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来源:365诊疗    发布时间:2019年08月21日 23:08:06    编辑:admin         

1. We#39;re not impatient, just efficient.我们不是没耐心,而是有效率Long lines? Traffic? Type A individuals loathe them all. This is because we feel as though they#39;re slowing our progress of a certain goal-- even if that goal is just to deposit a check at the bank.排长队?堵车?我们A型人格患者恨透了这些。这是因为,我们感觉这些事情会拖累我们向某个目标前进的进度——即使所谓的目标只是去存个钱。2. Arriving late to anything is ;agonizing;.在任何情况下迟到都是可耻可恨的If you tell us to be somewhere at 6:30, more likely than not, we#39;re rolling up to the parking lot at 6:25. Type A folks tend to have an oversensitivity to time, because we don#39;t want to feel like we#39;re wasting it.如果你让我们A型人格患者在6:30到达某个地方,很有可能我们在6:25就已经到达目的地的停车场了。A型人格患者往往对时间过度敏感,因为我们不希望觉得自己在浪费时间。3. We live by to-do lists.我们按照任务清单来生活How else are we supposed to track what we#39;re supposed to get done?!否则我们怎么明确自己该干什么事呢?4. Each task we#39;re assigned is urgent.我们接受的每项任务都很紧迫Because of this, we value team members who work with the same brevity and speed that we do. Once again, wasting time is our ultimate enemy.正因为此,我们很看重团队中能和我们一样做事干练、有速度的团队成员。再说一遍,浪费时间是我们的死敌。5. We#39;re extremely goal-oriented.我们非常以目标为导向。Once we commit to something, we see it through until the very end, whether it#39;s a work project or Friday night plans.一旦我们决定要做某件事,我们就会不达目的决不罢休,不管是对一个工作项目还是对周五晚上的计划。6. It#39;s hard for us to relax.我们很难放松This is where time sensitivity comes into play again. We hate the idea of letting time pass if there#39;s something we need to be doing. Downtime tends to feel unproductive to Type A folks -- unless, of course, it#39;s on our to-do list.这又是我们对时间的高度敏感性在起作用了。我们讨厌明知道自己必须做某件事,却让时间白白流失。我们觉得休整时间是无生产率的——当然,休整作为任务被列入任务清单的话就另当别论了。7. We get stressed out easily.我们很容易感到焦虑Type A are more sensitive to stress (which, as we know, is terribly bad for our health). We also tend to default on the worst possible outcome when working through a situation. Sorry in advance for the slight negativity.A型人格患者对压力更为敏感(众所周知,这对我们的健康非常不利)。我们常常在事情尚未处理完毕的时候,就已经预见到最坏的结果。先为我们这种略为悲观的倾向道歉啦。8. We have nervous habits.我们在神经紧张时会做某种习惯性动作For me, it#39;s hair twirling. For others, it#39;s nail biting or teeth grinding. This behavior is common for Type A personalities.对我来说,这种习惯动作是用手指缠绕自己的头发。对其他A型人格患者来说,这种习惯性动作也可能是咬指甲或者磨牙。这种应对神经紧张的小动作在A型人格者身上很常见。9. We#39;re emotional.我们很容易情绪化The reason we behave the way that we do is because we care (some could even argue that we care just a little too much). Researchers suggest that Type A people are highly conscientious-- so while it may seem like we#39;re uptight when we#39;re organizing our friend#39;s birthday party, it#39;s really just because we want it to be spectacular. They deserve it.我们之所以做事情如此锱铢必较是因为我们在乎这件事(有人可能会抱怨说,我们在乎过头了)。研究者称,A型人格患者都是极度认真负责的——所以,如果我们在为朋友举办生日派对时显得焦躁易怒,这只是因为我们希望把它办的尽善尽美。寿星们值得拥有!10. We#39;re constantly ruminating over something.我们总会回想某件事You know when you just replay a mistake over and over in your head? This is a common occurrence for Type A individuals. We are notorious for dwelling on our worries, sometimes to the point where it keeps us up at night.人们总会在脑子里一遍一遍回想自己犯过的一个错误,你懂的?这种现象对A型人格患者很常见。这是我们臭名昭著的坏习惯,我们会不断纠结于自己的烦心事,有时甚至为此整晚难以入睡。11. We have a competitive side.我们有好胜的一面This is perhaps one of our most glaring flaws. Type A#39;s put a lot of pressure on themselves to be the best possible version of themselves, which sometimes is taken to mean ;the best person in the room.; It doesn#39;t matter if it#39;s a work assignment or a board game, they#39;re all the same to a Type A personality.这可能是我们最突出的缺陷。A型人格患者的一大乐趣在于,让自己扮演最完美的自己,虽然有时这会被误解成“充当一个屋子里最完美的人”。不管是对一项工作任务还是对一场棋类游戏,他们总是那个好胜的A型人格患者。 /201506/378454。

In a modest-looking dwelling shrouded by greenery halfway up one of the highest mountains in eastern China, a young couple have been conducting an experiment in self-sufficiency for about five years.在中国东部一座高山的半山腰上,绿色植被掩映着一个不起眼的住处。在那里,一对年轻的夫妇开展自给自足实验已有大约五年的时间了。On Lao Mountain, in coastal Shandong Province, Tang Guanhua, 26, whose family runs a design company, and his wife, Xing Zhen, 31, a former securities manager, have been surviving by their own wiles, producing everything from shoes to electricity.在滨海省份山东的崂山,从做鞋子到发电,这对夫妻全靠二人之力为生。丈夫叫唐冠华,26岁,家里经营设计公司;妻子邢振31岁,曾经是券经理。Dressed in their homemade attire, the couple pointed to shelves loaded with bottles of home-brewed vinegar, jars of salt collected from evaporated brine and an enormous bamboo contraption leaning against the wall, held together with rope, that they use to weave clothing. One inspiration is John Seymour, a British advocate of self-sufficiency who spawned a movement half a century ago.穿着自己缝制的衣,夫妇二人展示了架子上一瓶瓶自家酿制的醋、一罐罐海水蒸发后采集的盐,还有倚在墙上用绳子固定起来的一个巨大的竹制织布装置。