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TED演讲视频:我们共享的状态--意识哲学家约翰·赛尔讨论了如何研究人类意识,系统地反驳了一些反对正式研究意识的常见异议。随着我们对引起意识的脑部过程有了进一步了解,接受意识作为一种生物学现象就是重要的第一步。约翰认为:意识并不是庞大的计算机模拟过程。201704/504762。

  • A lot of people dont realize that I actually hated ing for the majority of my life.很多人都没有意识到其实我人生中的大部分时间都很讨厌阅读。By the time I was 18, I dont think I had really a single book直到18岁,除非是被迫为了完成作业,unless it was part of an assignment and I was just forced to do it.否则我基本没有真正读过一本书。But ever since I went to first grade, my teachers constantly tried to inspire me to ,但是自从我上一年级,我的老师就一直尝试鼓励我阅读,and it never worked. It just made me hate it even more.但根本没用。反而让我越发讨厌它。And then finally when I was about 18 or so, I started to find mentors, most of them online,最后大约在18岁的时候,我开始寻找导师,大部分都是在网上,and they were able to inspire me to almost instantly, and now I cant even imagine a life where I dont .他们能够迅速的激励我阅读,现在我已无法想象不阅读的人生会是怎样。So what was the difference between my teachers who tried to inspire me to for 12 years and failed constantly我的老师在12年间尝试鼓励我阅读却屡战屡败,and my mentors who were able to do it in basically no time?我的导师却能立刻说我,那么这两者有什么区别呢?Well here it is in the context of the golden circle.我们来看一下这个黄金圈背景。My teachers started with the ;what;. You have to this classic. This is a great book! You have to!我的老师从“是什么”开始。你必须读这部名著。这本书很好!你必须读!Then they sometimes went to the ;how;, and said, this is how you it.他们有时也会提到“怎样读”,然后说道,这就是阅读的方法。But that was it, there was no ;why;.但是仅此而已,没有提过“为什么”。The funny thing is, if I had asked, ;why should I it;, they would probably get angry and start yelling.有趣的是,如果我问,“为什么要读这本书”,他们可能就会生气大吼。;How could you ask a stupid question like that?; ;What do you mean why should you a classic?!;“你怎样能问这么愚蠢的问题呢?”,“你这么问是什么意思?”And that anger would mostly come from the fact, that they havent really thought about the ;why;,那种生气极有可能是因为他们没有真正的考虑过“为什么”这个问题,so they cant really clearly articulate it.所以他们不能清晰明确的表达出来。Most people and even most organizations dont really know why they do what they do.大部分个人甚至是机构也不知道为什么要做他们的所做。But how were my mentors different from my teachers at school?但是我的导师是怎样区别于学校老师的呢?They had successful relationships. They had success in their businesses.他们有成功的人际关系,生意也很成功。And they said, ;Look, do you want your girlfriend to be attracted to you?; ;Do you want to build a successful business?;他们会说,“瞧,你想吸引你女朋友吗?”“你想生意成功吗?”;Do you want to create powerful relationships instead of always getting your emails ignored just like everyone else?;“你想建立一段强有力的关系,从而不再像其他人一样被忽视吗?”And I was like, ;Yeah, thats exactly what I want.; And they were like, ;Okay... Good.; Then pick up a book.我会说,“是的,那正是我所想的,”他们说,“好的…很好。”然后捎带出一本书。;Oh and by the way, How to Win Friends and Influence People is a great book, and so is The Way of the Superior Man.;“哦,顺便说一下,《如何赢得朋友和影响别人》是本好书,《优势男生存法则》也不错。”And I picked up both of those books and them, and now ing is an inseparable part of my life.我就开始读这两本书,现在阅读已经成为我生活中不可分割的一部分。That is how great leaders inspire action. Everybody starts from the what, and most people never even get to the why.伟大的领袖就是这样激励人们行动的。人们都始于“是什么”,大部分人都到不了“为什么”那个层面。Most people create a product and they want to tell you about all the amazing features and specifications.大多数人发明一种产品,就想着把产品的特征和规格介绍给大家。They want to tell you about how these features work so well.他们想告诉人们这些特征运行的非常好。