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来源:时空在线    发布时间:2019年06月20日 10:10:25    编辑:admin         

When Michelle Tam was growing up in Menlo Park, Calif., in the 1980s, her family sipped broth with dinner every single night.20世纪80年代,米歇尔·谭(Michelle Tam)在加利福尼亚州门洛帕克长大,那时她家每晚都煲汤。“We were full-on Cantonese,” Ms. Tam said, explaining that a light soup with herbs and perhaps a vegetable or two is an integral part of many traditional Chinese meals, acting as a digestive, a palate cleanser and a drink. “My mom used to make me go to the butcher and ask for the bones to make broth, which was totally embarrassing.”“我们是地道的广东人,”谭说。她解释说,带有药草和一两片蔬菜的清淡骨汤是很多中国人传统一餐中必不可少的一部分,它能帮助消化,清洁味蕾,也是一种饮料。“以前,我妈经常让我去肉铺要骨头炖汤,搞得我很难为情。”Today, Ms. Tam writes and illustrates the popular Nom Nom Paleo blog, one of many sources devoted to Paleo eating, the diet du jour that is an exercise in eating “like our ancestors,” as adherents describe it, by which they mean the hunter-gatherers of the late Stone Age.如今,谭是Nom Nom旧石器饮食客的主。这个热门客是专门研究旧石器饮食的众多资源之一。追随者们把这种日常饮食习惯形容为“像祖先那样”饮食,他们说的祖先指的是石器时代后期的采集狩猎者。One of the cornerstones of the diet is “bone broth,” the clear, concentrated meaty elixir that home cooks and chefs have known more or less forever as stock. Those ancestors probably made theirs by dropping fire-heated rocks into the stomachs of whatever animals they managed to kill. The subsequent invention of the pot made soups, stocks and broths staples in virtually every corner of the culinary world.这种饮食的基础之一是“骨汤”。这种清澈、浓郁、多肉的灵丹妙药被称为高汤,长期以来,各种家庭厨师和大厨们对它或多或少都有了解。祖先们做骨汤的方法很可能是把用火烤热的石头放入他们杀死的任何猎物的胃里。锅发明之后,汤、高汤和骨汤成为世界各地烹饪界的一道主食。Recently, this prehistoric food has improbably become a trend beverage, ranking with green juice and coconut water as the next magic potion in the eternal quest for perfect health. Like other health foods that have taken off in recent years — yogurt, quinoa — broth combines mystical connections to the ancient world and demonstrable nutrition benefits in the modern one.最近,这种史前食物不可思议地成为一种流行饮品,和蔬菜汁、椰汁一起,成为人类在不断追求完美健康的道路上发现的新魔力药水。和近些年受热捧的酸奶、藜麦等其他健康食物一样,骨汤既与古代社会有神秘联系,也在现代社会具有可明的营养益处。“I would never have thought I’d be the person who makes homemade stock,” said Ms. Tam, who now saves bones from grass-fed beef and frequently produces batches of stock in her pressure cooker. She used to grab a box of shelf-stable stock when making soup or stew, figuring that organic was a good substitute for homemade. Now, she’s a convert to the real thing: the clear, bright, essential flavor that only fresh stock, made from high-quality ingredients, can provide.“我原本从没想过自己会成为自制高汤的人,”谭说。现在她把草饲肉牛的骨头存起来,经常用高压锅炖好几轮高汤。过去,她经常购买耐储存的汤冻,用来煲汤或炖菜,还认为这种有机食品是自制高汤的优良替代品。现在,她转向了真正的高汤:只有用高品质的食材现做的高汤才能带来清澈、透亮、纯粹的风味。“Just because something is organic doesn’t mean it has the nutrition we’re looking for,” Ms. Tam said. “Or that it’s delicious.”“有机的东西里不一定具有我们想要的营养,”谭说,“也不一定美味。”