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原标题: 宁德激素六项检查哪家医院好养心咨询
You might think that physicists would be satisfied by now. They have been testing Einstein’s theory of general relativity, which explains what gravity is, ever since he first described it 100 years ago this year. And not once has it been found wanting. But they are still investigating its predictions to the nth decimal place, and this centenary year should see some particularly stringent tests. Perhaps one will uncover the first tiny flaw in this awesome mathematical edifice.你可能以为,物理学家现在已经满意了。他们一直在对爱因斯坦的广义相对论进行检验。爱因斯坦在整整100年前第一次提出了广义相对论,它解释了引力是什么。科学家们一直没有发现它存在任何不足之处,但却仍在调查根据它做出的预测,精确到第n位小数。在该理论100周年之际,科学家会做一些特别严格的验。也许会有人发现这座非凡数学大厦的第一个微小缺陷。Stranger still is that, though general relativity is celebrated and revered among physicists like no other theory in science, they would doubtless react with joy if it is proved to fail. That’s science: You produce a smart idea and then test it to its breaking point.更为奇怪的是,虽然在物理学家中,广义相对论获得的赞颂和尊崇超过了所有其他科学理论,但如果验明它站不住脚,他们无疑会感到欣喜。这就是科学:你提出了一个聪明的想法,然后检验它至极限。But this determination to expose flaws isn’t really about skepticism, far less wanton nihilism. Most physicists are aly convinced that general relativity is not the final word on gravity. That’s because the theory, which is applied mostly at the scale of stars and galaxies, doesn’t mesh with quantum theory, the other cornerstone of modern physics, which describes the ultra-small world of atoms and subatomic particles. It’s suspected that underlying both theories is a theory of quantum gravity, from which general relativity and conventional quantum theory emerge as excellent approximations just as Isaac Newton’s theory of gravity, posed in the late 17th century, works fine except in some extreme situations.但是揭示该理论缺陷的这种决心,其实无关乎怀疑主义,和肆意的虚无主义更是远远扯不上关系。大多数物理学家已经确信,广义相对论并不是引力的最终定论。这是因为该理论主要应用在恒星和星系的规模,和量子理论没有交集。量子理论是现代物理学的另一块基石,针对的是原子和亚原子粒子级别的微观世界。科学家们觉得,这两个基本理论的依托是一个量子引力理论,广义相对论和常规量子理论是它的绝佳近似值,这就像艾萨克·牛顿在17世纪后期提出的万有引力理论,除某些极端情况外,应用起来通常都没问题。The hope is, then, that if we can find some dark corner of the universe where general relativity fails, perhaps because the gravitational fields it describes are so enormously strong, we might glimpse what extra ingredient is needed — one that might point the way to a theory of quantum gravity.科学家的希望是,如果能找到广义相对论站不住脚的一些黑暗角落——这有可能是因为它描述的引力场如此强大——那么我们或许会发现它欠缺了哪些成分,而这可能会指明通向量子引力理论的道路。General relativity was not just the last of Einstein’s truly magnificent ideas, but arguably the greatest of them. His “annus mirabilis” is usually cited as 1905, when, among other things, he kick-started quantum theory and came up with special relativity, describing the distortion of time and space caused by traveling close to the speed of light. General relativity offered a broader picture, embracing motion that changes speed, such as objects accelerating as they fall in a gravitational field. Einstein explained that gravity can be thought of as curvature induced in the very fabric of time and space by the presence of a mass. This, too, distorts time: Clocks run slower in a strong gravitational field than they do in empty space. That’s one prediction that has now been thoroughly confirmed by the use of extremely accurate clocks on space satellites, and in fact GPS systems have to adjust their clocks to allow for it.