But the truth is, most people dont care about your ;what; and ;how;.但事实是,大部分人根本就不在意你说的“是什么”和“怎么样”。Most people dont want to be told the exact measurements of your CPU,大部分人不想知道CPU的精确尺寸,they dont want to be told how the little chips interact with each other so amazingly,他们也不想知道小芯片之间的连接是有多么奇妙,they want to be told something like this... We value effeciency just like you do.他们想听到的是…“我们跟您一样很看重效率。”Heres how we can help you be more efficient. And heres a product that will help you achieve exactly that.这就是我们帮您提高效率的方法。这是个可以帮您达到目标的产品。And thats exactly what I want to buy.这才正是我想买的。If you tell me my companys going to be more efficient, I want to know more.如果你说我公司的效率会得到更大的提高,我就想知道更多。If you tell me how great your newest chip is, I dont really care.如果你只是告诉我这个最新的芯片有多棒,那我真的不在意。So again, most people start from the ;what; and never even get to the why.所以重申一下,人们始于“是什么”却从来不去想“为什么”。Youre not going to make that mistake. Youre going to know your why and youre going to start with it你可不要犯那种错误。你需要知道“为什么”,并带着这个疑问开始做事,because you realize that people dont buy what you do, they buy why you do it.因为你知道人们不会为“你做什么”而买单,但他们会为“你为什么做)”而买单。201707/516531。
  • And, actually, the key with this trying to use my leg strength to grip, rather than my arms.而这么做的要点就是 尽量多用脚的力量抓住而不是手A mistake people make is relying on their arm strength.Its never gonna be as strong as your legs.人们犯的一个错误 就是依靠手臂力量 胳膊是永远拧不过大腿的Look, Im just gripping the wire between my feet.Just slowly slide down.看 我正在用双腿夹紧电缆 然后慢慢往下滑When in service,elevator cables are checked regularly for signs of fatigue.电梯在运行期间 会定期检查电缆磨损度But these are old and unused,so I cant be 100% sure of them.但这些旧电缆废弃了 所以我也不是很肯定Come on, now.Trying to get my feet on these struts.快下来 我试图踩在这些柱上Im bridged out here.Good grip.Good grip.Thats it.我在这能撑住了 抓得好 不错 就是这样You come down to me.Youre on, youre on.下到我这来 你继续走 继续走Just give us a chance to shake out the arms.让我先甩甩手Im only halfway down, and aly my arms are tired.才下了一半 我的手就很累了I got to concentrate and keep focused.A fall here will be serious.我必须集中注意力 从这掉下去必死无疑Starting to lose grip on this.有点抓不住了Running out of grip big time down there.Its getting so greasy.实在抓不住了 有惊无险 太油了Thats quite a long descent, there.下了很长一段距离And Ive still got find a way through the elevator cabin.我还得找穿过轿厢的方法There must be some way to the top of this.这顶部肯定有路Almost always a safety hatch at the top of an elevator.在电梯顶部一般都有安全出口201610/469223。
  • 【新闻精讲】But the Riksbank, Swedens central bank, tried that in 2010-11, with disastrous results.但瑞典的中央瑞典央行在2010-11年便尝试过此方法,却导致了灾难性的后果。Unemployment stopped falling and inflation soon withered, stirring fears of deflation.失业率停止下降,通货膨胀很快萎缩,激起了人们对通货紧缩的恐惧。Wither 枯萎例:The flowers in lisas room had withered.丽莎的房间里的花朵已经枯萎了。Stirring 激动人心的例:The president made a stirring speech.总统作了一次激动人心的演讲。That prompted the Riksbank to reverse course in late 2011 and start cutting rates again.这促使瑞典央行在2011年底改变进程,重新开始削减利率。Prompt1. 促使例:Japans recession has prompted consumers to cut back on buying cars.日本的经济衰退已促使消费者们削减购车花销。2. 提示; 给 (演员) 提示词例:;You wouldnt have wanted to bring those people to justice anyway, would you?; Brand prompted him.“你本不想将那些人绳之以法的,是吧?”布兰德提示他说。3. 迅速的例:You have been so prompt in carrying out all these commissions.你执行所有这些任务非常迅速。The benchmark has ended up lower than it was to begin with, at -0.35%, increasing the sums flooding into housing.