人穿短裙。”Nearly a dozen of KBS’s dramas are currently showing on Romanian national TV, Mr Jo says, while Turkish producers have been buying the rights to remake some shows.他说,KBS出品的10多部电视剧目前在罗马尼亚全国电视台播放,土耳其一些制片公司也一直在购买版权,对部分剧目进行改编。The industry’s export success echoes that of Mexican soap operas, or telenovelas – and SBS is targeting their Latin American heartland through a distribution deal.韩国电视业的出口佳绩与墨西哥肥皂剧(被称为telenovelas的浪漫电视肥皂剧)相仿。SBS正通过一份发行协议,把目光投向拉美腹地市场。But for now, the real money is to be made in Asia, be it from the established markets of Japan and Taiwan or the fast-growing demand in countries such as Vietnam and Cambodia. “US shows have specific genres – cop shows or medical shows – but we have universal stories,” says Park Man-young, a KBS producer.但目前而言,韩剧还是要靠亚洲来赚取大部分利润——无论是成熟的日本或台湾市场,还是需求快速增长的越南和柬埔寨等国家。KBS制片人Park Man-young说:“美剧有些固定的类型——警察剧或医疗剧——但韩剧的情节很齐全。”“All of a sudden everything is about Korea,” says Leung Yuk-ming, a cultural studies professor at Hong Kong’s Lingnan University. But while TV may have started the “Korean Wave”, she adds, the centre of attention is now K-pop – the immaculately groomed, minutely choreographed bands that have an ever tighter grip on Asia’s teen market.香港岭南大学(Lingnan University)文化研究系助理教授梁旭明(Leung Yuk-ming)说:“突然间,韩国文化铺天盖地来了。”不过,她补充道,尽管韩剧也许开启了“韩流”,但现在最吸引观众的是K-pop(韩国流行音乐)——打扮得干干净净、舞蹈动作精心编排的乐队,在亚洲青少年当中越来越有市场。TV companies have sought to cash in by hiring the singers to appear in their shows. “We do like to cast an ‘idol’ who appeals to the international market,” says Suh Jang-ho, a content executive at the entertainment group CJ Eamp;M, which used the pop star Yoon Doo-joon in Let’s Eat.电视公司已寻求利用这一趋势,他们雇佣歌手拍电视节目。集团CJ Eamp;M内容总监Suh Jang-ho说:“我们的确希望请一位在国际市场有吸引力的‘偶像’主演。”该集团聘请了流行歌星尹斗俊(Yoon Doo-joon)加盟《一起吃饭吧》。The likes of Mr Yoon do not come cheap. The going rate for an internationally popular star is now Won100m per episode, executives say. Cuts have to be made to accommodate the big names, notes Yoon Tae-jin, a professor at Seoul’s Yonsei University. “Suddenly the lead parts have no parents any more.”尹斗俊等明星的身价不菲。高管们表示,目前国际级明星每集电视剧的片酬是1亿韩元。首尔延世大学(Yonsei University)教授Yoon Tae-jin指出,为了延揽大明星加盟,不得不在其他方面削减。“主角们突然间都没有父母了。”However, the country’s idiosyncratic “live shoot” system means even the superstars are not given an easy ride. Producers typically shoot only the first few episodes of a drama before it goes to air, and they continue filming as the run proceeds.然而,韩国另类的“随拍随播”制度意味着,就连超级明星的日子也不太好过。一部电视剧开播之前,制片公司通常只拍好了开头几集,然后边拍摄、边播放。This enables screenwriters to develop the plot according to the audience reaction, which is tracked on social media and discussion boards on shows’ fan pages. An unpopular character might be killed off, for example.这一制度使编剧能根据观众反应(从社交媒体和剧目粉丝网页追踪)来设计剧情。比如,某个不受欢迎的角色可能被砍掉。Yet the system often results in cast and crew working through the night as they battle to complete filming each episode before it airs.但这一制度往往意味着,由于每一集都要赶在开播之前制作好,演员和剧组人员往往要彻夜赶工。“Let’s say the episode is being aired at 10pm – the filming might finish at 7pm on the same day,” says Park Tae-young, an executive producer at Samwha Networks, one of the biggest independent TV companies. “If the tape is delivered to the broadcaster late, then you just have a blank screen for one or two minutes. That happens from time to time.”