The difference between stock and broth is elusive in the bowl but clearer in the kitchen. Many people use the terms interchangeably, but strictly speaking, both broth and stock include bones and meat, but stock has a higher proportion of bones to meat. And to those who have taken up “broth-ing,” it is the content of the bones — including collagen, amino acids and minerals — that is the source of its health benefits. Extracting the nutrients from bones is accomplished through long cooking and by adding some acid to the pot, like vinegar, wine or a bit of tomato paste, which loosens and dissolves the tough bits.高汤和骨汤的区别从碗里不大容易看出来,但是在厨房里看得比较清楚。很多人混用这两个词,不过,严格来讲,虽然骨汤和高汤都是用骨头和肉熬出来的,但是高汤中骨头的比例较大。对于用骨汤养生的人来说,骨汤的健康益处来自骨头中的成分,包括胶原蛋白、氨基酸和矿物质。从骨头中萃取这些营养素要靠长时间熬制,加入醋、葡萄酒或番茄酱等酸性物质能帮助溶解骨头中较硬的部分。Nourishing bone broth has even begun to replace espresso and chai in the to-go cups of the millions of Americans who have at least attempted the Paleo diet. (Coffee and tea, along with dairy products, legumes and grains, are forbidden.)营养丰富的骨汤甚至开始取代浓咖啡和印度奶茶,成为上千万对旧石器饮食(禁止食用或饮用咖啡、茶、奶制品、豆类和谷物)多少有点兴趣的美国人外带杯中的饮料。“When you talk to chefs about this, everyone’s head is exploding,” said the chef Marco Canora, who has just opened Brodo, a storefront window in the East Village attached to his restaurant, Hearth, where three different flavorful broths are dispensed in paper cups. Like an espresso drink, the broths at Brodo can be customized, with add-ins like grated fresh turmeric, house-made chile oil and bone marrow from grass-fed cattle, which transforms plainly delicious broth into a richly satisfying snack.“我跟大厨们谈起这个时,简直炸开了锅,”大厨马尔科·卡诺拉(Marco Canora)说。他刚在东村开了一个店面窗口Brodo,这个窗口是和他的餐馆Hearth连在一起的。他在这个窗口用纸杯售卖三种口味的骨汤。和浓咖啡一样,Brodo的骨汤也可以依照顾客的口味添加调料,比如磨碎的鲜姜黄、自制辣椒油或草饲肉牛的骨髓,这些东西能把清淡、美味的骨汤变成浓郁、可口的小吃。“Every chef knows how to make stock, everyone uses it as an ingredient, but it would never occur to anyone that you could sell it,” he said.“每个大厨都知道怎么做高汤,每个人都用它作原料,但谁也没想过,你能单卖高汤,”他说。But right now, it seems, you can. Belcampo, the year-old meat company that sells pasture-fed beef from cattle raised on its own ranch in Northern California, just started serving .50 cups of house-made bone broth as a side dish in its five butcher shop-restaurants. Online sources have sprung up to meet demand, selling frozen bone broth by the quart or by subscription.但是现在你似乎可以这样做。老牌肉类公司Belcampo售卖在北加州自己牧场上草饲的肉牛,现在它刚开始在自己的五个肉店餐馆供应3.5美元一杯的自制骨汤,作为一道配菜。网上也涌现出很多骨汤供应商,按夸脱或按订购量售卖。Mr. Canora turned to broth after he adopted a modified Paleo diet about five years ago, when at age 40 he found himself depressed, prediabetic, overweight and showing early signs of gout. “For 20 years, I smoked, I drank my face off, and 80 percent of my diet was b and butter,” he said. Like many chefs, he ate mostly standing up, late at night, and with an eye to consuming as many fatty pork products as possible.大约五年前,40岁时的卡诺拉发现自己情绪低落,糖尿病前期,超重,有痛风的早期迹象,于是开始采取略加改造的复古饮食法,开始喝骨汤。“有20年的时间,我抽烟,经常喝醉,80%的食物是面包和黄油,”他说。和很多大厨一样,他经常深夜吃快餐,只关心摄取尽可能多的肥猪肉制品。“Twenty years ago, if you talked about health and wellness in chef circles, they would laugh you out of town,” he said. Now, chefs are beginning to understand that food has to be more than just delicious, he said.“20年前,如果你在大厨圈谈论健康,你会被他们笑话死的,”他说。他说,现在大厨们开始明白,食物必须不只是美味。After a bout of nutritional consultations, he emerged clutching a list of forbidden foods longer than he’d imagined possible.