鼓舞他们的包括英国人约翰·塞默(John Seymour)。他倡导自给自足,半个世纪以前发起了这项运动。But getting to this point has not been easy.Growing up in Qingdao, a port city that thrives on tourism and high-tech development, Mr. Tang, a self-described city boy, believed that “everything could be bought with money,” and he said he had no idea about “the difference between lettuce and rapeseed, wheat and rice.” Before he started renovating the once-shabby brick hut he rents from local farmers in 2010, Mr. Tang said he had been aware of the hardships he might face and tried to prepare as best he could.他们的尝试走到今天这个地步并不容易。唐冠华在以旅游和高科技发展著称的港口城市青岛长大,自称是个城里孩子,以为“任何东西都可以花钱买到”,还说自己以前根本不知道“生菜和油菜之间、小麦和稻谷之间有什么区别。”2010年,唐冠华从当地农民那里租来了一座破旧的砖房。他说,翻修工作开始以前,他预料到了自己会面临困难,所以尽力做好了准备。Yet he was still overwhelmed by unexpected difficulties. Without gas and kitchenware, Mr. Tang and several volunteers ate raw peppers for supper. Without a bathroom, they dug pits in the yard until there was no space for more.即便如此,意料之外的种种难题仍让他措手不及。没有燃气也没有厨具,唐冠华和几名志愿者生吃菜椒当晚饭。没有卫生间,他们就在院子里挖坑,直到无处可挖为止。“Not until then did I figure out how to cope with it,” said Mr. Tang, referring to the challenges of disposing of human waste. Within a year, he had built a bamboo septic tank, finished the renovations and begun growing vegetables like Chinese chives and lettuce.“到了那时候我才想出办法,”提到处理人体排泄物的挑战时,唐冠华说。一年之内,他用竹子做了一座化粪池,完成了翻修工作,开始种植韭菜和生菜等蔬菜。At first, Ms. Xing, who had gotten to know Mr. Tang before he embarked on the self-sufficiency project, was bewildered by it. But as she visited the site on Lao Mountain, she was inspired by his enthusiasm and that of the volunteers who flocked there.在唐冠华开始自给自足实验之前,邢振就认识他。一开始,她对此很不理解。但在参观了他在崂山的这片地方后,她因为唐冠华及涌向那里的志愿者的热情而受到了鼓舞。“They were passionate and genuine, unlike other people I had seen who easily gave up their ideas without giving them a try,” she recalled.“他们充满,真心诚意,不像我见过的其他一些人,不试一下就轻易放弃了自己的理想,”她回忆道。Unlike Mr. Tang, Ms. Xing had not previously imagined herself as a back-to-nature pioneer. After studying economics for five years, she took the 9-to-5 job that was expected of her. A slim, bespectacled woman who can frequently be found updating a blog on the couple’s work, Ms. Xing described herself as a “mainstream girl” who always followed the crowd. “I didn’t know how to think independently,” she said.和唐冠华不同,邢振之前从没想过自己会成为“回归自然”的先锋。在学习经济专业五年后,邢振开始了一份符合期望的朝九晚五的工作。她外形纤瘦,戴着眼镜,经常在客上更新夫妇两人的进度。她形容自己以前是个“随大流的姑娘”,总是从众。“我不知道该怎么样独立思考,”她说。After the couple married in 2011, Ms. Xing quit her job in Qingdao, mostly because she wanted to spend more time with her husband. But after a year living with him on Lao Mountain, she had “an awakening.”2011年两人结婚以后,邢振放弃了在青岛的工作,主要是希望有更多时间陪在丈夫身边。不过,与唐冠华在崂山居住一年后,她“觉醒”了。“It was like an epiphany,” said Ms. Xing. “I suddenly realized that all I did before was try to fit into a widely acknowledged value system that I didn’t even fully understand.”Having secured their shelter, the couple took the challenge to the next level. They visited scholars and handicraft masters to learn how to brew vinegar, soy sauce and beer, how to knit clothes, raise poultry and make cooking utensils and soap. They converted a bicycle into a generator and built a washing machine, a solar panel and a small wind turbine.“好像顿悟了一样,”邢振说。“我忽然意识到自己以前所做的一切都是为了融入一个众人接受的价值体系,而我根本不理解那套东西。”有了安身之处,夫妇二人更进一步。他们拜访了学者和手工艺师傅,学习如何酿造醋、酱油和啤酒,如何纺线织布,如何饲养家禽,如何制作器皿和肥皂。他们将一辆自行车改造成了发电机,还造了一台洗衣机、一块太阳能电池板,以及一台小型风机。With help from nearby university students, the couple spent more than two years building a second hut, two stories high, with bamboo, rocks, clay and recycled building materials.在附近大学生的帮助下,夫妇二人花了两年多的时间用竹子、石头、泥土及二手建筑材料建成了二层楼高的第二座棚屋。“I think the local farmers could have finished it within two weeks,” Mr. Tang said.“我觉得当地农民的话不到两周的功夫就可以造完了,”唐冠华说。As word of the couple’s project sp, local farmers shook their heads in disbelief, curiosity-seekers flocked to see them, and critics began piling on. During a talk show appearance on China Central Television, the state broadcaster, celebrity guests mocked them for “challenging modern civilization,” accused them of “being delusional” and ridiculed them for not being able to host their parents during holidays. Even friends were confounded.随着夫妇俩的项目流传开来,当地农民摇头表示怀疑,好奇的人群蜂拥而至,批评浪潮也随之袭来。对此,官方媒体中央电视台的一档访谈节目还进行了报道。受邀来到节目中的名人嘲笑他们“挑战现代文明”,指责他们“痴心妄想”,讥讽他们没法在节假日招待父母。就连他们的朋友也颇为困惑。Contrary to the critics, Mr. Tang and Ms. Xi say the purpose of their project is neither to promote an ascetic lifestyle nor to throw away the fruits of modernization. Instead, they say, it is simply to explore an alternative for those who don’t fit into modern urbanized society.与批评声相反,唐冠华和邢振表示,他们这一项目既不是为了宣扬一种苦行的生活方式,也不是为了抛弃现代化的成果,而只是想为无法适应现代都市社会的那些人探索出另一种生活方式。