韩国最大的独立电视公司之一Samhwa Networks的执行制片人Park Tae-young说:“比如说,这一集将在晚10点播放,拍摄工作可能在下午7点才完成。如果录像带不能及时送到电视台,电视屏幕上就要出现一两分钟的空白。这种情况时有发生。”However much the budgets grow and the stars complain, producers show no sign of abandoning the gung-ho approach that characterised the growth of other South Korean export industries decades earlier. “If we filmed it before airing, everything would take longer,” says Mr Park at KBS. “Actually, it’s a crazy practice. But we’ve been doing this for years.”无论预算增幅多大,明星如何抱怨,但制片人并未流露出放弃这种紧张制作模式的迹象。几十年前,韩国其他出口行业在起飞阶段也出现过这种模式。KBS的Park Man-young说:“如果我们要求在开播之前制作完毕,那么一切都要花更长时间。没错,这种模式很疯狂,但我们多年来一直是这么做的。” /201312/268305。

More than 50 years after its publication, Hannah Arendt’s “Eichmann in Jerusalem” remains enduringly controversial, racking up a long list of critics who continue to pick apart her depiction of the Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann as an exemplar of “the banality of evil,” a bloodless, nearly mindless bureaucrat who “never realized what he was doing.”汉娜·阿伦特(Hannah Arendt)的《耶路撒冷的艾希曼》(Eichmann in Jerusalem)出版50多年来仍具有争议,许多批评者猛烈抨击她对纳粹战犯阿道夫·艾希曼(Adolf Eichmann)的描述,她说他是“平庸的恶”的典型代表,是一个没有感情的、几乎没有思想的官员,“从未意识到自己做了些什么”。Bettina Stangneth, the author of “Eichmann Before Jerusalem: The Unexamined Life of a Mass Murderer,” published in an English translation this week by Alfred A. Knopf, didn’t aim to join those critics. An independent philosopher based in Hamburg, she was interested in the nature of lies, and set out around 2000 to write a study of Eichmann, the Third Reich’s head of Jewish affairs, who was tried in Israel in 1961, in light of material that has emerged in recent decades.这个星期,阿尔弗雷德·A·克诺夫(Alfred A. Knopf)出版社出版了《耶路撒冷之前的艾希曼:大屠杀者未被仔细审视的人生》(Eichmann Before Jerusalem: The Unexamined Life of a Mass Murderer)的英译本。该书作者贝蒂娜·斯坦尼思(Bettina Stangneth)无意加入那些批评家的行列。斯坦尼思是汉堡的一位独立哲学家,她感兴趣的是谎言的本质。2000年左右,根据近几十年出现的资料,她开始撰写关于1961年在以色列接受审判的艾希曼的著作,艾希曼是第三帝国犹太事务主管。Then, while ing through the voluminous memoirs and other testimony Eichmann produced while in hiding in Argentina after the war, Ms. Stangneth came across a long note he wrote, dismissing the moral philosophy of Immanuel Kant, that flew in the face of Arendt’s notion of Eichmann’s “inability to think.”艾希曼战后在阿根廷藏身时写了大量回忆录和其他文件。斯坦尼思在通读这些资料时发现了他写的一大段笔记,这段笔记驳斥了伊曼努尔·康德(Immanuel Kant)的道德哲学,与阿伦特所谓的“没有思考能力”的艾希曼形象截然相反。“I sat at my desk for three days, thinking about it,” Ms. Stangneth said in a telephone interview from her home. “I was totally shocked. I could not believe this man was able to write something like this.”“我在书桌前坐了三天,思考这个问题,”斯坦尼思在家中接受电话采访时说,“我完全震惊了。我简直不能相信这个人能写出这样的东西。”Ms. Stangneth’s book cites that document and a mountain of others to offer what some scholars say is the most definitive case yet that Eichmann, who was hanged in 1962, wasn’t the order-following functionary he claimed to be at his trial, but a fanatically dedicated National Socialist.斯坦尼思在书中引用了那个文件以及其他大量资料,明了一些学者们心目中最为关键的一点:1962年被绞刑处死的艾希曼绝不像他自己在审讯中所声称的那样,只是一名从命令的公务员,而是一个狂热献身纳粹事业的纳粹党人。If previous researchers have seriously dented Arendt’s case, Ms. Stangneth “shatters” it, said Deborah E. Lipstadt, a historian at Emory University and the author of a 2011 book about the Eichmann trial.