经过一轮营养咨询,他得到了一个禁食食物清单,这个单子比他能想到的还要长。In some ways, the Paleo guidelines echo the rules of culinary-simplicity gurus like Alice Waters, René Redzepi and Mr. Canora: use the best raw ingredients — grass-fed meats, wild plants and fish, natural sweeteners, pristinely fresh fruits and vegetables — and do as little to them as possible. In others, like the ban on b, whole grains, rice, butter, pasta, dried beans, fresh beans, cheese and cream, Paleo would seem to be the enemy of good food. Broth is one of the places where the two strands meet.从某些角度讲,旧石器饮食法的指导方针类似于爱丽丝·沃特斯(Alice Waters)、勒内·雷泽皮(René Redzepi)和卡诺拉等简朴烹饪宗师的原则:使用最好的原材料——草饲肉类、野生植物和鱼、天然甜味剂、天然新鲜的水果和蔬菜——尽量少加工。此外,旧石器饮食法还禁食面包、全麸谷物、大米、黄油、面食、干豆、鲜豆、奶酪和奶油,似乎是美食的对立面。而骨汤是旧石器饮食和美食的交汇点之一。The broths that were aly simmering on the stoves at Hearth, Mr. Canora said, helped him adjust to an entirely new way of eating, described in his new cookbook, “A Good Food Day.”骨汤在Hearth餐馆的炉子上慢慢煮炖着。卡诺拉在新烹饪书《一个美食日》(A Good Food Day)中说,骨汤帮他养成了一种全新的饮食习惯。“Broth was always my comfort food,” he said. Growing up with a Tuscan mother, he recalls that there was always fresh meat and poultry broth in the house. “Instead of sipping coffee all day and wine all night,” he said, “I started walking around with cups of broth, and that’s where the idea for Brodo came from.”“骨汤一直能给我带来慰藉,”他说。他的妈妈是托斯卡纳人。他回忆说,小时候家里总有鲜肉和鲜禽汤。“我不再整天喝咖啡,整晚喝葡萄酒,”他说,“而是走哪儿都端着骨汤。开设Brodo的想法就是这么来的。”But most “broth-ers” are not chefs who happen to have homemade stocks sitting around. They are conscious eaters who have stumbled onto what generations of cooks in other cuisines have long known: Broth made with plenty of bones contributes to well-being in ways that other foods don’t.不过,大部分“骨汤食用者”并不是本来手边就有自制高汤的大厨,而是偶然发现了其他烹饪法中历代厨师很久以前就知道的事情:用大量骨头炖出来的骨汤对健康的益处是其他食物无法提供的,所以他们开始有意食用骨汤。“It’s been known through history and across cultures that broth settles your stomach and also your nerves,” said Sally Fallon Morell, an author of the new book “Nourishing Broth.” “When a recipe has that much tradition behind it, I believe the science is there too.”“从古至今,在很多文化中,人们都知道骨汤能养胃、安神,”新书《营养丰富的骨汤》(Nourishing Broth)的作者萨莉·法伦·莫雷尔(Sally Fallon Morell)说,“如果一个食谱有漫长的历史,我相信它一定有科学道理。”Ms. Fallon, whose first book, “Nourishing Traditions,” has sold more than half a million copies, is a farmer in Maryland and a leader of the Weston A. Price Foundation, a group dedicated to promoting the benefits of preindustrial food and cooking. Dr. Price was an early-20th-century dentist who became preoccupied by the effects of traditional diets and postindustrial diets on dental health, and later on health in general. With the advent of low-tech diets like raw food, whole food and Paleo, the foundation has become increasingly visible, providing a central resource on topics like raw milk, biodynamic agriculture and the health benefits of animal fats. (On the website, a photo of a glowingly healthy family at the beach is captioned, “They are happy because they eat butter!”)法伦的第一本书《营养丰富的传统》(Nourishing Traditions)销售了50多万册。她是马里兰州的农民,也是韦斯顿·A·普里斯基金会(Weston A. Price Foundation)的主管。该机构致力于宣传前工业化的食物和烹饪法的益处。