福建妇幼保健院做试管婴儿周健康

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 福建妇幼保健院做试管婴儿健社区
The news for the watch industry is bad. “The headwinds are very strong — especially for watches,” warns Richard Lepeu, chief executive of Richemont, the Swiss luxury goods group whose brands include Cartier and Montblanc. The group’s sales in April 2016 were 15 per cent lower than the year before, in constant currencies.来自钟表行业的消息不容乐观。历峰集团(Richemont)首席执行官里夏尔#8226;勒珀(Richard Lepeu)警告称:“阻力很大,对于钟表行业来说尤其如此。”这家瑞士奢侈品集团旗下品牌包括卡地亚(Cartier)和万宝龙(Montblanc)。历峰集团2016年4月按固定货币计算的销售额较上年同期下降了15%。Statistics on foreign sales of Swiss watches show trouble across the industry: in the first quarter of 2016, exports were 8.9 per cent lower than in the previous year, according to the Federation of the Swiss Watch Industry. The trouble has been blamed on a range of factors, from China’s economic slowdown to a strong Swiss franc.瑞士钟表产品海外销售额的统计数据显示,整个钟表行业都表现疲软:根据瑞士钟表协会(Federation of the Swiss Watch Industry)的数据,2016年第一季度的出口额较上年同期下降了8.9%。这一局面被归咎于多方面的因素,包括中国经济增长放缓以及瑞士法郎走强。The industry’s hope is that this year will bring an improvement, particularly in the US. “The global environment is tough mainly because of the significance of Hong Kong as a market. There is an overhang of inventories, but I think the more affordable watches are aly selling better,” says Scilla Huang Sun, a luxury sector specialist at GAM Investment Management in Zurich.瑞士钟表行业寄望于今年的状况能有一定起色,特别是在美国市场。总部位于苏黎世的GAM投资管理公司(GAM Investment Management)奢侈品行业专家黄意芝(Scilla Huang Sun)表示:“全球市场环境较为严峻,主要原因在于香港作为一个市场,地位很重要。目前奢侈手表存在库存积压的情况,但我认为价位更加亲民的手表,销售情况已经开始好转。”Even as Hong Kong has suffered, sales in Japan have been lifted by a weaker yen, which has lost 12 per cent of its value against the dollar since its 2015 low. The US this year could also offer grounds for optimism, sector experts reckon. Last year, a stronger dollar led to European purchases displacing US sales, but those effects may start to weaken.即便香港市场形势不利,日本市场的销售额在日元走软的推动下已经有所上升,日元兑美元汇率较2015年的低点已经贬值了12%。行业专家认为,对美国市场今年也有理由保持乐观。去年美元走强导致销售额从美国向欧洲市场转移,但这些影响或已开始弱化。“We can see that the American continent is showing great potential and positive growth,” says Fran#231;ois Thiébaud, president of Tissot, the Swiss watch brand.瑞士钟表品牌天梭(Tissot)的总裁弗朗索瓦#8226;蒂埃(Fran#231;ois Thiébaud)表示:“我们看到,美国市场正展现出巨大潜力和正向增长趋势。”A recovery in the US would strengthen the case for those who expect traditional luxury timepieces to ride out the challenge from smartwatches. Mr Thiébaud argues that, contrary to the watch industry’s gloomy view, the arrival of the Apple Watch has not changed US attitudes. “A traditional watch is not just about giving time, but it is also about conveying emotions related to a gift or a certain time in life,” he says. “There is nothing emotional about an electronic device.”美国市场回暖能够持那些认为传统奢侈手表能够顶住来自智能手表的挑战的观点。蒂埃认为,不同于手表行业的悲观预期,苹果手表(Apple Watch)的出现并没有改变美国消费者的态度。“一块传统手表的价值并不仅仅在于提示时间,还能传递与一份礼物或者生命中某一时期相连的特定情感。而电子产品则不具备任何情感价值。”Nobody is rushing to predict a rebound, however. “The global economy is going to be very slow this year. It may take a couple of years for the industry to pick up,” says May Ling Tham, an analyst at Euromonitor International. In April, the International Monetary Fund warned the global economic recovery had “weakened further amid increasing financial turbulence”. It expected the global economy to grow by a modest 3.2 per cent in 2016 — roughly the same as last year but less than it had expected as recently as January.但目前还没有人急着做出钟表行业将会触底反弹的预测。