埃默里大学的历史学家黛拉·E·利普斯塔特(Deborah E. Lipstadt)说,如果说之前的研究者们严重削弱了阿伦特的论据,那么斯坦尼思“粉碎”了它。利普斯塔特2011年出版了一本关于艾希曼审判的书。The facts about Eichmann in Argentina have been dribbling out, “but she really puts flesh on the bones,” Dr. Lipstadt said. “This was not a guy who just happened to do a dirty job, but someone who played a crucial role and did it with wholehearted commitment.”利普斯塔特士说,艾希曼在阿根廷的一些真相已经陆续传开了,“但她写得生动具体”,“这家伙不是碰巧干了一份肮脏的工作,而是在其中扮演重要角色,全身心投入”。While Ms. Stangneth maintains that Arendt, who died in 1975, was fooled by Eichmann’s performance on the stand, she sees her less as a foil than as an indispensable intellectual companion.斯坦尼思认为阿伦特是被艾希曼在法庭上的表演愚弄了,但她不认为阿伦特不重要,而认为她是个不可或缺的智慧伙伴。阿伦特于1975年去世。“It wasn’t my plan to write a historian’s book, just arguing against Arendt with historical facts,” Ms. Stangneth said. “To understand someone like Eichmann, you have to sit down and think with him. And that’s a philosopher’s job.”“我没打算从历史学家的角度写一本书,只是想用史实与阿伦特辩论,”斯坦尼思说,“想了解艾希曼这样的人,你必须坐下来,从他的角度思考。那是哲学家的工作。”“Eichmann Before Jerusalem,” based on research in more than 30 archives, certainly contains plenty of eye-opening facts, including the revelation that in 1956 Eichmann had drafted an open letter to the West German chancellor, Konrad Adenauer — discovered by Ms. Stangneth in a trove of Eichmann’s papers held in German state archives — proposing that he return to his homeland to stand trial.《耶路撒冷之前的艾希曼》是在研究了30多个档案馆的资料后撰写的,其中当然有很多令人瞠目的事实,比如,1956年艾希曼曾起草过一份致西德总理康拉德·阿登纳(Konrad Adenauer)的公开信,提议让自己回国受审。那封信是斯坦尼思在德国国家档案馆保存的艾希曼文件里找到的。Ms. Stangneth also describes the sometimes surprisingly open postwar networks that protected Eichmann, as well as the reluctance of West German officials — who knew where Eichmann was as early as 1952, according to classified documents published in 2011 by the German tabloid Bild — to bring him and other former Nazis to justice.斯坦尼思还提到,战后情报关系网的公开程度有时令人惊讶,这保护了艾希曼;西德官员不太愿意将艾希曼和其他前纳粹分子绳之以法。根据德国小报《图片报》(Bild)2011年公布的机密文件,西德官员早在1952年就知道艾希曼的藏身之处。Such revelations drew headlines when Ms. Stangneth’s book appeared in Germany in 2011, the 50th anniversary of the Eichmann trial, contributing to renewed debate about whether Germany’s postwar government had made a complete break with the past. (The full 3,400-page file on Eichmann held by the German intelligence service, the BND, has yet to be declassified.)2011年是艾希曼审判50周年,斯坦尼思的书也于这一年在德国出版,她揭露出来的这些事很快成为报纸头条,再次引发关于战后德国政府是否与过去一刀两断的争论(德国情报机构联邦情报局[BND]仍未公布关于艾希曼的3400页的完整文件)。But the core of “Eichmann Before Jerusalem,” which was translated into English by Ruth Martin, is a detailed portrait of Eichmann and the circle of former Nazis and Nazi sympathizers surrounding him in Argentina, based largely on materials previously available to scholars but never, Ms. Stangneth said, fully or systematically mined.但是《耶路撒冷之前的艾希曼》(英译者露丝·马丁[Ruth Martin])的核心是详细描述艾希曼在阿根廷时的情况,以及当时围绕在他身边的前纳粹分子和纳粹持者。它的主要依据是学者们之前就能看到,但是(据斯坦尼思说)从未被完整或系统挖掘过的资料。“We waste a lot of time waiting for spectacular new material,” she said. “We haven’t sat down and taken a very close look at the material we have.”“我们浪费很多时间等待惊人的新资料,”她说,“而没有坐下来仔细查看已有的资料。”