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2019年12月14日 09:56:04 | 作者:39典范 | 来源:新华社
Every single day,the human race produces around 70 billion farts,meaning roughly 10 of those are yours!But why doesn#39;t your gas seem half as smelly as those around you?Why do we like the smell of our own farts?人类每天会放出700多亿个屁,约有10个是你的功劳哦!但为啥你的屁不比别人的难闻呢?我们为啥喜欢自己的屁?Hilarious as it may seem,scientists have actually confirmed the fact that in blind-smell tests,we truly do find our own smells much more appealing than others.Simply put,the more familiar you are with something,whether it be a song.picture or even a smell,the more likely you are to prefer it.And because the bacterial population in your body producing these smells is completely unique from every other individual,our farts truly have a one-of-a-kind brand that your nose can differentiate.听起来很可笑,不过科学家已实,在气味盲测中,我们的确更偏爱自己放屁的气味。简单说,你越是熟悉某个东西,无论是音乐,图片还是气味,你就越可能喜欢它。另外,由于你身体内产生气味的,细菌同其他人体内的完全不同,对于鼻子而言,我们自己放的屁的确“独一无二”。But,from an evolutionary perspective,our reaction of disgust to other people#39;s odour is likely our brains#39;attempt to prevent us from doing harm to our own bodies;specifically interacting with sources of disease.When you think of it,most things that don#39;t smell good,aren#39;t good for you.And the greater the risk of disease,the more intense your response will be.但是,从进化角度而言,我们对他人屁味的厌恶也许是大脑在,防止我们伤害自己;尤其是与病源接触。想想看,大多数不好闻的东西都不是好东西。事物致病性越高,你的反应就会越剧烈。Surprising as it may seem,farts can sp disease.In fact,there are many reported cases of farts sping Streptococcus pyogenes,a pathogen that can cause tonsillitis and scarlet fever,heart disease and even flesh eating disease.Seriously,the pathogen is expelled as fecal matter or poop particles in the air.Of course,this was a major concern for our ancestors who ran around naked,but for us underwear or pant wearing folks,farts don#39;t pose a real threat.让人惊讶的是,屁也能传播疾病。实际上,关于屁传播酿脓链球菌的事例有很多,这种病菌可造成扁桃体炎,猩红热,心脏病,甚至噬肉细菌疾病。这种病原体可随粪便物或粪便颗粒扩散至空气。当然,对于光屁股到处跑的祖先而言,这是个大问题,但是,屁并不会威胁到穿内裤和裤子的我们。And it#39;s important that we#39;ve adapted to like our own odors,so that we can maintain proper hygiene.In the same way,mothers perceive their biological children#39;s poop as less offensive than others,which allows them to take care of them without disgust.Of course,some of you may be thinking ;I don#39;t find farts disgusting at all;and you#39;re not alone.还有一点,我们已适于热衷自己的气味,并借此保持卫生,同样地,母亲对自己孩子便便的反感比对他人更低,因此,她们才能全心全意地照料孩子。当然,一些人会想,我才不讨厌屁味呢,你不是一个人。Perception of disgust is a combination of variables like age,gender,culture and even personality.So much so,that people who are more anxious or socially conservative are often more sensitive to stink than their adventure seeking friends.The anterior cingulate cortex,which processes surprise,also plays a big role.When we fart we know it,and can anticipate the accompanying smell.对厌恶的感知与多种因素,比如,年龄,性别,文化甚至性格有关。以至于,那些更焦虑,社交上更保守的人,比热衷冒险的同伴更在乎臭味。处理诧异的前扣带皮层也发挥着重要作用。要放屁时,我们自己会知道,并对随后的毒气弹有所准备。But when somebody rips a silent but deadly fart into a crowded room,the brains expectations of reality are smashed by the negative stimulus,making it all seem even more foul.So next time you feel a silent stinker coming on,you might want to give everyone a heads up.Unless of course,you#39;re alone,then you can bask in the glory of your own stench.