欧睿国际(Euromonitor International)分析师May Ling Tham表示:“今年全球经济增长将会非常疲软,钟表行业或许需要好几年的时间才能有所回升。”国际货币基金组织(International Monetary Fund)今年4月警告称,“全球经济复苏进一步放缓,受金融动荡加剧影响。”该组织预计2016年全球经济增速将仅为3.2%——与去年基本持平,但低于其在今年1月份发布的预测值。In emerging markets — previously bright spots for luxury brands — “prospects across countries remain uneven and generally weaker than over the past two decades”, the IMF’s World Economic Outlook reported.在曾是奢侈品牌业绩亮点的新兴市场,国际货币基金组织在《世界经济展望》(World Economic Outlook)中指出,“各个新兴市场国家的经济增长前景仍然参差不齐,增长势头总体而言弱于过去二十年。”Watch and jewellery industry revenues are likely to follow such trends closely. “The health of luxury watch sales largely depends on GDP growth prospects and consumer sentiment,” says Thomas Chauvet, luxury sector analyst at Citigroup.手表和珠宝行业的销售收入很可能将紧跟上述趋势。花旗集团(Citigroup)奢侈品行业分析师托马斯#8226;肖维(Thomas Chauvet)表示:“奢侈品手表销售的景气程度主要取决于国内生产总值的增长前景以及消费者情绪。”But it is not a simple correlation. Watch sales have been buffeted by currency movements. The slide in Swiss watch exports has been exacerbated by the strength of the franc (1.20 to the euro before it was unpegged in January 2015, now 1.10), which has increased manufacturing and employment costs in Switzerland. A strong dollar and weak euro have offered “greater price arbitrage opportunities for tourists and facilitated the emergence of well-organised parallel markets, particularly in Europe”, notes Mr Chauvet.但这并不是一种简单的正相关关系。手表销售一直受汇率波动左右。瑞士手表出口额的下滑在瑞士法郎走强的影响下进一步恶化(瑞士法郎在2015年1月取消盯住欧元时的汇率为1.2瑞士法郎兑换1欧元,现在已经升值至1.1法郎兑换1欧元),后者导致瑞士境内的生产成本和雇佣成本上升。肖维指出,美元走强和欧元疲软为游客提供了“更大的价格套利空间,并有助于推动组织完善的平行市场的出现,特别是在欧洲地区”。Sales to the Chinese, meanwhile, are still being hit by the crackdown on offering gifts to authorities as part of the country’s anti-corruption drive.与此同时,中国市场的销售额仍然受到政府严厉打击向官员送礼的不利影响,这是中国反腐败运动的一个组成部分。The industry’s difficulties remain particularly acute in Hong Kong, where the effects have been worsened by excessive stock levels in an overcrowded market. Swiss watch exports to Hong Kong were almost a third lower in the first quarter of 2016 than a year earlier.手表行业所面临的困境在香港市场上依然表现得尤为突出,在过度拥挤的香港市场上,过高的存货水平进一步强化了这些不利因素的影响。2016年第一季度,瑞士对香港的手表出口额较上年同期近乎减少了三分之一。Richemont revealed recently it was helping dealers in Hong Kong with excessive inventories by buying back products — and either reallocating them to other markets or dismantling and recycling them.历峰集团近期宣布,正在通过回购产品的方式帮助香港境内库存过多的经销商——回购的手表要么被调转到其他市场销售,要么被拆解以后循环利用。In a report published in April, Euromonitor forecast that in the next five years the US would cede the title of the world’s biggest spender on watches to China. “The transfer of power from west to east had seemed on course to happen earlier, but was derailed by the Chinese government’s crackdown on ostentation and extravagant gifts, and by a depreciation of the Chinese currency since 2015,” the report noted.在4月份发布的一篇报告中,欧睿国际预计在未来五年内,美国将把全球第一大手表消费国的地位让给中国。这份报告写到:“从西方向东方的影响力转移似乎注定会在更短的时间内发生,但这一进程被中国政府严查铺张浪费和奢侈送礼的运动打乱,同时也受到了自2015年以来人民币贬值的影响。” /201607/457196

American politics has long been conducted in the shadow of violence. Two of the country’s most celebrated presidents — Abraham Lincoln and John Kennedy — were assassinated. During the 1968 presidential election campaign, Bobby Kennedy was also assassinated, five years after the killing of his brother and two months after the murder of Martin Luther King, the civil rights leader. Ronald Reagan was also shot and wounded in the early years of his presidency.长期以来,美国政治一直笼罩在暴力的阴影下。美国最著名的总统中,有两位遭到暗杀,他们是亚伯拉罕#8226;林肯(Abraham Lincoln)和约翰#8226;肯尼迪(John Kennedy)。