普里斯是20世纪初的一位牙医,他痴迷于研究传统饮食和后工业饮食对牙齿健康的影响,后来发展为研究这两种饮食法对身体健康的整体影响。随着生食、天然食物和旧石器饮食等低科技饮食的出现,该基金会越来越引人注目,成为生牛奶、生物动力农业和动物脂肪健康益处等话题的主要来源(该机构的网站上有一张照片,照片上是面色红润、健康的一家人在海滩上,图注是“他们很开心,因为他们吃黄油!”)。Although there are few reliable studies on the medicinal effects of broth, the foundation has done analysis that shows it may provide benefits for inflammatory diseases, digestive problems and even dopamine levels.虽然关于骨汤的药用效果几乎没有可靠的研究,但是该基金会的分析表明,骨汤可能有助于缓解炎症和消化不良,甚至能帮助提高多巴胺水平。Many Asian cuisines have a version of Long Life Broth, often a combination of whole birds and fresh or dried shellfish, with bones, feet and shells contributing their nutrients to the pot. In the 12th century, the “Jewish penicillin” cliché was born when the physician Maimonides wrote that chicken soup “is recommended as an excellent food as well as medication.” In the Caribbean, “cow foot soup,” rich with collagen, is eaten as a strengthening breakfast and for all sorts of ailments.亚洲的很多菜系中都有长寿肉汤,通常包括整只肉禽、鲜贝或干贝,再加入骨头、蹄和壳来增加营养素。12世纪,人们经常谈论的“犹太青霉素”诞生了,它指的是鸡汤。当时,医生迈蒙尼德(Maimonides)写道,鸡汤“被奉为优良食物,也被视为药物”。在加勒比地区,人们早餐常喝含有丰富骨胶原的“牛蹄汤”,认为它能强身健体,治愈各种小病。Korean seolleongtang and Japanese tonkotsu are broths that are thick and creamy with fats and myoglobin from bone marrow. In France, there are strict separations among stocks — light veal, dark veal, raw chicken, roasted chicken — but all of them are ideally of a perfect clarity, clear enough to the date on a coin at the bottom of the pot, according to French tradition.韩国的牛骨汤和日本的猪骨汤都浓郁柔滑,富含脂肪和肌红蛋白,它们来自骨髓。在法国,高汤有严格的分类——清淡小牛肉汤、浓郁小牛肉汤、生鸡汤和烤鸡汤——但是依照法国传统,完美的肉汤必须十分清澈,清澈得足以看清锅底硬币上的日期。But there is no need to be that picky, or to be on the Paleo diet, to appreciate a good broth. Making one is as easy as getting your hands on fresh, meaty bones — preferably including some knuckles or necks or another cartilaginous part — then covering them with water and simmering them patiently until the broth tastes good to you. Meat and poultry can go in the same pot (delicious batches of the stuff arise from such combinations). Aromatics are optional.品尝美味的骨汤不需要那么挑剔,也不必采取旧石器饮食法。煲汤很容易,弄些新鲜、多肉的骨头——最好含有关节、脖子或其他软骨——然后加水没过骨头,耐心地用小火炖,直至你觉得汤尝起来很美味。把畜肉和禽肉放在一起炖(这样的组合能炖出好几轮美味的汤)。可以加些香料。Last month, a steady stream of customers lined up at the Brodo window on a raw, wet afternoon, sipping and tasting, and somewhat dumbfounded that such a basic food could taste so good.上个月一个阴冷、潮湿的下午,Brodo的窗口前一直排着长队,顾客们品尝骨汤,为如此基本的食物能如此美味而感到有些惊叹。“My grandmother used to drink a jelly glass of chicken broth every day, even when it was broiling hot outside,” said Carl Hoffman, who stopped in on his way home from work at Beth Israel Hospital nearby. Estelle Hoffman lived to be 106, he said: “She called it her fountain of youth.”“我祖母在世时每天喝一杯鸡汤,甚至在滚烫的时候就开始喝,”卡尔·霍夫曼(Carl Hoffman)说。他在附近的以色列堂医院(Beth Israel Hospital)工作,在回家的路上顺便到这里买汤。他说,他祖母埃斯特尔·霍夫曼(Estelle Hoffman)活到了106岁,“她常说鸡汤是她的青春之源”。 /201502/358202。