最终,基准降到了-0.35%,比最开始还低,涌向房市的资金增加。Benchmark衡量基准例:The truck industry is a benchmark for the economy.卡车产业是衡量经济发展的基准。ended up with结果是例句:I ended up with bronchitis and no voice.结果我得了气管炎,不能说话了 “Its like mopping whilst the tap is running at full flow,” complains one official.“这就如同大开水龙头拖地,”一名官员抱怨道。Mop 擦拭例:He mopped perspiration from his forehead.他擦去额头上的汗水。Whilst 同时As you lower your pen whilst continuing the motion, you should notice the resultingshape is more regular than it otherwise would have been. 随着你降低你的笔,同时保持圆周运动,你应该会注意到画出的形状比起不这样做画出的形状要规范的多。Tap 水龙头 To try to stanch the flow, the Finansinspektionen (FI) , the countrys financial watchdog, has adopted curbs on both lending and borrowing.为了止住资金流,瑞典金融监管部门瑞典金融监管局(FI)采取了一系列抑制贷款和借款的措施。Stanch止住If they behave like everyone else, how much will that stanch the passion of his support?如果他们像其他任何人一样,这将会多么压抑持者的热情?Curb抑制例:...advertisements aimed at curbing the sp of AIDS.…旨在抑制爱滋病蔓延的广告。In 2013 it tightened capital requirements for mortgages, and since September it has required banks to hold an extra counter-cyclical capital buffer of 1% of all risk-weighted assets, to increase to 1.5% by next June.2013年,它加强了对抵押贷款的资本要求,自9月起,它要求对于所有风险资产增持额外的1%作为逆周期资本缓冲准备金,到下一年6月,该数字将增至1.5%。Tighten1. 对…加强控制; 加强控制例:He knows he has considerable support for his plans to tighten his grip on the machinery of central government.他知道他那些对中央政府加强控制的计划拥有相当多的持。2. 抓紧Luke answered by tightening his grip on her shoulder.卢克回应了,紧紧抓住她的肩膀。Buffer 缓冲物例: Keep savings as a buffer against unexpected cash needs.备有存款来作为急需现金时的缓冲。This will help if the property bubble bursts, but clearly has not been enough to stop it inflating.尽管该举措将在房地产泡沫破灭时有所帮助,但远不能阻止通胀。Caps on how much individuals can borrow, in the form of maximum loan-to-value (LTV) and debt-to-income ratios, are another option.以最大价值贷款比(LTV)和债务收入比率的形式限制个人贷款上限是另一种选择。Property1. 房地产, 财产Cecil inherited a family property near Stamford.塞西尔继承了斯坦福附近的一处家族房产2. 特性例:A radio signal has both electrical and magnetic properties.无线电信号既具有电的特性也具有磁的特性。Option 供选择的东西Hes argued from the start that the US and its allies are putting too much emphasis on the military option.他从一开始就争论说美国及其盟国过于看重军事这个选项。A recent IMF study found that in more than half of countries where this has been tried, credit growth and asset-price inflation fell.国际货币基金组织最近一项研究发现,超过半数采用该方案的国家里,信贷增长和资产价格通胀均得以下降。Try试用例:If youre still skeptical about exercising, we can only ask you to trust us and give it a try.如果你仍对锻炼持怀疑态度,我们只能请你相信我们,试一试。Asset资产例: By the end of 1999 the group had assets of .5 billion.到1999年底该集团已有35亿美元的资产。In 2010 the Riksbank embraced this policy, requiring a deposit of at least 15% for new mortgages.2010年,瑞典央行采用了该方案:新抵押贷款将要求至少15%的保金。Embrace1. 拥抱例:...a young couple locked in an embrace.…紧紧相拥的年轻一对。2, 欣然接受; 信奉例:He embraces the new information age.他欢迎新的信息时代。3. 囊括例:...a theory that would embrace the whole field of human endeavour.…一个囊括人类整个奋斗领域的理论。The authorities have also tried to restrict the use of interest-only mortgages, which are common in Sweden.当局还尝试限制使用“还息不还本”的房屋贷款形式,这种贷款在瑞典十分常见。Authority1. 当局 gt;官方机构例: This provided a pretext for the authorities to cancel the elections.这给当局提供了一个取消选举的借口。2. 职权例:A family member in a family business has a position of authority and power.家庭成员在家族企业中都有职有权。