“When I first came up with the project, I hoped it would be a plan to solve the social issues I was concerned about once and for all,” Mr. Tang said.“当我第一次提出这个计划的时候,我希望它能彻底地解决我所关心的一些社会问题,”唐冠华说。Encouraged by his parents, Mr. Tang had come up with the idea of opening his own business while he was still in high school. After he made some money as an advertising designer and an event planner for shopping mall openings, he dropped out of high school and was taken by wanderlust.在父母的鼓励下,唐冠华在高中时就提出了创业的想法。他当过广告设计师,为商场开业活动做过策划,从中赚了一些钱后便从高中辍学,之后迷上了旅行。“It was the traveling that changed my perception of the world,” said Mr. Tang, a tall, lean man with straight hair and an unassuming manner.“正是四处行走改变了我对世界的看法,”唐冠华说。他身材高瘦,留着直发,为人谦逊。In places like Macau, Mr. Tang witnessed the booming of commerce and entertainment, but also human greed and hypocrisy. “It got me wondering about the purpose of my life and if I’d like to be someone like that,” he mused.在这样的地方,唐冠华目睹了商业和业的蓬勃发展,但是也看到了人性中的贪婪和伪善。“这促使我思考自己人生的意义,考虑自己是否想要成为那样的人,”他若有所思地说。At 18, Mr. Tang was influenced by an artist friend and started expressing his societal concerns through street art and photography. But after realizing that none of these efforts had a lasting effect on other people’s awareness, Mr. Tang, with the help of friends, came up with the idea of building a self-sufficient community. To cover some of the expenses, he set up a nongovernmental organization to accept donations, though contributions from individuals must be no more than 1,000 renminbi, about 0.18岁的时候,唐冠华受到一名艺术家朋友的影响,开始通过街头艺术和摄影来表达自己对社会问题的关切。但是后来,他意识到这些努力对他人观念方面的影响并不持久。因此,在朋友的帮助下,唐冠华提出了建立一个自给自足社区的想法。为了垫付一部分开,他成立了一家接受捐助的非政府组织,但是规定个人的捐助额不得超过1000元人民币。“This is not a project built up by money,” Mr. Tang said. “If you have the ability to donate that much money, we prefer you to donate real things, like building materials and recyclable things, or come join us to experience the project yourself.”“这不是一个靠金钱撑起来的项目,”唐冠华说。“如果你有能力捐很多钱,那么我更希望你能捐一些实物,比如说建筑材料、可回收利用的物品,或者是和我们一起来亲身感受这个项目。”He later named the experiment Project AnotherLand and set out a number of steps for achieving his goals.后来,他把这项尝试命名为“家园计划”,并为实现自己的目标设定了一系列的步骤。The first, to determine whether it was possible to live self-sufficiently, appears to have been largely achieved by his experiment on Lao Mountain. The second, to expand the project’s scale with more people, will come later this year when the couple build a larger community in Fuzhou, the capital of Fujian Province. Other steps include sharing their experiences with urban dwellers and publishing a self-sufficiency guidebook, which is in the works.第一步是要确定自给自足是否可行。通过他在崂山的实践,这一点似乎基本实现了。第二步则是扩展项目规模,吸引更多人参与其中。这一步将会在今年晚些时候进行,夫妇二人届时会在福建省会福州市建立一个更大的社区。其他的步骤则包括,与都市居民分享他们的经验,以及出版一本自给自足指导手册。这本手册目前正在撰写中。An increasing number of people are aly paying attention. Yang Haitao, a student at Ocean University of China in Qingdao, is one of thousands of volunteers who have come through in recent years. During a recent visit, he said he had learned to make soap from waste oil, grow vegetables and knit shoes.有越来越多的人已经开始关注到他们的项目。在位于青岛的中国海洋大学读书的学生杨海涛(音),就是近些年里参与到该项目当中的上千名志愿者之一。近期来到这里的时候,他谈到自己学会了如何利用废油制作肥皂,如何种菜和纳鞋。“If there is a larger community like this in the future, I think I’ll sign up for it,” Mr. Yang said.“如果未来能有一个类似的更大规模的社区,我想我是会参加的,”杨海涛表示。More than just build a community for his peers, Mr. Tang said his goal was to help future generations decide whether they want to live off the grid.唐冠华表示,他的目标不只是为同龄人建立一个社区而已,他还想要帮助后代决定,他们是否想要过上不依赖现代设施的生活。“I won’t have kids until I have built a self-sufficient community,” Mr. Tang said. “Maybe my kids will prefer to live in the city. But at least I want to offer them another option to choose from.”“在建好一个自给自足的社区之前,我是不会要小孩的,”唐冠华说。“或许我的孩子会更喜欢住在城市里,但是至少我想要给他们提供另一种可选的方式。” /201506/381504。

7.It Slows Your Metabolism7.减缓新陈代谢If you#39;re sedentary and you#39;re eating more than you burn, you can put on weight. But staying seated all the time can wreak additional havoc on all the processes that make up your metabolism.如果一直坐着不动,进食的脂肪比燃烧的还要多,就会增胖。久坐还会影响人体正常的新陈代谢。It doesn#39;t take much time sitting around to slow down the process by which your body converts food into energy and regulates multiple biological processes. In the time it takes to watch just one episode of ;Game of Thrones; (about an hour of sitting), your body slows down its production of the fat-burning enzyme lipase by 90 percent. When your metabolism slows down, if you don#39;t also slow down your caloric intake and up your exercise you#39;re going to gain weight. But you also lose, too -- your body loses the good cholesterol, HDL, that keeps the bad LDL cholesterol in check, putting you on a path toward cardiovascular disease. You#39;ll also lose efficiency in how well your body is able to effectively manage insulin, steering you toward diabetes.