While the world has grown accustomed to images of near-apocalyptic pollution in Beijing, the world#39;s worst air can be found some 2,400 miles to the west.当整个地球都习惯于北京那近乎灾难的空气污染时,世界上空气最脏的地方却远在2400英里的西方。In 2014, the World Health Organization measured air quality levels in 1,600 cities around the world, and the Indian capital city of New Delhi was found to have the highest concentration of particulate matter smaller than 2.5 micrometers, also called PM2.5.在2014年,世界卫生组织对世界上1600座城市的空气等级进行测量,印度首都新德里被测出了世界上最高的PM2.5浓度。The city#39;s average PM2.5 level was a whopping 153, compared to 14 in New York and 56 in Beijing. The WH( #8226;s safety threshold for humans is 10. PM2.5 particles are not visible, but they go deep into the lungs, a nd are more likely to cause chronic health problems.这座城市的PM2.5等级达到惊人的153 ,而纽约只有14,北京只有56。而世界卫生组织的人类安全阈值为10。PM2.5颗粒是肉眼不可见的,但它们能深入肺部,很容易造成慢性健康问题。;Delhi is a very green city,; said Kamal Meattle, a Delhi-based air pollution activist. ;But even the gr eenest areas of Delhi have extreme pollution levels.;“德里是一座绿色都市,”德里空气污染活动家卡马尔说,“但是,即使在德里最绿色的区域,污染也已经爆表。”Meattle#39;s TED talk on the topic has garnered more than 2 million views, but he complains that Delhi is still in denial mode.卡马尔关于此课题的TED大会已经获得了超过200万关注,但是,他抱怨说,德里依然在否认这个事实。;Although Delhiites have stopped drinking tap water, my question is: You drink about 2-3 liters of water per day but breathe 2,000 liters of air per day -- (when) you are concerned about the water, but you are not concerned about the air, there is a mismatch,; Meattle said.卡马尔说,;纵然德里已经停止饮用自来水,但我的问题是:你每天只需要喝2-3公升水,但却需要呼吸2000公升空气——(当)你关心水的质量时,你却没有关心空气,你遗漏了重点。;According to analysts, the large number of old vehicles on roads, burning of bio-mass, industry emissions and coal-powered power stations are mainly to blame for Delhi#39;s pollution levels. There are roughly 8.5 million registered vehicles in the city, and 1,400 cars are being added to the streets each day.根据分析师的分析,路上行驶的大量老旧机动车,大量生物燃料消耗,工厂排放和火电站是德里空气污染的主要原因。这座城市在册的机动车大约为850万辆,每天都会新增1400辆汽车。Barun Agrawal of Breathe Easy, a Delhi-based air-filtration company, said that increased awareness has boosted sales.德里的一家空气净化器公司Breathe Easy公司的巴伦凡·阿格拉沃尔说,人们逐渐增强的环境意识保了产品销量。;First two years of business, we had very few sales,; Agrawal said. ; Lately, we are struggling to meet p eople#39;s needs.;“最早的两年,我们只卖出了很少的产品,”阿格拉沃尔说,“但近来,我们已经供不应求了。”Agrawal said that many in the expatriate community have gotten the message, and are stocking up on air purifiers. But attitudes among Indians have been slower to change, despite a sharp rise in media coverage.阿格拉沃尔说,很多在印度的外籍人社区已经意识到了这个问题,开始储存空气净化器。但是,虽然媒体不断报道空气危机,印度本土人的看法却没有多少改变。;The majority of Indians will still say: #39;I want to make my children strong. I don#39;t want to make them #39;delicate darlings#39; by giving them air purifier and clean air for a few hours,#39; ; he said.;大多数印度人依然在说:‘我想让我的孩子们更强壮,我不想让他们在空气净化器的干净空气中生活,因为这会让他们的抵抗力下降。#39;;Meattle, the activist, said the government needs to be more responsive.社会活动家卡马尔说,政府应该更加负责。;I think the first people to be convinced are the politicians, the bureaucrats and the judges ... people who really matter in the sense that they understand the problem is going to create a major health issue and major costs,; he said.;我认为首先需要说政客,官僚和法官。。。他们要明白,空气污染将成为健康问题和经济损失的主因。