1968年大选期间,比#8226;肯尼迪(Bobby Kennedy)也被暗杀,这起事件发生在他哥哥遭暗杀五年后、民权领袖马丁#8226;路德#8226;金(Martin Luther King)被谋杀两个月后。罗纳德#8226;里根(Ronald Reagan)在担任总统初期也曾被人用打伤。It is this history of political violence that makes Donald Trump’s suggestion that American gun owners could somehow stop Hillary Clinton so incendiary and dangerous. It is difficult to listen to the Republican nominee’s remarks and to regard them as anything other than an oblique, but unmistakable, suggestion that somebody might try to kill his Democratic rival rather than see her appoint liberal judges to the Supreme Court.正是这种政治暴力史让唐纳德#8226;特朗普(Donald Trump)的最新言论显得如此具有煽动性和危险性。特朗普暗示,美国持有者可以通过某种方式阻止希拉里#8226;克林顿(Hillary Clinton)。在听到这位共和党总统候选人的言论后,我们只能把这些言论理解为一种隐晦但确定无疑的暗示:某些人可以尝试去杀死他的民主党竞争对手,而不是眼看着她委任自由派人士为美国最高法院(Supreme Court)法官。The Trump campaign’s spin that he was merely appealing to “Second Amendment people” to get out and vote is unconvincing. The statement was made in the context of a discussion of how the US would look once Mrs Clinton had been elected and started appointing judges. There would, said Mr Trump, be “nothing you can do” — before musing aloud, “although the Second Amendment people, maybe there is”.特朗普的竞选团队解释说,他只是在呼吁《宪法第二修正案》的持者们站出来投票。这种说法是不能令人信的。特朗普是在讨论一旦希拉里当选并开始任命法官、美国会怎样的语境下发表上述言论的。特朗普表示,到那时“你们什么都做不了”,然后他大声说,“不过《宪法第二修正案》的持者们或许会有办法”。The word “irresponsible” barely covers this latest outrageous statement. Mr Trump has aly allowed an atmosphere of violence to fester around his campaign. He has encouraged supporters to beat up hecklers and said that he wanted to punch speakers at the Democratic convention, “so hard their heads would spin”. At the Republican convention, the Trump campaign had to disavow a delegate’s suggestion that Mrs Clinton should be “shot for treason”.他这番骇人言论已不能用“不负责任”这个词简单概括。特朗普已任由暴力的气氛在他的竞选活动中发酵。他怂恿持者殴打起哄的人,并表示他想给在民主党全国代表大会上发言的人一拳,“打得他们头晕目眩”。在共和党全国代表大会上,特朗普竞选团队不得不对一位代表有关希拉里应“因叛国罪被杀”的说法表示不赞成。Mr Trump now has a well-established record of making outrageous statements and then claiming that he has been misinterpreted. He mocked a disabled reporter — and then denied it. He suggested that another journalist had asked him tough questions because she was menstruating — and then denied it. In the same speech in which he talked of the “Second Amendment” people taking action against Mrs Clinton, he once again flirted with the conspiracy theory that Antonin Scalia, a conservative Supreme Court judge, had been murdered.特朗普一向是先发表粗暴无礼的言论,然后声称自己遭到误解——这一点现在可以说是众所周知。他曾嘲笑一位残疾记者,接着又否认。他还说过,有位记者曾问他很难回答的问题,因为她正处在生理期,后来,他又否认自己这么说过。在暗示《宪法第二修正案》持者可以对希拉里采取行动的讲话中,他再次玩起了阴谋论,称美国最高法院持保守主义立场的法官安东宁#8226;斯卡利亚(Antonin Scalia)被谋杀了。Some will suggest that Mr Trump’s latest ramblings are further proof that he is deranged or out of control. But the truth may be rather more sinister. The Republican candidate has become a specialist in appealing to the wildest fringes of the American right by making statements that are clearly understood by them and by a wider audience but that are also just about deniable.一些人会说,特朗普最新的疯言疯语进一步明,他已神经错乱或失控。但真相可能更危险。这位共和党总统候选人已极为擅长于迎合美国最狂热的极右翼分子,他会发表一些显然被他们和更多人理解、又几近可以抵赖的言论。Opinion polls suggest that this appalling strategy is not going to deliver Mr Trump success at the ballot box. But the fear must be that they will further poison the political atmosphere in the US and encourage the kind of political violence with which Mr Trump is now flirting.民调显示,这种可怕的策略不会让特朗普在选举中获胜。但人们肯定要担心,这将进一步毒害美国的政治环境并鼓励特朗普正在玩弄的那种政治暴力。 /201608/460162News sp quickly through the literary world: Nigerian novelist Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, winner of a 2008 MacArthur “genius” grant, had given birth to a baby girl. But the growing public attention didn’t focus on the fact of the birth – that was material better left to the *tabloids – but on the manner in which the announcement was given. Adichie, in fact, hadn’t actually announced it at all.近来,一个消息在文学界传开了:尼日利亚小说家、2008年麦克阿瑟天才奖获得者奇麻曼达#8226;阿迪契生了个女孩儿。然而,公众的关注点并不在她产女的消息上——这种事或许小报才关心——而是她如何公开这个消息。事实上,阿迪契从未真正公开过这个消息。Instead, she casually let it slip during an interview with the Financial Times’ David Pilling, over a lunch of *jollof rice, curry and steamed greens. As Pilling recounts in an article published late last month, Adichie ordered a non-alcoholic cocktail, offering a simple explanation: “I’m *breastfeeding.”阿迪契只是在接受《金融时报》记者大卫#8226;帕琳采访时才轻描淡写地提到,他们当时正在一起享用辣椒炖鱼肉饭、咖喱蒸蔬菜的午餐。在上月末发表的一篇文章中,帕琳描述道,阿迪契点了一杯无酒精的鸡尾酒,随口解释道:“我正在哺乳期。”Pilling writes he took a moment to process the *revelation, before inquiring further. This spurred Adichie to explain why she chose to keep quiet. “I just feel like we live in an age when women are supposed to perform pregnancy. We don’t expect fathers to perform fatherhood,” she said. “I wanted it to be as personal as possible.”帕琳在文章中称,在进一步询问前,他花了些时间来消化这句话。这也促使阿迪契说明自己选择沉默的原因。“我只是觉得,我们生活在一个要求女性将怀公开的时代。然而父亲们却不必亮出自己为人父的身份,”她说到。“我想让怀变得尽可能地私人化。”The conversation doesn’t go much further, but her words raise the question of what it means to be pregnant today, in our hyper-connected society. Pregnant women have always born the weight of societal expectations – only now, one of those burdens has to do with the *spectacle of pregnancy.这场对话并没有进行太久,但是她的话却让人想到了一个问题:在如今这个信息高效传递的社会中,怀究竟意味着什么?怀的女性总是承受着社会的期待——而在今天,这些负担还和怀的公开有关。It’s hard to hide a growing belly, especially after four to five months or so, but now more than ever, a *fetus’s development has become a public event. Social media serves as a *catalogue for users’ life changes, and if mood swings and wardrobe updates qualify, pregnancy certainly fits the bill. To withhold such information would be treated as a betrayal by the social media audience, which has come to expect a degree of intimacy from the medium.我们很难藏住一个日渐隆起的腹部,尤其在四五个月后,但现在,胎儿的发育和以往任何时候相比,都成为了一个更为公开的事情。社交媒体就像是记录用户生活变化的一览表,如果情绪波动和衣柜更新都属于这个范畴,那么怀自然也不例外。对这些信息有所保留,将会被社交媒体的围观者们视为一种背叛。因为大家都希望能借此增加亲密感。The internet has shifted the very way we speak about pregnancy, just over the last decade and a half. Phrases like “baby *bump” and “bump watch” may be *ubiquitous online and in tabloids nowadays, but they were virtually nonexistent before the start of the new millennium.在过去的十五年间,互联网改变了我们谈论怀的方式。类似于“婴儿凸”和“相观察”这种词汇或许在今天的网络和小报中十分普遍,而事实上,它们在新千年之前还并不存在。Slate reporter Dvora Meyers traces “baby bump” back to 2002, when the tabloid Us Weekly started to use it to describe the midsections of pregnant celebrities. Jezebel’s Sadie Stein places the origins of “bump watch” not long after, in 2004, as the *paparazzi scanned the stomachs of celebrities for evidence of a developing child.《Slate》杂志记者德沃拉#8226;迈耶斯将“婴儿凸”这一说法追溯至2002年,当时小报《美国周刊》开始用这个词来形容怀名人的上腹部。Jezebel网站的莎蒂#8226;施泰因认为“相观察”一词首次出现在不久后的2004年,当时仔队仔细观察名人们的腹部,并以此作为怀的据。With so much emphasis on women’s *midriffs, it’s little wonder that the pregnancy photos online have become a series of headless portraits, the camera laser-focused on the expanding belly in question. This style of photo can seem dehumanizing: The woman stands in profile to give her growing belly maximum effect, but her face is usually cut off at the top of the frame. The fetus is given symbolic importance, not the mother-to-be.