广义相对论不仅仅是爱因斯坦最后一个宏伟想法,而且可以说是他最伟大的构想。他的“奇迹年”通常被认为是1905年,这一年他开始构想量子理论,并提出了狭义相对论,描述了接近光速的运动导致的时空扭曲。广义相对论则描绘了更加广阔的画面,探讨了变速运动,比如物体在进入引力场时出现的加速。根据爱因斯坦解释,引力可以看成是由于质量的存在,时间和空间结构中出现的弯曲。这也扭曲了与没有引力场的空间相比,时钟在一个强大的引力场中走得慢一些。利用在空间卫星上极其精确的时钟,科学家们彻底实了这个预测的正确性。事实上,GPS系统必须考虑到这种影响,来调整自己的时钟。Einstein presented his theory of general relativity to the Prussian Academy of Sciences in 1915, though it wasn’t officially published until the following year. The theory also predicted that light rays will be bent by strong gravitational fields. In 1919 the British astronomer Arthur Eddington confirmed that idea by making careful observations of the positions of stars whose light passes close to the sun during a total solar eclipse. The discovery assured Einstein as an international celebrity. When he met Charlie Chaplin in 1931, Chaplin is said to have told Einstein that the crowds cheered them both because everyone understood him and no one understood Einstein.爱因斯坦1915年向普鲁士科学院(Prussian Academy of Sciences)提交了广义相对论的论文,不过正式发表是在第二年。该理论还预测,强大的引力场会导致光的弯曲。在1919年,英国天文学家亚瑟·爱丁顿(Arthur Eddington)通过仔细观察一次日全食中一些恒星的位置,实了这一预测,这些恒星的光线会通过临近太阳的区域。爱因斯坦自此成为国际名人。当他在1931年与查理·卓别林(Charlie Chaplin)见面时,据说卓别林对他说,公众为他们两人喝,是因为每个人都理解自己的电影,但没有一个人理解爱因斯坦的理论。General relativity predicts that some burned-out stars will collapse under their own gravity. They might become incredibly dense objects called neutron stars only a few miles across, from which a teaspoon of matter would weigh 10 billion tons. Or they might collapse without limit into a “singularity” — a black hole from whose immense gravitational field not even light can escape, since the surrounding space is so bent that light just turns back on itself.广义相对论预言,一些燃料耗尽的恒星将因自身引力而崩塌。它们被称为中子星,其密度可能会变得非常之大,直径只有几英里,但一小勺就有100亿吨。或者可能会无限地崩塌下去,变成“奇点”,也就是一个黑洞,其巨大引力场甚至连光都无法逃逸,因为周围的空间太过弯曲,光会直接转弯回到原处。Many neutron stars have been seen by astronomers: Some, called pulsars, rotate and send out beams of intense radio waves from their magnetic poles, beams that flash on and off with precise regularity. Black holes can only be seen indirectly from the X-rays and other radiation emitted by the hot gas that surrounds and is sucked into them. But astrophysicists are certain that they exist.自那之后,天文学家发现了很多中子星:有些被称为脉冲星,它们旋转运动,从磁极发射出强烈的电波,发射和停止存在着精准的规律性。黑洞只能通过X射线和热气体散发的其他辐射被间接看到,黑洞被这些热气体包围着,并将它们吸入。但是天体物理学家坚信黑洞是存在的。While Newton’s theory of gravity is mostly good enough to describe the motions of the solar system, it is around very dense objects like pulsars and black holes that general relativity becomes indispensable. That’s also where it might be possible to test the limits of the theory with astronomical investigations. Last year, astronomers at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Charlottesville, Virginia, discovered the first pulsar orbited by two other shrunken stars, called white dwarfs. This situation, with two bodies moving in the gravitational field of a third, should allow one of the central pillars of general relativity, called the strong equivalence principle, to be put to the test by making very detailed measurements of the effects of the white dwarfs on the pulsar’s metronome flashes as they circulate. The team hopes to carry out that study this year.