;Prime Minister Narendra Modi recently launched a national Air Quality Index, or AQI, which will monitor pollution levels in major urban cities on a real-time basis. Data are currently available in 10 cities including Delhi.总理纳伦德拉·莫迪最近建立了一个国内的空气质量标准,简称AQI,将实时监控主要城市的空气质量。现在,已经包括了德里在内的10座印度城市。Last week, the National Green Tribunal, a government agency that deals with environmental disputes, attempted to ban diesel-powered vehicles older than 10 years from Delhi#39;s streets.上周,国家绿色法院,一个主要处理环境争端的政府部门,打算禁止德里所有寿命超过10年的柴油机动车上道。Beyond Delhi, the news doesn#39;t get better for the South Asian powerhouse: 13 out of the world#39;s 20 most polluted cities are in India, and the WHO says outdoor air pollution is the country#39;s fifth biggest killer.除了德里,这则消息对整个印度来说也不是什么好事:全球20座空气最脏的城市中,有13座在印度,世界卫生组织说,空气污染已经成为这个国家的第五大杀手。 /201504/370634。

ROME — Samantha Cristoforetti had an espresso on Sunday that was out of this world, and she did it in the name of science.罗马——周日,萨曼莎·克里斯托弗雷蒂(Samantha Cristoforetti)享用了一杯世间难寻的意式浓缩咖啡,而且是以科学的名义。Ms. Cristoforetti is an astronaut, the seventh Italian and the first Italian woman to venture into orbit. She has been at the International Space Station since November, and over the weekend got to do something quintessentially Italian: She became the first person to drink an authentic serving of what she called “the finest organic suspension ever devised” in space.克里斯托弗雷蒂是一名宇航员,她是进入过太空的第七名意大利航天员,也是首位意大利女性。从去年11月以来,她一直待在国际空间站(International Space Station)里。上周末,她做成了一件非常具有意大利特色的事情:她成了第一个在太空品尝到纯正意式浓缩咖啡(espresso)的人。她把这杯咖啡称作太空中“有史以来最细腻的有机悬浮液”。“Fresh espresso in the new Zero-G cup! To boldly brew ... ” she posted on social media, where she has been chronicling her stay on the station with photos and explanatory s.“新的零重力杯里的新鲜意式浓缩!大胆地煮……”她在社交媒体上说。她一直在上面用照片和视频记录自己在空间站的生活。However much she may have enjoyed her first espresso in more than five months, making the drink in orbit was no lark, but “a very serious study in fluid physics,” Roberto Battiston, president of ASI, the Italian space agency, wrote in an emailed statement. “Until Sunday, we didn’t know exactly how hot fluids under high pressure reacted” in the near-weightless environment of the space station, he said. “Now we do.”无论她多么享受这五个多月以来的第一杯意式浓缩,在太空中制作这杯饮料可不是为了好玩,而是“一项非常严肃的流体物理学研究,”意大利航天局(ASI)局长罗伯托·巴蒂斯顿(Roberto Battiston)在一份邮件声明中说。“在上周日之前,我们都不能确切地知道,热流体在高压下会出现何种反应,”他说。“现在我们得到了。”A special espresso maker, named ISSpresso, was designed for the task by Argotec, an engineering and software firm based in Turin, and the Italian coffee producer Lavazza, with help from the space agency. It was included among the experiments and technical demonstrations that Ms. Cristoforetti, a captain in the Italian Air Force, was scheduled to carry out on her mission to the station, which ends in mid-May.这台特制的意式浓缩咖啡机叫做ISSpresso,在ASI的帮助下,由位于都灵的设计和软件公司亚果科技(Argotec)和意大利咖啡生产商Lavazza制作。它是克里斯托弗雷蒂计划在空间站完成的实验和技术演示中的一项。克里斯托弗雷蒂是意大利空军的一名飞行员,她的这次任务将于5月中旬结束。“Coffee represents one of the distinctive elements of Italian culture,” said a spokeswoman for the agency, who requested anonymity under her agency’s rules for employees.“咖啡是意大利文化中的独特元素之一,”航天局的一名发言人说。由于该局对雇员的相关规定,她要求匿名。