但当某人在拥挤房间内抛出无声毒气弹时,大脑会认为,周围处处是危险,使得屁味臭上加臭。下次投无声毒气弹时,你最好和周围他人打个招呼。除非,只有左姑娘陪着你,那你还是在芳香中自我陶醉吧。 Article/201503/364728Our litter of pups are now five weeks old and they#39;re becoming more adventurous.我们的这窝幼崽已经五周大了,胆子越来越大。Testing what they can destroy with their teeth and who they can and can#39;t pick fights with.判别着什么东西可以用牙咬坏,谁惹得起,谁惹不起。But above all, they#39;re discovering what it means to be a dog.总之,它们在探索作为一只的意义。Simple play between two puppies reveals the wild ancestors within.两只幼犬之间的打闹展现了骨子里的狂野天性。The hunting instinct, the dominant and submissive behaviours that are essential to pack life.它们的狩猎本能,这一主从行为的划分对群体生活至关重要。This is because all dogs can trace their ancestry back to the wolf.这是因为所有的都有共同的祖先:狼。So if all dogs came from one species, then how did they end up to be so many different shapes and sizes?既然所有的都同宗同源,为什么它们却形态各异,大小不一呢?When we first domesticated dogs, we bred out some of the wild behaviours, and this process accidentally led to new characteristics.我们最初驯化的时候通过选种消除了一些犬类的野蛮行为,这一过程中意外形成了新的特征。Coloured coats, curly tails and floppy ears.不同花色的皮毛,卷曲的尾巴,松软的耳朵。Add a few thousand years of breeding from the dogs we love the most and you have the huge variety that we see today.加之几千年来人类对钟爱犬种的培育,便形成了当今的繁多种类。In theory, any dog can mate with any other dog, but practicalities get in the way.理论上来讲,任意两只都能交配,但得考虑实际可行性。If humans were as different as a Pug and a St Bernard, then our heights would range from two to 31 feet tall.如果人类像哈巴和圣伯纳德那样迥异,我们的身高范围可能是半米到九米半。But there#39;s one thing that just about every dog does. Bark.但是所有的都有一个共同的习性:吠叫。So why do they bark? Where does it come from? Wolves don#39;t bark. They howl.它们为什么吠叫?从哪儿学来的?狼可不吠。它们嚎叫。Some scientists think that barking has evolved just for our benefit.一些科学家认为进化出吠的功能是为了人类。So does this mean that they#39;re talking to us? And if so, what are they saying?那这是否意味着它们在和我们说话?如果是的话,它们在说什么?They seem to understand our words. Dig, dig. Come on, speak.它们似乎明白我们的语言。快挖,快挖。来,说句话。Good boy. But can dogs really talk to us by barking?好孩子。但是真的能靠吠叫来和我们交谈吗?I don#39;t think anybody ever understands a dog.我觉得没人能理解一只。They understand you. I don#39;t think you ever understand a dog.它们理解你,但我觉得没人能理解。 Article/201505/375787栏目简介:Investing in the stock market has become easier and easier in China, since many securities companies have opened online channels for people to register new accounts. Some even have service links on Wechat -- China#39;s most popular instant messaging app -- to attract investors. What problems does this pose to aly troubled stock regulators? Mi Jiayi has more. Article/201702/492623We#39;re met by our guide, Mohammed.我们和我们的向导穆罕默德会面Hi! Hello!嗨,你好Hey!嘿Nice to meet you, I am Mohammed. Welcome to Kashgar!很高兴认识你,我叫穆罕默德 欢迎来喀什Nice to meet you, Mohammed! Just arrived?很高兴认识你,穆罕默德,刚到吗Yes, we did, yeah. Ah, come on, I show you around.是的,我们刚到,来吧,我带你们四处转转OK, thanks! It#39;s a pleasure.好的,谢谢,很荣幸1,000 years ago, this market would have been overrun with caravans1000年前,这个市场恐怕是充斥着商队bringing goods in and out of China on the Northern Silk Road.载着货物往返于中国北方的丝绸之路Today, with over 5,000 stalls, it#39;s jam packed with traders今天,有超过5000个摊位,挤得满满的商人hot off the Karakoram Highway from Pakistan.风尘仆仆来自巴基斯坦的喀喇昆仑公路Raisins!葡萄干These are apricot seeds, those are sunflower seeds,这些是杏仁,那些是葵花籽people just mix a little bit of everything,人们只是把所用东西混杂在一起put it into their pocket.