虽然牛顿的引力理论基本上足以描述太阳系的运动,但对于密度极大的物体,比如脉冲星和黑洞,广义相对论就不可或缺了。这也是用天文研究检验这个理论的局限的地方。去年在弗吉尼亚州夏洛茨维尔,国家射电天文台(National Radio Astronomy Observatory)的天文学家发现了一颗脉冲星,绕着它运动的另外两颗缩小的恒星被称为白矮星,而这一现象是前所未见的。在这种情况下,有两个星体在第三个的引力场中运动,如果在白矮星绕脉冲星运动的时候,非常细致地测量它们对脉冲星电波发射规律的影响,应该可以检验广义相对论的核心柱之一“强等效原理”。该团队希望今年开展这项研究。But the highest-profile test of general relativity is the search for gravitational waves. The theory predicts that some astrophysical processes involving very massive bodies, such as supernovae (exploding stars) or pulsars orbited by another star (binary pulsars), should excite ripples in space-time that radiate outwards as waves. The first binary pulsar was discovered in 1974, and we now know the two bodies are getting slowly closer at just the rate expected if they are losing energy by radiating gravitational waves.但最引人注目的广义相对论检验是对引力波的寻找。该理论预测,一些非常庞大的星体,比如超新星(爆炸的恒星)或者被另一颗恒星围绕盘旋的脉冲星(脉冲双星),和它们有关的天体物理过程应该在时空中激发涟漪,像波一样向外辐射。第一个脉冲双星是在1974年发现的,科学家假设两个星体辐射了引力波,因而损耗了能量,计算出了它们靠拢的速率,我们现在已经知道,它们确实在以这个速率慢慢靠拢。The real goal, though, is to see such waves directly from the tiny distortions of space that they induce as they ripple past our planet. Gravitational-wave detectors use lasers bouncing off mirrors in two-kilometer-long arms at right angles, like an L, to measure such minuscule contractions or stretches. Two of the several gravitational-wave detectors currently built — the American LIGO, with two observatories in Louisiana and Washington, and the European VIRGO in Italy — have just been upgraded to boost their sensitivity, and both will start searching in 2015. The European Space Agency is also launching a pilot mission for a space-based detector, called LISA Pathfinder, this September.不过,真正的目标是,当这些波经过我们的星球时,直接从它们导致的微小空间扭曲中看到它们。引力波探测器让激光在长两公里、摆成L形的干涉臂上来回反射,从而对这种微小收缩或扩张进行测量。目前世界上许多台引力波探测器,其中两台——美国的LIGO,在路易斯安那州和华盛顿有两个观察站;以及欧洲的VIRGO,位于意大利——刚刚对灵敏性进行了升级,它们都将在2015年开始寻找引力波。去年9月,欧洲航天局还用太空中的LISA Pathfinder探测器开展了一个试点任务。If we’re lucky, then, 2015 could be the year we confirm both the virtues and the limits of general relativity. But neither will do much to alter the esteem with which it is regarded. The Austrian-Swiss physicist Wolfgang Pauli called it “probably the most beautiful of all existing theories.” Many physicists (including Einstein himself) believed it not so much because of the experimental tests but because of what they perceived as its elegance and simplicity. Anyone working on quantum gravity knows that it is a very hard act to follow.幸运的话,2015年就会是我们确认广义相对论优势和局限性的一年。但这不会对它受到的推崇产生太大影响。奥地利-瑞士物理学家沃尔夫冈·泡利(Wolfgang Pauli)称广义相对论“可能是现有理论中最美的”。很多物理学家(包括爱因斯坦本人)相信它,并不是因为它经过了实验的检验,而是因为他们认为它简洁优雅。每个在量子引力领域工作的人都知道,简洁优雅是多么难以达到。 /201502/359208HONG KONG — Liu Xuelong, a television and documentary producer in Beijing, hasn’t used his television in years. He gets all of his entertainment on his iPhone 6 Plus, where he also taps a plethora of apps to buy plane tickets, pay bills, talk with clients.