Making a proper espresso — a singular alchemy of high temperature, water pressure and perfectly tamped coffee — is difficult enough to master on earth. Microgravity conditions made the task still more complicated, and Argotec took two years to work out how to do it.制作一杯像样的意式浓缩咖啡——这个流程需要高温、水压,还要把咖啡粉完美地压实——在地球上就已经很难了。微重力条件让这个任务更加复杂,亚果科技花了两年时间才解决这个问题。“We developed our hardware on the basis of the parameters for making good coffee, while considering safety requirements,” said Valerio Di Tana, an engineer at the company.“我们根据制作好咖啡的标准开发了我们的硬件设备,同时还考虑了安全方面的要求,”公司的工程师瓦莱里奥 ·迪塔纳(Valerio Di Tana)说。The squat, 44-pound machine wound up looking something like an old-fashioned laboratory incubator, built from military-standard components. “You don’t see those on terrestrial machines,” Mr. Di Tana said.这台低矮的机器重44磅(约合20千克),采用军工标准的零件打造而成,看上去就像是一台旧式的实验室孵化器。“你在地球上的机器里看不到这些零件,”迪塔纳说。The dripless system is even designed to emit a small waft of coffee odor when the straw is inserted into the pouch containing the brew. Two small flaps on the side allow an astronaut to hold it without burning a hand.通过不滴水系统的特殊设计,当把吸管插入盛有咖啡的小袋时,还可以释放出少量的咖啡香气。侧面设计了两个小活板,宇航员拿着的时候不会烫手。The ISSpresso machine makes other hot drinks as well, including tea and consommé. “This is important from the nutritional aspect, but also gives the astronauts a psychological boost,” David Avino, the managing director of Argotec, said in a telephone interview on Monday.这台ISSpresso还能制作其他热饮,包括茶和清炖肉汤。“它不仅能在提供营养方面能够发挥作用,还能让宇航员在心理上更加振奋,”亚果科技的执行董事戴维·阿维诺(David Avino)周一接受电话采访时说。The company had aly begun the project when another Italian astronaut, Luca Parmitano, remarked in a June 2013 interview from the space station that the one thing he really missed in space “was a good cup of espresso.”在这家公司启动这个项目之后不久,2013年6月,另一名意大利宇航员卢卡·帕米塔诺(Luca Parmitano)在空间站接受采访时曾说,他在太空中唯一十分想念的东西,“就是一杯香醇的意式浓缩咖啡”。 /201505/373444。

Writing is valuable. It doesn’t just transfer insights, it creates them. And since “good words are worth much and cost little,” choosing the right words is worth the price you pay in time (and sanity).会写作能给你增值。它并非简单地将你的见解从内心转移到纸面,同时也是新想法产生的过程。所谓“好话不花钱,一句值千金”,你值得在遣词造句上费心推敲。At Help Scout we look at the quality of writing through the same demanding lens we use to evaluate the quality of code.在我的公司Help Scout,我们会用评估编码质量的严苛标准,来评价商业写作的质量。I certainly don’t have this writing thing figured out—not even close—but thanks to the gracious feedback from ers, here are a few common signs that your writing is heading in the right direction:虽然我本人离写作高手还有一定距离,但基于无数热心读者的反馈所赐,在此我们总结出了一些要诀,可以指引你的写作走向正确的方向:1. Brevity. Soul. Wit.1. 简洁、言之有物、措辞巧妙。Few things drag down writing more than sping good ideas over too many words.用长篇大论展现好的想法,最容易毁掉一篇文章。2. Writing is not flaunting your vocabulary.2. 写作不是炫耀你的词汇量。“When you write you should pretend that you, the writer, see something in the world that’s interesting, that you are directing the attention of your er to that thing in the world, and that you are doing so by means of conversation,” says Harvard psychologist Steven Pinker. Writing is not meant to prove ownership of a thesaurus—it is the selective transcribing of thoughts.哈佛大学心理学家史蒂芬o平克表示:“你在写作时应该设想自己看到了一些有趣的事情,你要通过对话的方式,引导读者关注这些事情。”