放进自己的口袋Mmm! It#39;s delicious, yeah?恩,很美味,是吗Very good.非常好You know apricot seed is very good for men.你知道杏仁对男人很有益Really? Oh.真的吗,噢I won#39;t ask you why! You eat this, you don#39;t need Viagra.我不会问你为什么,吃了这个就不会需要伟哥了Wandering through the market, it#39;s striking to see one food徘徊漫步于市场里,看到一种引人注目的食品that you#39;d be hard pressed to find anywhere else in China.在中国的很多地方你很难找到Ah, wow, this is what I wanted to see. Wow! Delicious!啊,这就是我想看到的东西,哇 好吃Can we buy one? Yes!我们可以买到吗,是的Here, naan b is sold on virtually every street corner.在这里,几乎每一个街角都在卖烤饼面包Mmmm!恩Oh, this I love.噢,这个我喜欢It#39;s sesame seeds with onion? Salt?这是芝麻与洋葱,盐吗Yeah, they just put those on top.是的,它们把这些放在上面2,000 years ago, the nomadic cattle herders2000年前,游牧的牧民travelling through this region,穿越这个区域relied on this b to sustain them in the desert.在沙漠里依靠这些面包获取能量Today, Uyghurs consider it to be sacred.今天,维吾尔人视之为神圣B means life.面包意味着生活So you can#39;t throw b away? It#39;s like throwing away your life?所以你不浪费这些馕,浪费粮食就相当于祸害自己性命吗Never! Even if it#39;s too old, I#39;d rather take it to somebody,绝不会,即使馕变硬了,我宁可拿它送人to just feed their sheep, you know?让他们拿去喂羊,你懂的With this. I never throw it into the rubbish.用这个喂,我绝不把它扔进垃圾堆Naan b is traditionally baked in large outdoor tandoor ovens.馕是用传统方法在户外的大馕池里烤出来的The hot clay walls of the oven bake the b crispy on the bottom馕池炙热的池壁把馕外皮烤得脆脆的but leave it soft in the centre.但馕的里面却很松软But the skill lies in getting it to stick onto the oven wall.要想做这么好的馕,技术全在如何将饼贴到馕池壁上OK. Oh, God!好的,噢 天啊Good, good, good, good, good, good, good, just push it, oh no!好,好 好,好 好的,好的,拍上去,噢不It#39;s fallen down, oh! Ching! Oh, my God, Ching, oh no!掉下去了,噢 瀞亿,噢 我天爷啊,瀞亿,噢不Where is it? Oh, no, my b!掉哪去了哦,噢 不,我的饼Oh, God! God, I d to do this now.噢,天啊,哎呦喂啊,我都不敢再做了Just slap it on, Ken. OK.就是把它拍上去,老谭,我行的Ah!啊There it is?弄上去了吗Is it? It#39;s not exactly like his.是这样,和他做的不太一样啊Wow, there#39;s mine. It#39;s a new take on a calzone.哇,这是我做的,新款式的馕Poor Ching!可怜的瀞亿Hey, this could be a new innovation here,喂,也可以把这个当成一种创新的吧this style of b, it#39;s a new way of eating!这种形状的馕,这是一种新的吃法 Article/201511/407410

记者卡尔·欧诺黑认为,西方世界对速度的过分强调侵蚀了人们的身体健康和生产生活。随着人们开始日渐放缓他们太过现代化的生活,一场关于“慢与快”的反思也在酝酿之中。 Article/201411/341617

Time for the ;Shoutout.; “大声喊出来“的时间到了!Skillful negotiation with other people is best described as what? If you think you know it, shout it out.与他人之间有技巧的谈判被称为什么?如果你认为你知道,那么大声喊出来吧!Is it gerrymandering? Philanthropy? Altruism? Or diplomacy? You#39;ve got three seconds, go!是不公正的划分选区、慈善、利他主义还是外交?你有三秒钟的时间,开始!You often hear about the diplomacy or tactful negotiation between government officials. That#39;s your answer and that#39;s shoutout.你经常听到政府官员之间的交际手段,或者说是有分寸的协商。那就是你,那就是你的大喊。A lot of diplomacy between the U.S. and China this week. 本周,中美之间进行了一外交对话。One result, a major agreement between the two countries#39; leaders on reducing greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, ozone, methane. 其中一项成果是两国领导间达成了关于减少温室气体排放的协议,包括二氧化碳、臭氧以及甲烷。Most scientists blame greenhouse gases for polluting the atmosphere and contributing to climate change.许多科学家将大气层污染与气候变化归因于温室气体。But critics say, setting limits on greenhouse gases eliminates jobs and hurts the U.S. economy.但家指出,限制温室气体排放会减少工作机会,并损坏美国经济。 /201411/342501