只坐一会儿,你的身体将食物转化为热量、调节体内多个生物进程的速度就会减缓。看一集《权力的游戏》(大约1个小时),身体产生的脂肪酶就会减少90%。当新陈代谢减缓的时候,如果不降低卡路里的摄入量或者增加运动量的话,就会增加体重!与此同时,还会损失有益的胆固醇和高密度脂蛋白,诱发心脑血管疾病。体内调节胰岛素的能力也会弱化,从而提高糖尿病的发病率。6.Underused Muscles, Underused Insulin6.肌肉退化,胰岛素过盛You may be inactive, but your pancreas didn#39;t get the memo. The muscle inactivity that comes along with sitting disease has been associated with a decrease in your body#39;s sensitivity to the insulin your pancreas makes, and that puts you at an increased risk of developing chronic diseases including metabolic syndrome (conditions associated with pre-diabetes) and type 2 diabetes (by about 7 percent). Researchers are finding that women may be more at risk for this side effect of sitting than men.你也许不爱运动,但是你的胰腺并不会意识到。久坐症会影响肌肉活跃度,使身体对于胰腺分泌的胰岛素的敏感程度下降,并增加感染慢性疾病的风险,包括代谢症候群(与糖尿病前期症状有关)以及2型糖尿病(大约7%)。研究人员还发现久坐对于女性的副作用大于男性。Too much insulin in addition to higher levels of C-reactive protein and other chronic inflammation markers circulating in your sedentary body are also linked to certain cancers, such as breast and colon cancer (about a 10 percent risk increase). It#39;s theorized that when the body becomes less sensitive to insulin, levels build up in the body; the excess insulin in your body stimulates cell growth. It#39;s also possible hours of sitting decreases production of antioxidants, which are the body#39;s natural way of protecting itself against free radicals, known cell damagers (and cancer causers).在你习惯于久坐不动的身体里,除了C反应蛋白水平过高和其他慢性炎症反复发作,胰岛素过多也易患癌症,例如乳腺癌和结肠癌(增加大约10%的风险)。理论上来说,当身体对于胰岛素的敏感度降低,体内血糖水平会升高;体内多余的胰岛素会刺激细胞生长。久坐也会降低抗氧化剂的分泌。抗氧化剂是机体祛除自由基对人体损害(及癌症)的自然保护剂。5.It Clogs Your Heart5.心肌梗塞Researchers have reported couch potatoes who spend more than four hours a day sitting passively in front of a screen have roughly a 125 percent greater risk of developing symptoms of cardiovascular disease, such as angina (shortness of breath) or experiencing a heart attack than their peers who only spend about two hours doing so.研究表明,相比于一天只花两个小时坐在电视机前的同龄人,那些花四个小时以上的电视迷们将患心血管疾病的风险提升至125%,例如心绞痛(气促)、心脏病发作。Sitting is clogging your heart. Excessive sitting changes the way your body handles fats (known as lipids) in your blood, and the outcome isn#39;t good. It puts the brakes on HDL production; HDL is known as the good cholesterol because it cleans up the bad cholesterol, LDL, which builds up on the walls of your arteries. Researchers have associated all that sitting you#39;re doing with lower amounts of HDL circulating in your body, and that means lipids and triglycerides are allowed to build up -- and that fat in your blood puts you at a greater risk of developing cardiovascular disease.坐着可致心肌梗塞。久坐会改变身体处理血液内脂肪(也称脂质)的方式,其结果总归是不好的。这样会抑制身体产生高密度胆固醇;高密度胆固醇是一种有益胆固醇,帮助人体清除低密度胆固醇(低密度胆固醇可使脂肪在动脉血管壁沉积)。研究人员认为久坐可降低身体内部循环的高密度胆固醇量,并增加脂类和甘油三酸酯量,从而增加患心血管疾病的风险。4.Poor Circulation in Your Lower Extremities4.下肢血液循环不良When you sit for more than an hour at a time, you increase your risk of developing peripheral edema -- that#39;s swelling caused when fluid builds up in the tissues in your lower extremities (legs, ankles, and feet). The lack of circulation also ups your odds of developing or worsening varicose veins, suffering from thrombophlebitis, or suffering a blood clot, specifically deep vein thrombosis.坐着超过一个小时,将增加患外周性水肿的几率——当体液在下肢(即,双腿、脚踝和双足)组织中淤积,就会引起水肿。血液循环不良会增加静脉曲张恶化的几率,另外,也易引发血栓性静脉炎或血栓——尤其是增加深静脉血栓的患病几率。Poor blood flow doesn#39;t just affect your lower extremities; it also can cause damage to other organs in your body as well as cause you to feel dizzy, numb or as though you#39;re in a mental fog.血流不畅不仅会影响到下肢健康,对身体其他器官也会造成伤害。不仅如此,你还会因此感到眩晕,身体失去知觉,仿佛处于一种精神恍惚状态。审校:哎呀 校对:落花生 编辑:Freya然 /201507/384792。

1. 再冷也不能拿别人的血来暖自己。(甄嬛)  No matter how ruthless, you shouldn’t use another person’s blood to warm yourself。  2. 贱人就是矫情。(华妃)  That bitch!  3. 娘娘容不容的下臣妾,是娘娘的气度。能不能让娘娘容得下,是嫔妾的本事。(甄嬛)  Whether you can tolerate me depends on your generosity. Whether I can be tolerated is up to me。  4. 在这后宫中想要升就必须猜得中皇上的心思。若想要活,就要猜得中其他女人的心思。(甄嬛)  To rise, you need to know the Emperor’s mind. To survive, you need to guess the other women’s mind。  5. 以色事人,能得几时好?(甄嬛)  One who savors seduction, won’t last。  6. 在这宫里,有利用价值的人才能活下去。要安于被人利用,才有机会去利用别人。(浣碧)  In the palace, if you have ability, you survive. If you survive being used, then you will have the chance to take advantage of others。  7. 别人帮你,那是情分。不帮你,那是本分。(甄嬛)  You are blessed if others help you, but they are not obliged to。  8. 不偏爱,懂节制,方得长久。(皇后)  No favoritism, no excesses, one will last。  9.这会咬人的,不叫。(曹贵人)  A barking dog never bites。 /201412/350402。