香港——在北京从事电视和纪录片制作工作的刘雪龙(音)多年没打开过自家的电视机了。他的一切都是在自己的iPhone 6 Plus上进行的。轻轻点击那上面的大量应用,他便可以买机票、结账,或者与客户沟通。Weixin, a text and messaging app, is among his favorites. “Every morning the first thing I do when I wake up is log onto Weixin to see what new things my friends have shared online overnight,” said Mr. Liu, 25.即时通讯应用微信是他最喜欢的应用之一。“每天早上醒来第一件事,就是登陆微信,看看前一天夜里朋友们在上面分享了些什么,”25岁的刘雪龙说。Advertisers increasingly want to be part of Mr. Liu’s digital world — and of the other 527 million people in China with smartphones. Next year companies are expected to spend more money on digital advertising than on television campaigns in China.广告商越来越想进入刘雪龙——以及中国另外5.27亿智能手机用户——所在的那个数字世界。在中国,企业明年在数字广告上的资金投入,预计会超过电视广告。It is a stark shift from three years ago when nearly half of the advertising dollars went to television and just 14 percent went to digital, according to ZenithOptimedia, an advertising agency. China is also diverging from the ed States, where television continues to dominate.广告公司实力传播集团(ZenithOptimedia)称,同三年前相比,这是一个重大转变。那时候,近一半的广告投入流向了电视,而用于数字领域的广告投入仅占14%。中国也正在与电视依然占据主导地位的美国渐行渐远。“It’s the first time we’ve had an enormous middle class emerge while being digitally connected,” said Jeff Walters, a partner at the Boston Consulting Group in Beijing. “It sets the stage for why digital advertising is so important.”“这是我们首次看到,一个庞大的中产阶级的崛起伴随着他们与数字领域的密切联系,”波士顿咨询集团(Boston Consulting Group)驻北京的合伙人魏杰鸿(Jeff Walters)说。“这为数字广告的极端重要性奠定了基础。”With the largest pool of smartphone users in the world, China has become a petri dish for marketers and technology companies alike to test ways to get consumers to buy both online and off.在智能手机用户人数居世界之最的背景下,中国已经同时成为了营销和科技公司的试验田,被它们用来测试那些旨在吸引消费者在线上和线下消费的广告方式。Homegrown social media platforms in China are at the center of the push. Facebook, YouTube and Twitter are all blocked in China, giving platforms like Tencent’s Weixin — known as WeChat outside the country — and Sina Weibo an advantage.中国本土的社交媒体平台是这番努力的中心。Facebook、YouTube和Twitter均在中国大陆遭到屏蔽,让腾讯旗下的微信及新浪旗下的微占得先机。Coca-Cola tapped into Weixin’s built-in er for QR codes, two-dimensional bar codes, to start its Lyric Coke campaign in China. Coke bottles there featured famous Chinese lyrics like “Baby, I’m sorry,” and “I love summer.”可口可乐(Coca-Cola)利用微信内置的二维码扫描器,在中国发起了歌词瓶活动。可乐瓶外面印上了“宝贝对不起”或“我爱夏天”等著名的中文歌词。Coca-Cola then encouraged consumers to share a 10-second clip of a song with friends through social media by scanning the QR code on the bottle. Since its start in May, the Coke campaign has generated over three billion views, according to Isobar, the company responsible for the campaign.然后,可口可乐鼓励消费者通过扫描瓶身上的二维码在社交媒体上与朋友分享一段时长10秒的歌曲片段。负责这次营销活动的公司安索帕(Isobar)称,自5月开始以来,可口可乐歌词瓶已经带来了超过30亿的点击量。Five years ago, marketers could get away with simply using the same ads they used globally and just translating the message, said Shaun Rein, the founder and managing director of the China Market Research Group. Today, they have to speak to the Chinese dream.中国市场研究集团(China Market Research Group)创始人和董事总经理雷小山(Shaun Rein)表示,五年前,营销机构可以使用和全球市场一样的广告,只要翻译一下核心信息就行了。但现在,它们必须要切合中国人的梦想。