That material forms a veritable mountain. Eichmann’s testimony in Jerusalem runs to thousands of pages of transcripts, notes and handwritten texts, including a 1,200-page memoir he produced after the trial.那些材料真的能够堆积成山。艾希曼在耶路撒冷的词包括成千上万页笔录、笔记和手写文本,包括他在审判后写的1200页的回忆录。Ms. Stangneth, building on the work of others, has also pieced together the so-called Argentina Papers, a tangle of more than 1,300 pages of handwritten memoirs, notes and transcripts of secret interviews of Eichmann in 1957 by Willem Sassen, a Dutch journalist and former Nazi living in Buenos Aires.斯坦尼思以他人的研究为基础,同时也把所谓的阿根廷文件拼凑到了一起,它包括1300多页手写回忆录、笔记以及住在布宜诺斯艾利斯的荷兰记者、前纳粹分子威廉·扎森(Willem Sassen)1957年对艾希曼的秘密采访的笔录。The Sassen transcripts, scattered across three German archives in incomplete and confusingly paginated copies, have long been known to scholars, and small portions were submitted as evidence in Eichmann’s trial, where he dismissed them as loose “pub talk.” (Two brief, edited excerpts also ran in Life magazine.)扎森的笔录分散存放在德国的三个档案馆,残缺不全,页码混乱。学者们很早之前就知道这些笔录,其中一小部分作为据被提交到艾希曼的审判中,他把那些笔录斥为不可靠的“酒吧胡言”(其中两段经过编辑的剪短节选曾刊登在《生活》[Life]杂志上)。Ms. Stangneth uncovered hundreds of pages of previously unknown transcripts in mislabeled files. She also found evidence that the Sassen circle included more people than scholars had previously recognized, among them Ludolf von Alvensleben, former adjutant to Heinrich Himmler, whose participation in some of the interviews, she said, had gone undetected.斯坦尼思在贴错标签的文档中发现了几百页之前不为人知的笔录。她还发现有些学者也在扎森的圈子里,而之前人们并不知道,比如海因里希·希姆莱(Heinrich Himmler)的前助手鲁道夫·冯·阿尔文斯莱本(Ludolf von Alvensleben)。斯坦尼思说,之前人们没有察觉他也参与了其中一些采访。Together, in Ms. Stangneth’s depiction, these men formed a kind of perverse book club, meeting almost weekly at Sassen’s home to work through the emerging public narrative of the Holocaust, discussing every volume and article they could get their hands on, including ones by “enemy” authors. Their goal was to provide material for a book that would expose the Holocaust as a Jewish exaggeration — “the lie of the six million,” as one postwar Nazi publication in Argentina put it. But Eichmann had another, contradictory goal: to claim his place in history.根据斯坦尼思的描述,这些人组成了一种堕落的读书俱乐部,几乎每周都在扎森的家中会面,阅读公众对犹太大屠杀的最新描述,讨论他们能找到的每一本书和每一篇文章,包括“敌方”作者所写的内容。他们的目标是收集资料,写一本书,揭露大屠杀是犹太人的夸张,是“600万人的谎言”(阿根廷一本战后纳粹出版物的说法)。但是艾希曼有另一个相反的目标:确立他在历史上的地位。The facts and figures confirming the scale of the slaughter piled up as Eichmann recounted the rigors of what he called (without irony, Ms. Stangneth notes) his “killer of a job.” Ms. Stangneth es a long Eichmann tirade on his “duty to our blood” — “If 10.3 million of these enemies had been killed,” he declared of the Jews, “then we would have fulfilled our duty” — that left his sympathetic listeners unnerved.在艾希曼叙述自己所谓的“杀手工作”(斯坦尼思指出这绝不是讽刺)的严酷时,他也在提供无数能实屠杀规模的确凿事实。斯坦尼思引用了艾希曼描述自己“天生使命”的长文——“如果真有1030万敌人(他指的是犹太人)被杀,那我们也算完成了使命”——这让同情他的听众们感到不安。“I cannot tell you anything else, for it is the truth!” Eichmann said. “Why should I deny it?”“别的我无可奉告,因为这就是事实!”艾希曼说,“我为什么要否认它呢?”For the Sassen circle, Ms. Stangneth writes, this tirade marked the end of the fantasy that Eichmann would help them defend “pure National Socialism” against the slanderous charges of its enemies. For Eichmann, the Sassen conversations were good practice for Jerusalem, where his Israeli interrogator, Ms. Stangneth writes, noted his facility in answering historical questions, although in service of a very different image of himself.