As a graduate student at Teachers College, Columbia University, Victoria Porpora commuted to school from her parents’ home in Scarsdale, N.Y., where she grew up. The trip by Metro-North train to New York City took nearly an hour each way, because her arrival and departure point was the Harlem-125th Street Station on the East Side, and Columbia is on the West Side. “The crosstown bus was the killer,” she said. “It stops at almost every corner.”维多利亚·波尔波拉(Victoria Porpora)是哥伦比亚大学(Columbia University)教育学院(Teachers College)的一名研究生,她经常往返于学校与位于纽约州斯卡斯代尔(Scarsdale)的父母家之间,那是她从小长大的地方。每次搭乘大都会北方铁路(Metro-North)去纽约市,她在路上都会耗费将近一个小时,因为她上下车的地方是城东(East Side)的哈莱姆区125街车站(Harlem-125th Street Station),而哥伦比亚大学在城西(West Side)。“坐跨区公交车真是要命,”她说,“差不多每拐个弯就会停一站。”Ms. Porpora, 23, who is known as Tori, wanted to move to Manhattan, and the pieces fell into place when a friend connected her with Emma Murphy. Ms. Murphy, 22, who was living with her family in Mamaroneck, N.Y., had attended the University of Vermont for a year, but was starting at Columbia’s School of General Studies. She would have a similar commute, and was glad to team up with a roommate.今年23岁、人称多莉(Tori)的波尔波拉,曾经很想搬到曼哈顿生活,她经朋友介绍与艾玛·墨菲(Emma Murphy)相识之后,这个想法终于落实了。今年22岁的墨菲与家人一起生活在纽约州的马马罗内克(Mamaroneck),已经在佛蒙特大学 (University of Vermont)就读了一年,目前正准备进入哥伦比亚大学的通识教育学院(School of General Studies)读书。她的往返路线与波尔波拉相似,所以很高兴找个室友合住。Ms. Porpora’s graduate school friends, many of whom commuted themselves or rented rooms in Upper Manhattan, suggested she could easily hunt on her own, but she believed otherwise. “I am the queen of efficiency, and that sounded like a horrible idea,” she said. So she contacted her childhood friend Claire Marshall, a saleswoman at Citi Habitats.波尔波拉在研究生院的那些朋友大多自己往返,或在曼哈顿的上城区租房住。他们告诉她,独自一人也很容易找到住处,但她另有想法。“我是个节省女王,所以那个主意听起来一点儿也不靠谱,”她说。于是她联系了自己的一位儿时好友、花旗居屋(Citi Habitats)的女销售员克莱尔·马歇尔(Claire Marshall)。Neither Ms. Porpora nor Ms. Murphy had ever hunted for an apartment. They knew that finding a two-bedroom in their price range, up to ,800 a month, would be tough but doable. “As long as we had a kitchen and a bathroom, we were really open,” Ms. Porpora said.波尔波拉和墨菲以前都从没找过房子。她们知道,按自己提出的价格区间,找到一套月租不超过2800美元(约合人民币17538元)的两居室公寓可能会很艰辛,但还算可行。“只要有一间厨房和一间浴室就行了,其他的我们都可以接受,”波尔波拉说。Ms. Murphy felt overwhelmed. “I honestly didn’t even understand what a no-fee apartment rental was,” she said. Ms. Marshall explained it to her.墨菲则完全没有头绪。“坦白说,我甚至不明白什么叫无佣金租赁公寓,”她说。马歇尔给她解释了一番。They spent a snowy day looking, starting a bit south of Columbia at a walk-up building on West 109th Street in Manhattan Valley. The apartment, a two-bedroom with a washer-dryer, for ,795 a month, was on the ground floor, with windows facing the street. They flinched.俩人冒着大雪天去看房,从哥伦比亚大学南边不远处开始,她们在曼哈顿谷(Manhattan Valley)的西109街(West 109th Street)看了一栋不带电梯的公寓楼。那是一套两居室公寓,有一台洗衣/烘干机,月租2795美元(约合人民币17365元)。公寓位于一楼,窗户正对大街。但她们退缩了。“Everything that was installed — every appliance, every counter — everything was crooked,” Ms. Porpora said. “It felt like somebody threw together a two-bedroom out of something that was meant to be a studio or one-bedroom.”“房间里安装的每一样东西——包括每台电器、每个台面,全都变形了,”波尔波拉说,“感觉就像有人把原本的单间公寓或一居室公寓,硬生生地拼凑成了一套两居室。”Both felt claustrophobic in the tiny rooms. “I am 5-9 and that added to the level of tininess I was experiencing,” Ms. Murphy said. They passed.她们在那些小房间中感到了幽闭恐惧症。“我身高有1米8,所以尤其会觉得这里太小,”墨菲说。于是她们放弃了这套公寓。Farther south, on Amsterdam Avenue near 102nd Street, a two-bedroom in a small walk-up building was renting for ,550 a month. This one was above a restaurant. Ms. Murphy, having discussed her housing search with friends at her retail job at the Westchester mall, was wary.再往南走一段距离,在阿姆斯特丹大道(Amsterdam Avenue)靠近102街(102nd Street)的地方,有一套两居室公寓,位于一栋无电梯的小楼里,月租2550美元(约合人民币15842元),公寓下面就是一间餐馆。墨菲和几个同在韦斯切斯特商城(the Westchester)从事零售业的朋友讨论了自己找房的事之后,她的态度变得谨慎起来。“My boss told me a horror story about living above a restaurant with insects and rats and a lot of loud noise,” she said. “That was looming in the back of my head.”“我的老板刚给我讲了一个很可怕的故事,说住在餐馆上面会有许多虫子、老鼠和噪音什么的,”她说,“我到现在还在后怕呢。”Also a problem was the railroad layout, which would require one to walk through the other’s bedroom to get to the bathroom. The apartment seemed fine for a couple, Ms. Porpora said, but “it was so not conducive to any way we would want to live.”公寓的直筒式户型也是个问题,你得穿过室友的卧室才能进入洗手间。这套公寓似乎更适合夫妻居住,波尔波拉说,但“对我们而言,住起来就不那么方便了。”They soldiered on, wondering whether every place in their price range would have a drawback. “I trusted it was going to get better,” Ms. Murphy said.于是,她们继续前进,想知道在她们定的价格区间内,是不是每个地方都有不近理想之处。“我相信情况会越来越好的。”墨菲说。Still farther south, they visited a two-bedroom apartment in a five-story building. Both liked the location in the West 80s, “in an amazing neighborhood with Starbucks on one side and 150 independently owned restaurants on the other,” Ms. Porpora said, exaggerating just a bit. The rent was ,650 a month.