由于人们对女性上腹部如此关注,网上的照变成了一系列“无头肖像”也不足为奇,相机只关注人们热议的日益隆起的腹部。这样的照片似乎是缺乏人性的:女性侧身站在镜头前,她们隆起的腹部成为了最抢眼的部分,然而面部却往往被裁掉。胎儿被赋予了高度的象征意义,而准妈妈却被无视了。Performing pregnancy continues well after the baby is born. An equally modern phenomenon is the concept of the “post-baby body”: New mothers must race to *shed their pregnancy fat after conceiving, to return to their so-called “real” weight. It’s just one more pressure to add to a slate now filled with the day-to-day care of a newborn, and it’s little wonder Adichie wanted no part of it.怀消息公开这件事甚至在婴儿降生后还在继续。“后身材”也是个现代现象:新妈妈们必须快速地甩掉产后脂肪,回到所谓的“现实”体重。这是除了每天照顾新生儿以外的又一压力,也难怪阿迪契并不想公开怀生产的消息。 /201607/456964

An escalating war on drugs in the Philippines has led to almost 1,800 deaths under new president Rodrigo Duterte, the country’s police chief has said.菲律宾警察总长表示,新总统罗德里戈#8226;杜特尔特(Rodrigo Duterte)上台后,不断升级的禁毒战争已造成近1800人死亡。At a Senate committee hearing on extrajudicial executions in the Philippines, Ronald Dela Rosa said 712 people had been killed in police anti-narcotics operations since July 1, the day after Mr Duterte assumed the presidency, while 1,067 deaths were being investigated as drug-related vigilante killings.菲律宾参议院一委员会就国内发生的法外处决事件举行了听会,罗纳德#8226;德拉罗萨(Ronald Dela Rosa)在会上表示,自7月1日杜特尔特就任总统后,有712人在警方缉毒行动中被杀,还有1067起死亡正被作为与毒品相关的自告奋勇者杀人案件在调查中。The new figures come as Mr Duterte fends off criticism at home and abroad over his anti-drugs campaign, which has seen 600,000 potential suspects voluntarily turn themselves in to authorities.这一新数据公布之际,杜特尔特正抵御国内外对其禁毒运动的指责,已有60万名潜在嫌疑人向当局自首。The president lashed out at the UN on Sunday for voicing human rights concerns over his war on drugs, saying the Philippines might leave the organisation and form a new body with China and African nations.联合国表示,菲律宾总统发起的禁毒战争存在人权问题。周日杜特尔特因此向联合国发起抨击,并表示菲律宾可能离开联合国,转而与中国和非洲国家组成一个新机构。 /201608/462368China Railway Rolling Stock Corporation (CRRC), the country#39;s largest rail transportation equipment maker, will start researching and developing a magnetic levitation (maglev) train that can run 600 km per hour, which would be faster than any other maglev train currently in operation.我国最大的轨道交通设备制造商中国中车将启动时速600公里的磁浮列车的研发工作,这一速度超过目前运行的其他任何磁浮列车的速度。The company said it will build a maglev rail line no less than 5 km long to test the train.中国中车日前表示,将建设一条长度不小于5公里的高速磁浮试验线。It will also develop maglev trains that travel at 200 km per hour, with the goal of establishing domestic technology and standard systems for new-generation medium- and high-speed maglev transportation that can be applied globally, said Sun Bangcheng, a CRRC official.中国中车一位名叫孙帮成的负责人表示,该公司还将建造时速200公里的磁浮列车,以形成我国自主并具有国际普遍适应性的新一代中、高速磁浮交通系统技术体系及标准规范体系。In addition, the firm will kick off research and development of cross-border high-speed trains that can run 400 km per hour and alternate between different track gauges ranging from 600 mm to 1676 mm.此外,中国中车将启动时速400公里跨国联运高速列车的研发工作,该列车能够在600毫米到1676毫米的不同轨距的铁路上运营。Such trains will consume 10% less energy than the country#39;s 350 km/h bullet trains currently in use, said Sun.孙帮成表示,相比我国现有的时速350公里的高速列车,此列车的能耗将降低10%。China has seen rapid development of its high-speed railways in recent years, with their total length exceeding 20,000 km, the world#39;s longest high-speed rail network.近年来,中国的高速铁路发展迅速,其总长度超过20000公里,构成了世界上最长的高速铁路网。The country started operation of its first home-grown maglev rail line in May, with trains running at a maximum speed of 100 km per hour.我国在5月份开始运行了首列国产磁悬浮铁路,该列车运行最高时速为每小时100公里。 /201610/474916