“What is happening is that Western brands have to create new aspirations that the Chinese consumer wants,” Mr. Rein added.“目前的情况是,西方品牌一定要创造出中国消费者接受的那种新的渴望,”雷小山还说。In its campaign, Coke used contemporary Chinese pop songs. Ads for North Face, the outdoor wear company, featured images of animals from an African safari, in an effort to appeal to the growing legions of Chinese travelers.可口可乐在自己的营销活动中利用了中国当代流行歌曲。户外饰公司北面(North Face)的广告则主打非洲之旅中的动物图片,以吸引规模日渐壮大的中国游客消费群。As in the ed States and Europe, advertisers have to learn to adapt to changes in digital landscape, which in China can unfold at breakneck speed.与在美国和欧洲一样,广告商必须学会适应数字领域的变化。在中国,这种变化的速度的可谓一日千里。For several years, the microblogging site Weibo was the most popular forum in China. Much like Twitter, the platform allowed users to broadcast information to any user.在早前的几年时间里,新浪微一直是中国最受欢迎的平台。和Twitter很像,它允许用户向任何其他用户发布信息。But last year in an attempt to quiet public debate, the government cracked down on some of the forum’s most prominent verified commentators, nicknamed the Big Vs, accusing microbloggers of sping false statements and detaining them.然而去年,为了压制公众辩论,政府对新浪微上部分经过认的最著名的人士采取了严厉措施。这些俗称“大V”的微用户被指传播虚假消息,并遭到拘捕。This prompted some Weibo users to leave the site. At the same time, Weixin was quickly gaining popularity as free alternative to text messaging.这促使一些用户离开了新浪微。与此同时,作为一种可以代替短信的免费工具,微信的人气飙升。Weixin is now the most popular forum in China. Weixin and its international version WeChat together have 468 million active users. Weibo has 167 million active users today.微信是中国目前最受欢迎的平台,国内版和国际版共有4.68亿活跃用户。新浪微则是眼下拥有1.67亿活跃用户。“I’ve been here four years. In that time I’m now on the third dominant social network — first it was Renren, then Weibo and now it’s WeChat,” said Chris Jones, the executive creative director at the ad agency Wunderman in China.“我来了中国四年,先后使用过三种主要的社交网络——先是人人,然后是新浪微,现在是微信,”伟门广告公司(Wunderman)中国区执行创意总监钟志勤(Chris Jones)说。Weixin’s particular quirk — that users communicate only with friends and contacts within their circle — has allowed companies to develop direct relationships with consumers. But it also poses a challenge since users have to first choose to include a brand within their Weixin network.微信的特殊之处在于,用户只能跟圈子内部的朋友和熟人交流。这让企业可以与消费者建立直接的联系。不过,它也构成了一个挑战,因为用户有权决定是否把某个品牌加入自己的微信平台。The fashion house Burberry worked its way into consumers’ circles by giving users a chance to watch its Autumn-Winter 2014 runway show in real time, along with commentary from designers and celebrities watching the show. To get access to the show, users just had to add Burberry’s public account to their Weixin network.时尚品牌柏利(Burberry)进入消费者圈子的方法,是让用户有机会实时观看2014年的秋冬时装秀,以及设计师和名人对它的。为了观看这场活动,用户必须把柏利的公众号加入微信。Once Burberry is in their network, the fashion house can target users directly in the future. One interactive feature prompts users to click on “My Burberry” and type out their initials. An image of a monogrammed bottle of perfume then appears, along with details of how to buy it.一旦进入了消费者的朋友圈,柏利从此之后就可以直接对准目标用户群。柏利还提供了一个互动功能:用户可以点击“My Burberry”,输入自己名字的首字母。然后,屏幕上就会出现一瓶印有首字母花押字的香氛,以及如何购买它的具体信息。