又往南走了一段,她们来到一栋五层建筑中,看了一套两居室公寓。俩人都喜欢这套公寓不超过西80几街的位置,“这是个非常棒的社区,一边有星巴克(Starbucks),另一边有150家独立经营的餐馆,”波尔波拉说得有点儿夸张。这套公寓的月租为2650美元(约合人民币16464元)。“I noticed right away the apartment building smells nice, or at least it doesn’t smell bad, which was important for me,” Ms. Murphy said.“我立刻发现这栋公寓楼里的味道还不错,至少闻起来不恶心,对我来说这很重要。”墨菲说。The living area was an odd six-sided shape. The bathroom was minuscule. But each bedroom had a closet, and there was plenty of overhead storage, thanks to the high ceilings.这套公寓的客厅是罕有的六边形。浴室只是个弹丸之地。但每间卧室里都有一个衣柜,上面还有一大片空间可以存放东西,这多亏了那高高的天花板。The long, skinny layout seemed ideal for roommates. “The bedrooms were split so it didn’t feel they were on top of each other,” Ms. Marshall said.这对室友似乎对公寓的狭长户型非常满意。“两间卧室是分开的,所以不会感觉紧挨着对方。”马歇尔说。She told the two women that they needed to apply quickly if they were interested. They were. Ms. Murphy’s lesson about no-fee rental apartments was reinforced: This wasn’t one. The roommates split the broker fee of one month’s rent, and arrived just after Christmas in time for the new semester.她告诉两个女孩,如果她们想租下来,就得赶紧申请。于是她们照做了。墨菲还深刻领会了刚上过的无佣金租赁公寓课:这套公寓并不是。两名室友分摊了那笔佣金,即该公寓一个月的租金。她们过完圣诞节就搬了过去,等着新学期开学。Now, Columbia is an easy 20 minutes away via the No. 1 train. “I like having a home neighborhood and a school neighborhood,” Ms. Porpora said.现在,她们搭乘1号线只需20分钟,就能到达哥伦比亚大学了。“我喜欢住在一个既是住宅区、又是大学城的地方。”波尔波拉说。She pays ,250 a month for the smaller bedroom, which holds a bed and a dresser. “You couldn’t come in here with your Pottery Barn bedroom set,” she said, but it’s all she needs. Her room, and the living room, face a back alley.她每月付1250美元(约合人民币7766元),住在面积较小的卧室里,房里放了一张床和一个梳妆台。“你不可能把从Pottery Barn买的那套卧室家具都搬进来,”她说,但她要用的都有了。她的房间和客厅都面对着一条偏僻的小巷。Ms. Murphy pays ,400 a month for the larger room, where she can fit some shelves and tables. Her view is of an air shaft. “If I were to look out my window all day, I would be able to watch what my neighbors were doing,” she said.而墨菲每月付1400美元(约合人民币8698元),住在面积较大的房间里,里面还可以放几个书架和桌子。她房间外的景观是一个天井。“如果我整天往窗外看,就能看到邻居们都在做些什么。”她说。They planned to furnish the living room with a secondhand couch donated by Ms. Porpora’s sister, but learned it wouldn’t fit through the narrow hallway. “Tori’s dad is super handy and measured everything,” Ms. Murphy said. Instead, they have a futon handed down by Ms. Murphy’s father. It came apart for transport.她们原打算在客厅里摆上一座波尔波拉的送给她们的沙发,但发现客厅太窄了,沙发放不下。“多莉的爸爸非常能干,他量过了所有尺寸,”墨菲说。于是,她们用上了墨菲爸爸拿过来的一个日式坐垫。这东西在运输时可以拆开来。They were able to create both a sitting area and a dining area in the living room. They put the television in front of a window. It blocks part of the alley view, which sometimes features “people rolling garbage cans,” Ms. Porpora said. “It doesn’t bother me, but I can see how that would be a huge deterrent for a lot of people.”因此,她们可以把客厅分成休息区和进餐区。她俩还在一扇窗户前面放了一台电视机,挡住了窗外小巷里的部分景观。有时候那里总能看见“有人在滚垃圾桶,”波尔波拉说,“我倒不太在意,不过因此我就明白了,为什么许多人都对这套公寓望而却步。” /201504/372190。

Sara Frisk never thought about traveling to Mexico City until a stranger named Pilar Mu#241;oz invited her. Ms. Mu#241;oz, a publicist for designers, lives in a 4,300-square-foot penthouse apartment with glass walls and luscious green views. The home has richly grained wood floors, trim modern sofas and a kitchen island you could sacrifice an ox on.萨拉·弗里斯克(Sara Frisk)从没想过去墨西哥城,直到一个叫皮拉尔·穆尼奥斯(Pilar Mu#241;oz)的陌生人邀请了她。穆尼奥斯是一名为设计师务的公关人员,居住在一套4300平方英尺(约合399平方米)的顶层公寓中。这套公寓里有玻璃墙,坐拥令人舒心的绿色景观,铺设着纹理丰富的木地板,配备了精致现代的沙发,还有一个厨房岛台,你甚至可以在上面献祭一头公牛。“If I was going to Mexico, I wanted to be on the water, but that house is completely amazing,” said Ms. Frisk, a graphic designer and design consultant in the West Town neighborhood of Chicago.“我要是去墨西哥的话,就想去水上玩,但是那套房子太惊艳了。”弗里斯克说。她是一名平面设计师兼设计顾问,住在芝加哥的西镇(West Town)社区。She had lost her heart on Behomm, an 18-month-old home-exchange website that has the comeliness of a shelter magazine, with one big difference: Viewers don’t just drool over beautiful properties; they stay in them.她已经迷上了住宅交换网站——Behomm。该网站已有18个月的历史,和家居杂志一样充斥着精美的图片,但又与杂志有一个重大区别:访客不只是对着美宅流口水;他们还可以入住其中。Ms. Frisk had planned to travel over Thanksgiving and couldn’t make the timing work for the Mexico City dream loft (she ended up in the Berlin abode of two architects). Now she’s trying to arrange to stay there with a group of friends.弗里斯克本打算在感恩节出门旅行,但是匀不出时间去墨西哥城的梦幻之屋了 (结果她入住了两位建筑师在柏林的住所)。现在,她正试图组织一帮朋友跟她一起住到那去。“It feels a lot more spontaneous planning a vacation around the home than doing all the research about where you want to go,” she said.“我觉得,以住处为中心来计划旅行,比漫无目的地研究自己想去哪儿要自然多了。”她说。