The lives of children from rich and poor American families look more different than ever before.美国贫富家庭子女的生活差异,看起来比以往任何时候都大。Well-off families are ruled by calendars, with children enrolled in ballet, soccer and after-school programs, according to a new Pew Research Center survey. There are usually two parents, who spend a lot of time ing to children and worrying about their anxiety levels and hectic schedules.皮尤研究中心(Pew Research Center)的一项新调查发现,富裕家庭完全按日程安排行事,子女跳芭蕾、踢足球、参加课外项目。这些家庭通常是双亲家庭,家长会花大量时间给子女读书,并且担心他们的焦虑程度和紧张的日程安排。In poor families, meanwhile, children tend to spend their time at home or with extended family, the survey found. They are more likely to grow up in neighborhoods that their parents say aren’t great for raising children, and their parents worry about them getting shot, beaten up or in trouble with the law.调查也发现,贫困家庭的孩子往往待在家中,或在大家庭中消磨时光。他们成长的社区,更可能被其父母形容为不适合养育孩子,而父母会担心他们遭击、挨打或参与违法活动。The class differences in child rearing are growing, researchers say — a symptom of widening inequality with far-reaching consequences. Different upbringings set children on different paths and can deepen socioeconomic divisions, especially because education is strongly linked to earnings. Children grow up learning the skills to succeed in their socioeconomic stratum, but not necessarily others.研究者认为,子女抚养方面的阶级差异正在扩大,这是不平等现象加剧的一个征兆,将会有深远的影响。不同的养育方式会将孩子置于不同的发展路径,并加深社会经济的差距,尤其是考虑到教育与收入有很强的关联。孩子成长过程中,会学到在其所处的社会经济阶层内取得成功的技能,但不一定会学到其他技能。“Early childhood experiences can be very consequential for children’s long-term social, emotional and cognitive development,” said Sean F. Reardon, professor of poverty and inequality in education at Stanford University. “And because those influence educational success and later earnings, early childhood experiences cast a lifelong shadow.”斯坦福大学从事贫穷和教育不平等研究的教授肖恩·F·里尔登(Sean F. Reardon)指出:“早期童年经历会对儿童在社会、情感和认知方面的长期发展产生很大影响。由于这些因素会影响教育的成功,进而影响以后的收入,因此早期童年经历会影响人的一生。”The cycle continues: Poorer parents have less time and fewer resources to invest in their children, which can leave children less prepared for school and work, which leads to lower earnings.这个循环还不止于此:较穷的父母可以投入到子女身上的时间和资源较少,可能会使子女的入学和工作准备不足,进而导致收入降低。American parents want similar things for their children, the Pew report and past research have found: for them to be healthy and happy, honest and ethical, caring and compassionate. There is no best parenting style or philosophy, researchers say, and across income groups, 92 percent of parents say they are doing a good job at raising their children.皮尤的报告和过去的研究发现,美国父母对子女的期望都差不多:希望他们健康快乐、诚实有道德、有爱心和同情心。研究者认为,世上不存在最好的养育方式或理念;在所有收入阶层中,92%的父母认为他们在养育子女上做得不错。Yet they are doing it quite differently.但是,他们的养育方式却有相当大的差异。Middle-class and higher-income parents see their children as projects in need of careful cultivation, says Annette Lareau, whose groundbreaking research on the topic was published in her book “Unequal Childhoods: Class, Race and Family Life.” They try to develop their skills through close supervision and organized activities, and teach children to question authority figures and navigate elite institutions.安妮特·拉罗(Annette Lareau)认为,中产阶级和较高收入的父母将子女看成需要精心培育的工程。他们努力通过密切的监督和有组织的活动来培育孩子的技能,教导孩子质疑权威,出入于精英机构。拉罗将有关该主题的突破性研究发表在《不平等的童年:阶级、种族和家庭生活》(Unequal Childhoods: Class, Race and Family Life)一书中。Working-class parents, meanwhile, believe their children will naturally thrive, and give them far greater independence and time for free play. They are taught to be compliant and deferential to adults.而工薪阶层的父母则认为子女可以自然而然地成长,给他们更多自主权和自由玩耍的时间。孩子们被教导要顺从成年人,对成年人要尊敬。