Not all digital ad campaigns in China have gone smoothly. One Chinese company called Tidy Laundry recently tried to stir up some attention online with a posted to Youku Tudou, a Chinese streaming site. In the , two young women strip down to their underwear on the Shanghai metro. A man wearing a blue uniform then enters the subway car and hands them a clean set of clothes, which they change into. The Shanghai police fined the company, according to state media.并非所有中国市场上的网络营销都进展顺利。中国公司泰笛洗涤最近曾试图通过在流媒体视频公司优酷土豆的网站上发布一则视频来吸引关注。在视频中,两名年轻女子在上海的地铁里脱掉了层层衣物,最后只剩内衣。一名穿着蓝色制的男子随后进入地铁车厢,递给她们一套干净的衣,让她们换上。据官方媒体报道,上海警方对这家公司处以了罚款。Televisions and other more traditional advertising venues also play a complementary role in the digital world.电视和其他一些更加传统的广告手段也对互联网广告营销起到了补充作用。This year, Oreo began Play Together, a campaign that riffed on the idea that children don’t spend enough time with their parents, a subject of debate in China. Collaborating with Weixin, Oreo created an app that allowed parents and their children to take photos and turn them into playful emoticons to send to friends.今年,奥利奥(Oreo)启动了“亲子一刻玩起来”的营销活动,灵感来自于父母和子女相处时间不足的问题——这是中国当下的热门话题。奥利奥与微信合作推出了一款应用,使得家长和孩子可以用它来拍摄照片,然后把它们变成有趣的表情符号发送给朋友们。The campaign also featured a television ad for the Weixin campaign in which a mother and her daughter play together and share a bag of Oreos. As part of the media blitz, it used celebrity dads from the popular reality television show called “Father, Where Are You Going?” to promote the campaign through their own microblogs.本轮营销中还推出了一则宣传微信活动的电视广告。广告中,妈妈和女儿一边玩耍,一边分享着一包奥利奥饼干。作为媒体攻势的一部分,公司找来了人气颇高的真人秀节目《爸爸去哪儿》中的明星爸爸,邀请他们在微上进行宣传。Television, too, helps bridge the generational gap. Even though Chinese consumers are highly connected, not everybody is getting the messages that brands are sending.而且,电视也有助于弥合代沟。虽然中国的消费者上网程度高,但品牌试图传递的讯息也并非能够接触到所有人。Mr. Liu’s father is one of them. Mr. Liu bought a Samsung smartphone for his father, who lives in Weifang, a city in Shandong Province, and taught him how to use Weixin so that they could -chat.刘雪龙的父亲就是其中之一。刘雪龙给住在山东潍坊的父亲买了一部三星手机,并教他如何使用微信,希望可以和他视频聊天。But it could be a while before his father gets the hang of Weixin, Mr. Liu said. “I am the only friend in his Weixin contact list, actually.”不过,刘雪龙说,要让父亲真正学会使用微信,可能还需要一段时间。“其实,我是他微信上唯一的联系人。” /201412/350215Biowarfare saves bats from killer fungus一场由真菌杀手引发的细菌战助蝙蝠逃出了死神之手Researchers looking to cure white-nose syndrome - a major killer of American bats - have just reported a major success. A new treatment has saved the lives of infected bats. And it offers a ray of hope for their wild kin. The fungus responsible for white-nose syndrome has aly threatened some of their populations with extinction.据报道究人正寻找白鼻症(一种美国蝙蝠杀灭凶手)的治疗方法已经取得了显著成功。这种可以挽救被感染蝙蝠的新式治疗方法为这些野生物种及其同族的生存提供了一线希望。这些真菌-白鼻症的罪魁祸首已经危及了整个野生蝙蝠物种的生存,致使其濒临灭绝边缘。The effectiveness of the potential cure could be seen on May 19. As darkness approached, scientists gathered near caves in Hannibal, Mo. That night, they released 150 treated bats back into the wild. Last fall, those same bats had been suffering from white-nose syndrome.这种潜在治疗方法的效果可在5月19日揭晓。随着黑夜降临,科学家在密苏里州汉尼巴尔洞穴附近集合。当晚,他们将150只去年秋天患了白鼻症且已经过治疗的野生蝙蝠放回自然。