Like other home-swapping sites, Behomm (pronounced “be HOME”) allows its members to trade properties, simultaneously or at different times. No money changes hands, as with Airbnb. The conditions for bartering are worked out in advance, and the reciprocal arrangement helps visits run smoothly.和其他住宅交换网站一样,Behomm(发音为“be HOME”,寓意宾至如归)允许会员交换房屋,无论是同时还是错时。在此过程中没有金钱易手,就和Airbnb的模式一样。以物易物的条件已经预先制定,而互惠互利的安排有助于创造良好的入住体验。Arriving at their destination, guests may find wine chilling in the refrigerator, a car at their disposal and a pet waiting to be fed. The principle is mutually assured protection: Do unto another’s Bamp;B Italia sofa as you would have someone do unto yours.到达目的地以后,客人可能会发现酒水已经放入冰箱冰镇,有一辆汽车可供使用,有一只宠物嗷嗷待哺。交换住宅的原则是基于共识的保护:你要爱护别人家的B&B Italia(意大利家具品牌——译注)沙发,正如你希望别人爱护你家中的物品一样。What makes Behomm different (and a likely harbinger of home-exchange sites to come) is its peer-to-peer network. All its members are visual artists, designers or allied professionals. To join, they must work in one of 98 creative disciplines listed on the application, from animator to window dresser.Behomm的与众不同之处在于它的同类人圈子(这或许代表着住宅交换网站未来的发展趋势)。所有会员都是视觉艺术工作者、设计师或同类的专业人士。要想加入会员,申请者的职业必须在网站列出的98个创新门类之内,包括动画师、橱窗设计师等等。And they must have a great-looking place. The landing page at behomm#173;.com features, among other beauties, a fashion designer’s Danish beach cottage, a photographer’s 1920s Milanese flat and an architect couple’s rustic (but not really) house in the Iron Horse neighborhood of Tucson.而且,申请者必须拥有一个漂亮的住处。在behomm.com的登录页面上,该网站主打的特色美宅包括:一位时装设计师在丹麦海边的小木屋、一位摄影师在米兰的上世纪20年代公寓,以及一对建筑师夫妇在图森(Tucson)铁马(Iron Horse)社区的原木(并非真木)住宅。Given the expertise of Behomm’s members, such stylishness is almost a foregone conclusion. Or so the founders believe.鉴于Behomm会员所具备的专业素养,他们能提供如此有品味的住宅,几乎也是必然的结果。或者说,网站的创始人就是这么认为的。 #173;#8226;·Behomm was created by Eva Calduch and Agust Juste, both 48-year-old graphic designers in Barcelona, Spain. The couple, longtime home exchangers, had become tired of slogging through the tens of thousands of entries on popular sites like HomeExchange#173;.com.Behomm的创始人是伊娃·卡尔杜奇(Eva Calduch)和奥古斯特·胡斯特(Agust Juste)都是西班牙巴塞罗那的平面设计师,现年48岁。这对夫妻长期以来经常与人交换住房,他们厌倦了在HomeExchange.com这类大众网站上,从成千上万的房源里大海捞针。“We were wasting hours and hours,” Ms. Calduch said. Then one day they found an architect’s stunning apartment overlooking a seaport on the Balearic island of Minorca and realized that they ought to concentrate on the residences of their peers.“我们浪费了大把的时间,”卡尔杜奇说。后来有一天,他们从一位建筑师那里发现了一套令人惊艳的公寓,从屋里就可俯瞰巴利阿里群岛(Balearic island)的米诺卡岛(Minorca)上的一个海港。由此,他们意识到,以后应该专门从同行那里寻找住处。They began swapping with landscape architects, photographers and interior designers, and a network started, one that became the foundation of Behomm.他们开始与景观设计师、摄影师和室内设计师交换房屋,一个网络渐渐成型,为Behomm打下了基础。The first 300 people to join were offered free lifetime memberships (like many home-exchange sites, Behomm charges annual dues). Even now, new members have a year’s free trial before they pay a fee of 95 euros (about 3).前300名加入会员的人,都被免费授予了终身会员资格(和许多住宅交换网站一样,Behomm也收取年费)。即使是现在,新会员也有为期一年的免费试用期,试用期满后便需付95欧元(约合113美元,人民币702元)的费用了。The site has some 1,200 members, with Spain and the ed States supplying the most — about 200 each. The locations are as far-flung as Bali and Florianópolis, Brazil. Even Japan has four subscribers. (A remarkable number, Ms. Calduch said, considering that a Japanese colleague told her, “We don’t even invite friends over.”)Behomm网站大约有1200名会员,其中以西班牙和美国的会员为主——两国人数均为200人左右。用户的分布远至巴厘岛和巴西的弗洛里亚诺波利斯(Florianópolis)。就连日本也有四位用户(卡尔杜奇说,这个数字很可观,毕竟,一位日本同事曾经告诉她,“我们甚至连朋友都不邀请过来住的。”)。Around 10 to 20 percent of applications are rejected, often because the homes are shown to be messy or dirty. As for the rest, choices are based on “subjective aesthetics,” in Ms. Calduch’s words. Those decisions have nothing to do with size or luxury, she added: “A tiny place with very little can be nicer or more tasteful than a castle.”大约有10%到20%的申请会遭到拒绝,这往往是因为申请者展示的住宅显得脏乱。至于其他原因,用卡尔杜奇的话说,取舍标准是基于“主观美学”,与房子的大小或豪华程度无关。卡尔杜奇还说:“朴实的弹丸之地也可能比一座城堡更好、更有品味。”Nathalie Golliet, a designer in Paris who organizes culinary events, was one of the first to join. “I remember well, because I have the number 26,” she said.巴黎设计师娜塔莉·戈列(Nathalie Golliet)经常筹办美食活动,她是第一批加入的会员。 “我记得很清楚,因为我的编号是26号。”她说。She has made four swaps since becoming a member, including one in Marrakesh, Morocco, with Fran#231;oise Lefebvre, who shares her interest in food.自从成为会员后,她交换过四次房子,其中有一次换到了位于洛哥马拉喀什(Marrakesh)的房子,业主是弗朗索瓦·列斐伏尔(Fran#231;oise Lefebvre),她和戈列一样对美食感兴趣。Each woman was impressed with the other’s well-equipped kitchen. Ms. Golliet even learned how to prepare Moroccan dishes from a cook Ms. Lefebvre sent over while Ms. Golliet was staying at her house.两个人都对彼此设备齐全的厨房印象颇深。戈列甚至从列斐伏尔派来照顾她起居的厨师那里,学会了如何烹制洛哥菜。