There are benefits to both approaches. Working-class children are happier, more independent, whine less and are closer with family members, Ms. Lareau found. Higher-income children are more likely to declare boredom and expect their parents to solve their problems.两种方法各有长处。拉罗发现,工薪阶层子女更快乐、更独立、抱怨少,与家庭成员更亲近。在收入较高的家庭,子女更可能觉得无聊,期望父母帮他们解决问题。Yet later on, the more affluent children end up in college and en route to the middle class, while working-class children tend to struggle. Children from higher-income families are likely to have the skills to navigate bureaucracies and succeed in schools and workplaces, Ms. Lareau said.不过之后,富裕家庭的子女上大学和进入中产阶级的道路更顺畅,而工薪阶层子女则往往要奋斗。拉罗说,高收入家庭的子女更擅于应付官僚程序,在学校和工作中取得成功。“Do all parents want the most success for their children? Absolutely,” she said. “Do some strategies give children more advantages than others in institutions? Probably they do. Will parents be damaging children if they have one fewer organized activity? No, I really doubt it.”“是否所有父母都希望子女获得最大的成功?绝对是,”她说。“某些策略是不是可以让孩子在学校里取得更多优势?这有可能。如果父母少安排一项活动,是否就会给孩子带来损害?我对此真的很怀疑。”Social scientists say the differences arise in part because low-income parents have less money to spend on music class or preschool, and less flexible schedules to take children to museums or attend school events.社会科学家认为,出现差异的部分原因在于,低收入的父母可以花在音乐课或学前班上的资金较少,日程灵活性也较差,没时间带孩子去物馆或参加学校活动。Extracurricular activities epitomize the differences in child rearing in the Pew survey, which was of a nationally representative sample of 1,807 parents. Of families earning more than ,000 a year, 84 percent say their children have participated in organized sports over the past year, 64 percent have done volunteer work and 62 percent have taken lessons in music, dance or art. Of families earning less than ,000, 59 percent of children have done sports, 37 percent have volunteered and 41 percent have taken arts classes.课外活动集中地体现了皮尤的调查中发现的养育方式的差异,该调查的样本包括1807位父母,具有全国代表性。调查发现,年收入超过7.5万美元的家庭中,84%称其子女在过去的一年中参加过有组织的体育活动,64%做过志愿者工作,62%参加过音乐、舞蹈或艺术类学习班。在年收入低于3万美元的家庭中,59%家庭的子女参加过体育活动,37%做过志愿者,41%参加过艺术学习班。Especially in affluent families, children start young. Nearly half of high-earning, college-graduate parents enrolled their children in arts classes before they were 5, compared with one-fifth of low-income, less-educated parents.尤其是在富裕家庭中,孩子们很小就开始(参加各种活动)了。在大学毕业的高收入父母中,有近一半的人在子女5岁之前就为其报了艺术学习班,相比之下,教育程度较低的低收入家长这么做的比例为五分之一。Nonetheless, 20 percent of well-off parents say their children’s schedules are too hectic, compared with 8 percent of poorer parents.尽管如此,富裕家庭的父母当中,还是有20%认为,其子女的日程安排太紧张。而相比之下,贫穷父母的这个比例是8%。Another example is ing aloud, which studies have shown gives children bigger vocabularies and better ing comprehension in school. Seventy-one percent of parents with a college degree say they do it every day, compared with 33 percent of those with a high school diploma or less, Pew found. White parents are more likely than others to to their children daily, as are married parents.另一个例子是朗读。研究显示,朗读能让孩子在上学后拥有更大的词汇量和更好的阅读理解能力。皮尤的研究发现,在有大学学历的父母中,有71%的父母称他们每天这样做,而相比之下,只有高中或以下文凭的父母这么做的比例是33%。在婚内双亲家庭中,相对于其他家长,白人父母每天为子女朗读的比例更高。Most affluent parents enroll their children in preschool or day care, while low-income parents are more likely to depend on family members.大多数富裕的父母为其子女报了学前班或日托班,而低收入父母则更可能将子女托付给家人。Discipline techniques vary by education level: 8 percent of those with a postgraduate degree say they often spank their children, compared with 22 percent of those with a high school degree or less.处罚子女的方式因教育程度不同而存在差异。在有研究生学历的父母中,有8%的父母称他们经常打孩子屁股,而相比之下,教育程度在高中或以下的父母这么做的比例是22%。