3, 权威人士例:Hes universally recognized as an authority on Russian affairs.他被公认为是俄罗斯事务的权威。If borrowers use these to protect themselves from temporary financial problems while still paying down their debt, they can be helpful.如果借贷者将该项贷款用于在资金紧张的临时过渡,但仍旧能够偿还自己的债务,那么该类贷款则没有什么问题。Temporary暂时的例:His job here is only temporary.他在这儿的工作只是暂时的。paying down 偿还例句:At least someone is paying down their debts.至少已经有人在偿还债务了。But if they take out interest-only loans simply to borrow more, they exacerbate the bubble.但如果贷款者只是利用此类贷款为自己借入更多资金,那么该类贷款将激化资产泡沫。Take out1. 取得 (贷款、许可、保险等)Ill have to stop by the bank and take out a loan.我将不得不去一下那家领一笔贷款2. 除掉例:I got an abscess so he took the tooth out.我牙龈脓肿,所以他把那颗牙齿拔掉了。Exacerbate使…恶化例:Longstanding poverty has been exacerbated by racial divisions.由来已久的贫穷因种族分裂而更加恶化了。Almost 40% of Swedish mortgages by value are not being paid down at all, and for many of the remainder the pace of repayments is slow.将近40%的瑞典价值抵押贷款并没有得到偿还,剩余的大多数还款速度则很慢。Remainder剩余部分例:Only 5.9 percent of the area is now covered in trees. Most of the remainder is farmland.该地区现在的树木覆盖率仅为5.9%。剩余部分大多是农田。Remain1. 剩下; 余留; 待做例:Major questions remain to be answered about his work.关于他工作的主要问题仍有待回答。2. 残余; 残迹例:They were cleaning up the remains of their picnic.他们正在打扫野餐的残余物。The FI has been trying to push banks and borrowers to agree voluntary repayment plans.瑞典金融监管局正尝试向和借款者推行自愿偿还计划。It suggested that those with LTVs above 70% pay down at least 2% a year, and those with LTVs of 50-70% pay 1% a year.计划要求价值贷款比高于70%的借款人每年至少还款2%,而价值贷款比为50%—70%的借款人每年至少还款1%。Voluntary1. 自愿的例:Attention is drawn to a special voluntary course in Commercial French.注意力被吸引到一门特别的商务法语选修课上。2. 义务的例:In her spare time she does voluntary work.她在业余时间做义工。But in April a court quashed such efforts, arguing the FI had no authority to promote such plans.但在4月,法庭宣布这种方式无效,理由是监管局没有权力推进这些计划。Quash1. 撤销; 废止例:The Appeal Court has quashed the convictions of all eleven people.上诉法院已经撤销了对所有11人的判决。2. 澄清 (谣言)例:Graham attempted to quash rumours of growing discontent in the dressing room.格雷厄姆试图澄清化妆室里日益增长的不满情绪的谣言。3. 镇压; 平息例:Troops were displaying an obvious reluctance to get involved in quashing demonstrations.部队明确表示不愿卷入镇压示威活动。201703/495637。
  • We can only see light.我们只能看见光And light moves at a certain speed.而光在以一定的速度运动And so, as we look farther and farther away,所以 我们看得越远were looking farther and farther back in time看到的事物也就越古老because were seeing light coming to us from long ago.因为我们看到的光是很久以前发出的But theres only so far we can go back in time.但是宇宙的历史是有限的So theres only so far we can see.所以我们能看见的范围也很有限Its called the ;Observable universe;.这称为 可观测宇宙We can only map whats inside,我们只能绘出在它范围内的物体because the universe is only 13.7 billion years old.因为宇宙只有137亿年的历史There may well be a lot more universe outside,在这范围之外可能还有更广阔的宇宙but the light hasnt had time to reach us yet.但是它们发出的光还未到达地球In the last 20 years, weve seen this tremendous expansion,过去的二十年间 我们掌握了许多知识both in the amount and in the precision of knowledge对可观测宇宙的了解that we have about the observable universe.实现了量的积累和质的飞跃This has allowed cosmologists这为宇宙学家to make a map of unbelievable scale.制作如此宏伟的星图奠定了基础重点解释:1.long ago 很久以前例句:Amber is the resin of pine trees that grew very very long ago.琥珀是古老的松脂。2.so far 迄今为止例句:Its the hottest day Ive had so far.这是迄今为止我经历的最热的一天。201705/511735。