Over the past decade, this infection has claimed the lives of more than 5.7 million bats in North America. But on that Tuesday, researchers declared the treated animals healthy enough to return to the caves they call home. In short order, each flew off into the dusky night sky.过去十年中,此类真菌感染已夺走了近570万只北美野生蝙蝠的生命。但是在周二,研究人员宣布经过治疗的蝙蝠已足够健康,他们可以回家了。Scientists have explored many treatments for white-nose syndrome, but that evening marked the first time treated bats had been returned to the wild. Biologist Craig Willis, who studies bats at the University of Winnipeg in Canada, says he#39;s encouraged by the success. At the same time, ;there#39;s still a lot we need to know [about bats and the treatment] before we can get close to calling this or anything else a #39;cure,#39;; says Willis, who was not involved in the project.科学家寻找了多种白鼻症的治疗方法。但是那晚标志着第一次经过治疗的蝙蝠已经重返野外生活。加拿大温尼伯大学的生物学家Craig Willis从事蝙蝠研究,他表示自己也被治疗的成功所鼓舞。同时,他表示我们还应该更多的去了解蝙蝠及其治疗方法,然后才能将结果称为治疗方法,尽管他没有参加此次研究项目。The cobweb-like mat of fibers shrouding the hibernating little brown bat in this cave is the fungus responsible for white-nose syndrome. This is a particularly extreme infection. Sometimes the fungus appears to be only a sprinkling of powdered sugar around a bat#39;s nose.冬眠的棕色小蝙蝠身上会被一种网状纤维层覆盖,它就是白鼻症的罪魁祸首,这是一种特殊的极端感染。有些时候这种真菌呈现糖霜状覆盖在蝙蝠鼻子上。译文属 /201506/379561

The Birth of the First Computer中国第一台计算机的诞生In the mid-50th century, though the Chinese computing technology was only one or two years later than Japan, after all, but it has been a decade later from the emergence of world#39;s first computer. The unanimous opinion is to learn and master the Soviet Union#39;s technology first, on this basis, according to China#39;s specific conditions, to carry out their own research, that is, ;innovation ofter imitation, imitation for innovation. ;上个世纪50年代中期,中国的计算技术虽然只比日本晚一两年,但毕竟距世界上第一台电子计算机的出现已经晚了十年。大家一致的意见是:先学习掌握苏联已有的技术,在此基础上,再根据我国的具体条件,开展自己的研究工作,即“先仿制后创新,仿制为了创新”。In September 1956, China sent a delegation of computing technology to the Soviet Union. Min Naida is the head, deputy head Wang Zheng, fifteen members including Wu Jikang, Fan Xinbi, Xia Peisu, and so on. The former Soviet Union reception unit is the Soviet Academy of Sciences, Preasion Machinery and Computing Technology Institute . In two months, computing technology research, production and education of Moscow, Leningrad were studied respectively, with an emphasis on the M-20 computer.1956年9月,我国派出赴苏计算机技术考察团。团长闵乃大,副团长王正,团员有吴几康、范新弼、夏培肃等15人。前苏联方面的接待单位是苏联科学院精密机械与计算技术研究所。在两个多月的时间里,考察团分别对莫斯科、列宁格勒两地的计算技术的科研、生产与教育进行了考察,并重点对M-20计算机进行了学习。In April 1957, by the government, China ordered a M-3 computer and B3CM computer drawings information. On the basis of study and drawings information, the development work started. Led by Zhang Zichang and Mo Gensheng, M-3 ( code 103) Computer Engineering Group was organized. Through the efforts of all staff, in close collaboration with Beijing cable plant, China#39;s first digital computer successfully developed on August l,1958. This tube computer with computing speed of 30 times per second filled in our modern electronic computer blank.1957年4月,我国政府订购了M-3计算机和E3CM计算机图纸资料。在考察和取得图纸资料的基础上,研制工作开始了。以张梓昌、莫根生为首,组织了M-3(代号103)计算机工程组。通过全体研制人员的努力和北京有线电厂的密切配合,于1958年8月1日研制成功了我国第一台数字电子计算机。这台运算速度为每秒30次的电子管计算机,填补了我国现代电子计算机的空白。 /201602/419377

