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楼主:排名大全 时间:2020年01月28日 02:00:53 点击:0 回复:0
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Li Si (born 280 B. C.,Chu state,central China,died 208 B. C.,Xianyang) was a Chinese statesman who utilized the ruthless but efficient ideas of the political philosophy of Legalism to weld the warring Chinese states of his time into the first centralized Chinese empire,the Qin Dynasty.李斯,大概公元前280年生在中国中部的楚国,公元前208年死于咸阳,政治家。李斯利用无情但是有效的法家思想统一了战国时期的各个诸侯国,建立了中央集权的中国帝国---秦朝。In 247 B. C. he entered the state of Qin to begin almost 40 years of service under the ruler later known as Shih Huang-ti (“First Sovereign Emperor;).公元前247年李斯来到秦国,开始了将近40年的为秦王(后来的始皇帝)的务。As minister to the emperor,Li was responsible for most of the radical political and cultural innovations made in Qin after 221 B. C..作为始皇帝的大臣,李斯负责了秦国公元前221年后大多数的政治和文化改革。Li caused the empire to be divided into 36 regions,each governed by a centrally appointed official.李斯促使帝国分为36个地区,每个地区由中央委派官员治理。Under his guidance the emperor standardized coinage and weights and measures and began construction of the Great Wall to keep out barbarians from the north.在李斯的指导下,秦始皇统一了度量衡并且为了防止北方的蛮人人侵开始修建长城。Li Si was also influential in creating a unified writing system,which remained substantially the same until recent times.对于文字的统一,李斯也是有影响的。统一后的文字一直使用到近代。Finally,in an effort to prevent the growth of subversive thought,Li in 213 B. C. forbade the teaching of history and ordered the “burning of the books,” for which he earned the opprobrium of all future generations of Confucian scholars.最后,为了避免破坏性思想的成长,李斯于公元前213年禁止教授历史并且下令“焚书”,李斯因此受到了后来所有儒生的责骂。When the emperor died in 209 B. C.,Li became involved in the eunuch Zhao Kao#39;s plot to void the proper succession.公元前209年始皇帝驾崩,李斯卷人了宦官赵高取消正当继位的阴谋。But the two conspirators quarreled,and Zhao Kao had Li executed.但是这两个阴谋家发生了反目,赵高处死了李斯。 /201507/388852One of the odd stories to come out of the French-speaking province of Quebec last year was the announcement that intensive English courses would be offered to students in state schools. Odd, because in the past half-century, much of the Queacute;beacute;cois identity has been built on resisting English. Authorities throw the book at people for doing things that would be normal elsewhere in Canada. Last autumn, the Montreal newspaper La Presse revealed that two real estate executives had made presentations in English to a Montreal-based pension fund, violating the province#39;s language laws, which give workers the right to a French-speaking environment.去年,以法语为官方语言的加拿大魁北克省传来了一则不同寻常的消息:该省宣布将在公立学校中面向学生开设英语精读课程。之所以说它不同寻常,是因为在过去半个世纪中,魁北克人的民族认同在很大程度上建立在抵制英语这一基础上。在加拿大其他地方被视为正常的事情,在魁北克却会受到当局最严厉的惩罚。去年秋天,蒙特利尔报纸《La Presse》曝光了一件事:两名房地产行业的高管使用英语向一总部位于蒙特利尔的养老基金做报告。这种行为违反了魁北克省的语言法。在该省,员工有权享有一个讲法语的工作环境。Now, school authorities in Quebec City are questioning whether the time is ripe for introducing those English classes after all. Their hesitation has left French-speaking parents angry. On one hand, those parents want their children to cherish their own community and its language. On the other hand, English is the international language of business, and their children will have a hard time climbing the social ladder without it.如今,对于引入此类英语课程的时机到底是不是已经成熟,魁北克市学校当局提出了质疑。他们的犹豫不决令那些讲法语的家长们感到愤怒。一方面,父母希望子女珍视他们自己的社交圈和语言。另一方面,在英语已成为国际商务语言的情况下,如果不会讲英语,他们子女在提高自身社会地位的过程中将遭遇重重障碍。Self-contradiction besets all governments as they try to work out a role for English in their national culture. Long-time Malaysian prime minister Mahathir Mohamad was, as a young man, a promoter of Malay. He made it the language of school instruction two decades ago. But in 2003, he came up with a plan to teach mathematics and science in English, reasoning that most technical literature on those subjects was in English. It was a flop. English-language ability, among both teachers and students, had dropped more precipitously since independence than Dr Mahathir cared to admit. But when the government suggested discontinuing the programme in 2009, parents flew into a rage.那些试图在自身文化中为英语寻找到合适定位的政府,都无法摆脱这种矛盾。长期担任马来西亚总理的马哈蒂尔bull;穆罕默德(Mahathir Mohamad)年轻时曾是马来语的推动者。20年前,他使马来语成为了学校的教学语言。但2003年时,他又提出一项新计划,也就是用英语来教授数学和科学,原因是这些学科的大部分技术文献都是用英语撰写的。此举彻底受挫。马来西亚教师和学生的英语能力自该国独立以来已急剧下滑,尽管马哈蒂尔士本人不愿承认下滑得有那么厉害。然而,当2009年马来西亚政府建议中止该计划时,家长们却强烈不满。Not all cultures have the same historical anguish over English that Malaysians and Queacute;beacute;cois do. But almost all are being dragged ineluctably towards giving English a bigger role in their societies. More than a dozen EU countries require that English be taught in schools. In Thailand and China, the government has fostered English-language learning circles. Francophone Rwanda switched over in 2009 to English school instruction. English sps wherever there is democracy or markets or even the slightest inclination towards them.在英语这个问题上,并不是所有文化都遭遇了马来西亚人和魁北克人遭遇的那种历史痛苦。但如今,几乎所有的文化都不得不在各自的社会中赋予英语更加重要的角色,这已成为一种不可避免的趋势。已有十余个欧盟(EU)国家要求本国学校教授英语。在泰国和中国,政府对英语学习圈子进行了扶持。法语国家卢旺达2009年时将学校教学语言改为英语。一个地方只要拥有民主或市场、甚至只要具备向民主或市场靠拢的最轻微倾向,英语就会该地蔓延开来。 /201202/172564

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