  • Anti-vaccine activists endured a cold, rainy day in Washington to make their point.为了达到抵制目的,这些反疫苗活动人士们在阴雨连绵的华盛顿忍受了一天的严寒。;As parents, its our decision whether or not we want to vaccinate.;“作为父母,我们有权决定是否要给孩子接种疫苗。”The movement has gained so much momentum that doctors are alarmed.这场运动发展势头迅猛,医生们对此也感到十分震惊。;We now, in the state of Texas, have 50,000 kids whose parents are opting them out of getting vaccinated.;“德克萨斯州现在就有5万名孩子的家长选择不接种疫苗。”Activists say thats because vaccines can cause everything from autism to severe allergies.活动人士们表示,之所以不让孩子接种疫苗,是因为疫苗会导致各种不良反应,从自闭症到严重过敏都有可能出现。And that the centers for disease control is covering up study showing harmful health effects.疾病控制中心如今都在掩盖那些会对身体产生有害影响的研究。But thats not the case.但事实却并非如此。;Occasionally there is an adverse reaction, but it is so rare, that its to be almost unmeasurable.;“确实会偶尔出现不良反应,但是这个概率特别小,几乎是不可测的。”;The most common side effects to any of the vaccines are pain at the injection site and fever for 24 to 48 hours.;“对于所有疫苗来说,最常见的副作用就是注射部位疼痛以及发烧24至48小时。”But the activists are convinced harmful ingredients are added to the vaccines.但是活动人士坚信疫苗当中都添加了有害成分。;Now its aluminum that has been added as an adjuvant.“铝佐剂被添加到疫苗当中。Add to that formaldehyde, polysorbate-80, and significant amount of human aborted fetal cell lines,还加入甲醛、聚山梨醇酯-80,并使用大量的流产胎儿细胞系、bovine cells, pig, sheep, monkey, dog, these cells are not meant to be injected into the human body.;牛细胞、猪细胞、羊细胞、猴细胞和细胞。这些细胞本不该被注入到人体当中去的。”Again, the science says otherwise.然而这一次,科学再次明并非如此。;The vaccines that the children are getting today are very much more pure and are very safe and effective.;“现在孩子们接种的疫苗都十分纯净,而且也非常安全有效。”So effective that some diseases are no longer perceived as a threat.这些疫苗当真有效,所以有一些疾病如今已经不再被视为威胁。;Currently, if you speak with any young mother or young father in Italy, where I come from,“我来自意大利,目前,你跟任何一个意大利的年轻父亲或母亲聊天都会发现,they dont know diphtheria. Theyve never seen it, they dont know that you can lose your child from diphtheria.;他们根本不知道白喉症。因为他们从来都没见过。所以他们也不知道一个人居然可以因为白喉症而痛失骨肉。”The World Health Organization has an online site to help parents find reliable information on vaccine safety.世卫组织开通了一个在线网站,帮助父母找到可靠的疫苗安全信息。The CDC does the same.而疾控中心也是这么做的。;I think that there will be a certain number of people, a certain percentage of people,“我觉得肯定还会有相当数量和比例的人群,who no matter what you say to convince them with evidence, theyre not going to be convinced,不管你如何用据来说他们,他们就是不会相信你,but I think the approach towards people who are anti-vaccinating is to respect their opinion and dont denigrate them and dont criticize them,不过在我看来,面对这些反对接种疫苗的人,我们能做的就是尊重他们的意见,不要去贬低或者批评他们,but try to explain to them on the basis of solid evidence why the risk/benefit of vaccines clearly,而要用真凭实据向他们解释明白:接种疫苗虽有利有弊,但权衡之下,clearly favors very, very heavily towards vaccinating your children.;很明显,利大于弊,父母还是应该为自己的孩子接种疫苗。”And thats why Dr. Peter Hotez urges scientists to get out of their laboratories and to talk to people about vaccines.正因如此,彼得·霍特兹士才鼓励科学家们走出实验室,跟人们去讨论有关疫苗的话题。Otherwise, he says, children the world over will unnecessary suffer and die from diseases that can be prevented by safe, effective vaccines.否则的话,他表示,世界各地的孩子都可能患上某些疾病并最终导致死亡,但我们本可以通过为他们接种安全有效的疫苗来预防这些疾病。Carol Pearson, VOA news, Washington.VOA新闻,卡洛·皮尔森于华盛顿为您播报。201706/513119。
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