#8226;#173;·Behomm is not the only home-exchange network to streamline its membership. A site called Seniors Home Exchange is limited to people older than 50. The rationale is that this age group isn’t hampered by school-age children with disruptive vacation schedules. What’s more, the site insists, “Our experience has been that mature people tend to take better care of things when they are not theirs.”Behomm并不是唯一一个给会员设立门槛的住宅交换网站。一个名为“老人住宅交换”(Seniors Home Exchange)的网站将会员年龄限定在50岁以上。理由是,这个年龄段的人不会被学龄儿童混乱的假期安排所困扰。更重要的是,该网站坚持认为,“依照我们的经验,成熟人士更懂得爱护别人的东西。”Trust is fundamental to home exchange, and it is easier to come by in small communities with common interests.在住宅交换的问题上,信任是至关重要的。志同道合的小群体更容易达成信任。Arun Sundararajan, a professor at the Stern School of Business at N.Y.U., who researches the digital sharing economy, said social media platforms like Facebook and LinkedIn, and tools that verify one’s real-life identity, now allow us to vouch for a person’s credibility and good intentions.阿伦·孙达拉拉詹(Arun Sundararajan)是纽约大学斯特恩商学院(Stern School of Business)的教授,研究数字共享经济。他说,如今,Facebook和领英(LinkedIn)这类社交媒体平台,以及一些验个人真实身份的工具,都能够让我们为一个人的信誉和善意担保。Trust can be cultivated even in high-stakes situations like “letting a stranger into your bedroom,” he said, or in the case of long-distance ride-sharing programs like carpooling#173;.com, “letting a stranger drive you to a strange city.” This makes the time ripe for a peer-to-peer home-swapping venture that draws new people in.孙达拉拉詹说,信任是可以培养的,即使在高风险的情况下,比如“让陌生人进入你的卧室”,或是像carpooling.com这类长途搭车项目,“让一个陌生人开车送你去一个陌生的城市”。这就促使了创建同类人群住宅交换项目的时机成熟,吸引着新人的加入。For their part, Behomm’s members spoke of the comfort they found in their intimate network, the novelty of stepping into one another’s shoes and the value of acquaintances that bloom into friendships or business opportunities.就Behomm的会员而言,他们谈及自己在这个亲密的小圈子里体会到的舒自在;还有住在他人家中体会到的新奇感;以及从与人结交中发展出来的友谊或业务机遇。“It goes way beyond sharing a home — you share your lives,” said Alex Trochut, a graphic designer and illustrator who lives in New York and Barcelona. Mr. Trochut described the Behomm experience as the “very opposite of Airbnbn, because you feel entitled to things when you pay for them. This is about giving and not receiving.”“这远非共享住宅那么简单——你还分享了自己的生活经历,”亚历克斯·特罗许(Alex Trochut)说。特罗许是一名平面设计师、插画师,现居纽约和巴塞罗那。他表示,Behomm给人的体验和Airbnb“截然相反,因为如果一样东西是需要付钱的,你就会觉得这是自己应得的。而在Behomm,你所做的就是不计回报地给予。”Can it really be that good? Ms. Calduch said that she has refereed only two small conflicts in the last year and a half. One involved cleaning. “There was a misunderstanding,” she recalled. The other had to do with confusion over which of a member’s multiple homes was being offered.Behomm真的有他说的那么好吗?卡尔杜奇说,在这一年半里,她只调解过两次小矛盾。其中一次事关房屋的清洁问题。“他们之间有些小误会。”她回忆道。另一次的起因是,其中一方搞不清楚对方与他交换的是哪套住宅(对方有多套住宅)。To fend off squabbles, she supplies forms that allow users to specify all the terms for an exchange, including stipulations for purging cat hair and sharing toys. Still, conversations with some Behomm members suggested ample room for dispute.为避免纷争,她提供了表格,让用户列明某次交换的全部条件,包括清理猫毛和分享玩具的具体规定。尽管如此,通过采访一些Behomm会员我们发现,产生分歧的机会还是很多。For instance, Wendy Rommers and her husband, Bas van Schelven, often swap their primary residence near Amsterdam, which is a houseboat.举个例子,温迪·罗默斯(Wendy Rommers)和丈夫巴斯·凡·谢尔万(Bas van Schelven)经常交换他们靠近阿姆斯特丹的主要居住地,那是一座船屋。Ms. Rommers, who is a multidisciplinary designer (Mr. van Schelven owns the company that makes the boats), said that the vessel doesn’t have particular maintenance needs, though she advises keeping the water running on freezing nights. As for safety, there are life jackets, “and things you can throw into the water” that a drowning person might grasp. She made no mention of liability insurance.罗默斯是一位跨领域的设计师(而凡·谢尔万掌管着一家造船公司),她表示,这艘船并没有特别的维护需求,只不过她建议,在严寒的夜里要保持水的流动状态。至于安全问题,屋里备有救生衣,“还有一些可以扔到水里的东西”,以供溺水者抓住。她没有提到责任保险。Indeed, one of the few negative anecdotes came from Mr. Trochut, and he was the cause of havoc. While he and a girlfriend were staying in Copenhagen in 2008, his companion had an asthma attack that put her in the hospital.事实上,在Behomm屈指可数的几件负面轶事中,有一件的当事人就是特罗许,而且,他还是罪魁祸首。2008年,他和一位女朋友在哥本哈根逗留期间,他的同伴因哮喘发作住了院。His hosts were so helpful in advising the couple on medical care that Mr. Trochut decided to repay them by washing the bed linens. Eager to finish before they returned home, he set the washer at the highest speed, which produced vibrations that caused the machine to tumble onto the adjacent bathroom sink, crushing the perfume bottles lined up there.他的房东为两人就医提供了很大帮助,特罗许决定清洗亚麻床单来报答他们。由于急于在房东归来前完成洗涤,他将洗衣机的转速设在了最高档,谁知由于振动太猛,机器翻倒在旁边的浴室盥洗池上,将那里一字排开的香水瓶击碎了。Mr. Trochut discovered the carnage just as his hosts walked in. “We got to an agreement,” he said. “I paid for everything.”特罗许在发现这一惨状时,房东刚好进门。“我们达成一个协议,”他说,“东西都由我赔。” /201502/359164。