写作不是明你拥有丰富的词汇,而是选择性地把你的思想记录下来。3. On having your cake and eating it, too.3.既要让文章好看,也要让读者有所得The best writing is that which pleases at a glance but further rewards careful study. “A thoughtful list post” may seem like an oxymoron , but like a movie you can re-watch a dozen times, good writing hooks easily yet hides gifts for a discerning mind.最好的文章既能让人一见钟情,更能让读者在细心研读之后有所收获。就像一部百看不厌的电影一样,好的写作可以轻松抓住有辨识力的读者,并且能不断给他们带来意外的收获。4. Don’t bury the lede.4. 不要浪费导语的作用。Before pen to page or fingers to keyboard, you must begin with knowing what you are trying to say. Every piece of writing should have the thesis, the value proposition, be entirely clear from the outset. The journey to the end of your essay should be rewarding for reasons other than figuring out what point you’re trying to make.下笔之前,你首先要清楚自己想要说什么。每一篇文章都应该有一个主题,有一个从一开始就明确阐述的价值主张。 读完你的文章,应该是对你缜密推理的回报,而不是想搞清楚你究竟想表达什么观点。5. To write more ‘Damn Good Sentences,’ them.5. 要想写出更多“佳句”,多多阅读。In the book How To Write a Sentence, New York Times columnist Stanley Fish laments that “many educators approach teaching the craft of writing a memorable sentence the wrong way — by relying on rules rather than examples.” Garbage in, garbage out; you’ll produce better sentences if you dedicate time to ing them.在《如何写出好句子》一书中,《纽约时报》专栏作家斯坦利o菲什不无惋惜地表示,“在教人们如何写出令人难忘的句子时,许多教育工作者都使用了错误的方式——依靠规则而不是例子。”所谓进来的是垃圾,出去的也是垃圾;只要你能花时间读一些佳句,你肯定也能写出更好的句子来。6. “In other words,” you should have used other words.6. “换言之,”你应该用其他的词。Insight is memorable when it can be embraced directly—don’t pad it with “essentially,” “basically,” or “in other words.” Use the right words the first time.只有能被人直接领悟的见解,才会令人记忆深刻——不要通篇都是“本质上”、“基本上”或“换言之”这样的词。在初次写作时就要使用正确的词汇。7. Don’t tell people how to travel; show them your vacation photos.7. 不要告诉人们如何旅行;让他们看你的度假照片。Grandstanding on topics you know little about makes you disingenuous—your deception oozes from every paragraph to an informed er. Instead, hop off your soap box and don’t preach, be the Sherpa; share what you’ve learned in an honest way. People love following a journey.在自己知之甚少的话题上哗众取宠,会让读者感觉你不诚实——在有见地的读者眼中,你的每一段文字都透露着欺骗。相反,离开你的临时讲台,停止说教,像夏尔巴人一样;用诚实的方式告诉读者你所知道的。人们喜欢效仿别人的旅程。8. An idea is nothing without a reaction.8. 得不到反馈的想法一无是处。Reactions are oxygen for writing. Until you get feedback on what you’ve said, your analysis can only reveal so much. Be prepared for critiques and criticism; great work is contingent on a willingness to be judged.反馈是决定一篇文章成败的关键。在你所写的内容得到任何反馈之前,你的分析并不会带来更多启示。做好面对批评的准备;一篇文章成功与否,取决于作者愿意接受评判的程度。9. “Just write” is tired advice, but still needed.9. “坚持写下去就行”虽是一条老套的建议,但依旧很有必要。If you’re looking for a way to make hard work easy, you won’t find it in writing. You’ll struggle with the blank page until your butt falls off the chair—but until that day, keep sitting down and do the work.如果你想找一种化繁为简的方式,别考虑写作。你会在空白页面前苦苦挣扎,直到从椅子上摔下去——一定要坚持下去,完成写作。10. Meandering endings can sour good writing; approach them quickly.10. 曲折的结尾会让一篇好文章失分;结尾要干脆利落。I’ll let Paul Graham handle this one: “Learn to recognize the approach of an ending, and when one appears, grab it.”我将用保罗o格拉汉姆的话作为本文的结尾:“学会辨认结尾的方法。遇到好的结尾,把它记下来。”(财富中文网) /201502/358746。