斯坦尼思写道,对扎森的圈子来说,这篇长文标志着幻想的破灭,他们不再指望艾希曼会帮助他们为“纯粹的纳粹主义”辩护,帮助他们否认敌人的诽谤中伤。对艾希曼来说,扎森的采访只是应对耶路撒冷的极佳演练。斯坦尼思写道,以色列审讯者发现艾希曼在回答史实问题时得心应手,不过这次是为了给自己塑造一个完全不同的形象。If Arendt, like many others, was taken in, some historians say, his performance still led her to valuable insights about the mentality of many of those who carried out the killing on the ground.有些史学家说,如果阿伦特像其他很多人那样被蒙骗了,那么他的表演仍让她洞察到很多当时在现场执行屠杀的人们的心态,这很有价值。“She had the right type but the wrong guy,” said the historian Christopher R. Browning, the author of “Ordinary Men,” an influential 1992 study of a German police battalion that killed tens of thousands of Jews in Poland. “There were all sorts of people like Eichmann was pretending to be, which is why his strategy worked.”“她说的那类人的确存在,但他不是那类人,”史学家克里斯托弗·R·布朗宁(Christopher R. Browning)说。他1992年的著作《普通人》(Ordinary Men)很有影响力,该书调查了波兰的一个德国警营,成千上万犹太人在这里被害。“艾希曼所假装的那种人的确存在,各种各样的人都是那样的。所以他的策略才能奏效。”Listening to Eichmann in Jerusalem, Arendt saw an “inability to think.” Listening to Eichmann before Jerusalem, Ms. Stangneth sees a master manipulator skilled at turning reason, that weapon of the enemy, against itself.听着艾希曼在耶路撒冷的陈述,阿伦特看到了一个“不能思考的”人。听着艾希曼在赴耶路撒冷之前的讲述,斯坦尼思看到了一个非常擅长操纵的大师,擅长让理性来反对它自身,而理性原本是敌人的武器。“As a philosopher, you want to protect thinking as something beautiful,” she said. “You don’t want to think that someone who is able to think does not also love it.”“作为一名哲学家,你想维护思考,认为它是一种美丽的东西,”她说,“你不愿认为一个有能力思考的人不喜欢思考。” /201409/329624。

Chilean engineers have been left red faced by a delay in the grand opening of the country#39;s first-ever drawbridge - after they discovered a major part was installed upside down.据英国《每日邮报》网站1月9日报道,智利工程师发现即将启用的该国首座吊桥的一边桥面居然是上下颠倒的,由此引发的推迟交付让他们感到非常尴尬。The million Cau Cau bridge was supposed to open this month as an instant landmark connecting Valdivia, a coastal city in the south of Chile, with the adjacent Teja Island.这座价值3000万美金的吊桥原计划本月作为连接智利南部海滨城市瓦尔迪维亚的地标建筑正式启用。但是建筑师们发现至少其中一边桥面的安装完全上下颠倒后,于是大桥在短期内无法向公众开放。The bridge has ended up a laughing stock among Chilean social media users, who are wondering how construction workers managed to mess up something as seemingly clear as up and down.这场事故让智利这个正在蓬勃发展的南美国家蒙羞。智利总统塞巴斯蒂安·皮涅拉将这个错误归咎于西班牙开发商, 他愤怒的说:“这个问题可以被修补……而且它将被犯了这个错误的公司实施修补。”One wag tweeted a scrawly child#39;s picture of a bridge, rendered in coloured pencil, with the quip: #39;Leak of the installation plans for the Cau Cau bridge in Valdivia.#39;智利公共作业部长Loreto Silva说:“唯一应该对此事负责的人就是建桥的人。我们将确保他们会给出合适的。”The mistake emerged when inspectors getting y for opening day found that either one or two of the traffic decks were installed backwards, authorities said.这座吊桥也成为了智利社交网站用户们的笑料。他们说无法理解这些建筑工人们到底是出了什么乱子,以至于桥明显安装反了,而这些施工的人却没有察觉到。一个网友很幽默的将一个小朋友的铅笔画放在自己的推特账户中并且说:“吊桥的安装计划就是这么泄露的”。另外一张贴图是一座小桥在一个度假村的水池的上面,说“把吊桥做反了的人成为了这个项目的中标人。”Azvi, the Spanish infrastructure company behind the bridge development, did not immediately comment. A new opening date has not been announced. Valdivia, which is 520 miles south of Chile#39;s sprawling capital Santiago, is home to about 125,000 people.作为工程的开发商,西班牙建筑公司Azvi并没有第一时间对这个问题进行回复,也没有公布新的大桥开通日期。 /201401/272697。