The survey also probed attitudes and anxieties. Interestingly, parents’ attitudes toward education do not seem to reflect their own educational background as much as a belief in the importance of education for upward mobility.调查还探究了家长的态度和焦虑情况。有意思的是,家长对教育的态度似乎与家长的教育背景关系不太大,而与是否持有教育对向上流动具有重要意义这个信念的关系更大。Most American parents say they are not concerned about their children’s grades as long as they work hard. But 50 percent of poor parents say it is extremely important to them that their children earn a college degree, compared with 39 percent of wealthier parents.多数美国家长表示,只要孩子努力学习,就不关心孩子的分数。但贫困家长中,有半数称,他们认为孩子取得大学学历很重要,相比之下,较为富裕的家长中这个比例仅为39%。Less-educated parents, and poorer and black and Latino parents are more likely to believe that there is no such thing as too much involvement in a child’s education. Parents who are white, wealthy or college-educated say too much involvement can be bad.教育程度较低的家长,较为贫困的家长,以及黑人和拉丁裔家长,更倾向于认为过多干预孩子的教育不是一个问题。而白人家长、富有的家长或受过大学教育的家长则表示,过多干预孩子的学习可能产生坏作用。Parental anxieties reflect their circumstances. High-earning parents are much more likely to say they live in a good neighborhood for raising children. While bullying is parents’ greatest concern over all, nearly half of low-income parents worry their child will get shot, compared with one-fifth of high-income parents. They are more worried about their children being depressed or anxious.父母的焦虑反映了他们的家庭条件。高收入的家长更倾向于表示,他们生活的社区适合抚养孩子。尽管总体而言,孩子受到欺负是父母最大的担忧,但低收入的家长中有近半数担心孩子遭到击,高收入父母中则只有五分之一。他们更担忧的是孩子出现抑郁或焦虑。In the Pew survey, middle-class families earning between ,000 and ,000 a year fell right between working-class and high-earning parents on issues like the quality of their neighborhood for raising children, participation in extracurricular activities and involvement in their children’s education.在皮尤的调查中,年收入在3万至7.5万美元的中产家庭,在居住的社区是否适合养育孩子、参与课外活动、干涉孩子的教育等问题上,正好处在工薪阶层和高收入阶层家长之间。Children were not always raised so differently. The achievement gap between children from high- and low-income families is 30 percent to 40 percent larger among children born in 2001 than those born 25 years earlier, according to Mr. Reardon’s research.养育孩子的方式并不是一直都有这么大的区别。里尔登的研究发现,在高收入家庭和低收入家庭之间,出生于2001年的孩子当中的成绩差距,与25年前出生的孩子相比扩大了30%到40%。People used to live near people of different income levels; neighborhoods are now more segregated by income. More than a quarter of children live in single-parent households — a historic high, according to Pew – and these children are three times as likely to live in poverty as those who live with married parents. Meanwhile, growing income inequality has coincided with the increasing importance of a college degree for earning a middle-class wage.过去我们周围都住着不同收入水平的邻居,但现在社区之间按照收入有了更大的隔阂。超过四分之一的孩子生活在单亲家庭,根据皮尤数据,这是有记录以来的最高水平,而这些孩子生活在贫困当中的可能性,是婚内双亲家庭的三倍。与此同时,收入不平等加剧之际,要想赚到中产阶级的收入,大学学历的重要性越来越大了。Yet there are recent signs that the gap could be starting to shrink. In the past decade, even as income inequality has grown, some of the socioeconomic differences in parenting, like ing to children and going to libraries, have narrowed, Mr. Reardon and others have found.不过最近有迹象显示,鸿沟可能开始缩小了。里尔登和其他学者发现,在过去十年里,虽然收入不平等加剧了,但在读书给孩子听、去图书馆等一些养育方式上,社会经济差异却缩小了。Public policies aimed at young children have helped, he said, including public preschool programs and ing initiatives. Addressing disparities in the earliest years, it seems, could reduce inequality in the next generation.他说,针对儿童的公共政策起到了帮助,包括公立学前教育项目和读书活动。从童年初期开始应对差距,似乎能够减少下一代的不平等。 /201512/418058

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