Finding that fish fossil proved easy. By the turn of the 19th century寻找那条鱼的化石好像并不难。到了19世纪末all eyes were on a Devonian group called the lobe-finned.所有目光都聚集在泥盆纪的一类鱼身上,它们叫做肉鳍鱼Lobe-finned uniquely have a bone structure in their fins that seems to be a precursor to our legs and arms肉鳍鱼的鳍内有独特的骨结构,看起来像是腿或胳膊的前身and one particular lobe-finned, the long extinct eusthenopteron had all the leg bones except the feet and toes.尤其是一类肉鳍鱼--早已灭绝的真掌鳍鱼,几乎拥有所有腿骨,只是少了足和趾Here in these fossils the limb was just laid out simply beautifully这些化石中伸展出来的肢非常完整,and it was so easy to turn it in your mind into a tetrapod when these bones,不难想象它将进化成四足动物,这些骨头,the 1 and the 2 bones, they were, they were laid out and there were these这一根和这两根骨头都已伸长bits in the, the, the ankle and the, the wrist and so on.另外还有踝部和腕部的骨块,等等Absolutely fantastic, beautiful material, clinched it really.真是太神奇了,非常好的资料,把它都串起来了What they thought they#39;d clinched was the fish from which we all came, the ancestor without legs,他们所说的串起来的就是我们起源的那种鱼,一个没有腿的祖先and early last century scholars developed a theory to explain why it might have evolved legs and started walking.上世纪初,有学者提出了一种理论,用来解释它为何进化出腿并开始行走That brutal Devonian sun must have been the cause of droughts.泥盆纪毒辣的阳光一定是引起干旱的原因Fish would have been trapped in drying pools and faced death.鱼可能困在日渐干涸的水塘中,面临着死亡的威胁To survive a few eusthenopterons must have dragged themselves on their fins,为了活下去,一小部分真掌鳍鱼不得不用它们的鳍撑着身体as mudskippers do today, out of the puddles in search of deeper water.像今天的弹涂鱼那样,从水坑爬到深水里去。 Article/201701/489450

See the shadow, the stick has moved a bit,put a rock on the other end, and you get a line here.看这影子 已经移动了一点 放块石头在新的末端上 这样就会有条直线If you stand on that line,face the stick, you#39;re gonna be heading north.你站在这条线上 面朝树枝 你面对的就是北方And obviously the longer you leave it,wider the line, the more accurate it#39;s gonna be.很明显 你等待的时间越长 线就越宽 方向就越准确What I don#39;t have in my favor, though, is time.I don#39;t want to wait in this heat any longer.Want to get moving.时间就是生命 我一刻都不想待在这大温室里了 启程Before you head out, leave a marker for rescuers to follow.在你走之前 给搜救队留个标记Use whatever you find around you to make an arrow.随便找些东西做个箭头North towards that rocky outcrop.It#39;s hot, hot, hot.指向北方那些露出的岩石 热死我了Temperatures here are in the high 90s,but it#39;s the humidity levels that make the heat so intense.这里为温度华氏90多度 但是高温加上湿热那就令人抓狂了Keep heading north. We need to get over this.继续朝北走 我们得爬过这些岩石Humidity reduces a body#39;s ability to cool itself by slowing the evaporation of sweat.潮湿减缓了汗水蒸发的速度 身体散热就慢 体温降不下来The more physical the activity,the greater the chances of heatstroke.身体运动越多 中暑的可能性也越大I#39;ll need at least a gallon of water a day to survive here.为了生存下去 我一天至少需要一加仑的水The scorching heat and high humidity levels mean thunderstorms are common here,因为这里的高温度和高湿度 意味着雷暴的频发but even nature#39;s most potent force can work in your favor.但大自然最强大的力量也可为你所用Look, you can see there#39;s been fire here.看 那里有火烧过的迹象Probably a lightning strike hit that...Set it a light.估计是被闪电劈中之后 树被点燃了Actually, charcoal is often a good thing to take with you.炭块通常会成为你路上的好帮手There#39;s lots you can do with that filter water with it, even help you with fire.它可以帮到你很多忙 能够过滤饮用水 甚至还能生火You drive a spark into bits charcoal,you#39;ll often get an ember that#39;s gonna help you get the fire lit.Let#39;s take some of this with us.炭块只要有一点火星 就会产生余烬 这样就会帮助你生火 带走一些 Article/201612/485683

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