Ranga-Ram Chary, U.S. Planck Data Center#39;s project manager in California, recently discovered a ;mysterious glow; by mapping the Cosmic Microwave Background, otherwise known as the light that was left over from a few hundred thousand years after the Big Bang.最近,美国加州普朗克数据中心的项目经理Ranga-Ram Chary,在绘制宇宙微波背景辐射图时发现了一束“神秘亮光”,被认为是宇宙大爆炸几十万年后遗留的光线。Ordinarily, Chary would have found nothing ;except noise.; But the spots of light were 4,500 times brighter than they should have been.通常,Chary的发现除了噪音没有别的,但这一束光的亮度相比之前的高出4500多倍。Chary concluded that the glow could represent matter from another universe ;leaking; or colliding into ours. This would validate the hypothesis that our universe is merely ;a region within an eternally inflating super-region,; said Chary in an Astrophysical Journal study published in September.Chary认为这束光代表着另一个宇宙的物质“泄露”或是闯入到了我们所在的宇宙,他在9月份发表《天文物理期刊》中称这一发现实了之前的假设,即我们所在的宇宙空间存在于一个“不断膨胀的超级大空间”之中。Cosmologists have speculated about multiple universes for years, but have thus far been unable to prove their existence. Chary#39;s research is therefore significant because it could lend credence to the theory that cosmic inflation -- which is the notion that the universe began inflating right after the Big Bang -- led to multiple universes.多年来宇宙学家一直在推测多重宇宙的存在,但至今都无法实。因此Chary的研究意义重大,因为其实了宇宙膨胀说,即宇宙在大爆炸之后开始不断膨胀,最终导致多重宇宙的产生。However, this type of claim would ;require a very high burden of proof,; Chary wrote. There#39;s a 30 percent chance that the glow is nothing out of the ordinary.然而Chary还写道,这种论断“需要非常确凿的据”,该光束是普通光线的几率仍然有30%。Other scientists share this skepticism. Alexander Vilenkin, director of Tufts University#39;s Institute of Cosmology, doesn#39;t see how ;this signal can be explained by a collision with another bubble universe.; Any collisions must have been ;more like little nudges,; Vilenkin added. ;But a collision that would greatly enhance the density of protons seems to require a much more violent encounter.;另外一些科学家对此持怀疑态度,塔夫斯大学宇宙学研究所主任Alexander Vilenkin认为,这束光线“无法解释为宇宙碰撞的线索”。他说:“任何碰撞都更像是微小的震动,但要使碰撞能够极大的增加质子密度,则需要更强烈的破坏力。”;The supposed observations of a giant void and an apparently cold spot in the cosmic background radiation have so many types of potential explanations,; said Jay Pasachoff, chair of the astronomy department at Williams College. He maintains that it#39;s too premature to cite an alternate universe as the explanation.威廉姆斯学院天文系主任Jay Pasachoff称:“在宇宙背景辐射中观察到的巨洞和类似的冰点都存在多种形式的解释。”他强调引用平行宇宙来解释这一发现还为时过早。;But it could also be something new and unexpected,; Vilenkin added.Vilenkin最后说道:“然而,这束光线也有可能是新的未知事物。” /201512/418830

An Indian restaurant is set to become the first takeaway in the world to deliver its meals to customers#39; doorsteps by drone.一家印度人开的餐馆要成为全球第一个使用无人机将外卖送至客户家门的餐厅。The Don, in Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, will fly its kormas and keema naans using a Phantom 3 drone so that hungry recipients can watch their dinner flying to their door.位于白金汉郡米尔顿·凯恩斯地区的“唐餐厅”将使用“幻影3号”无人机配送咖喱和羊肉烤饼,饥饿的订餐者有望看到饭“飞”到家门口。The meals will be packaged in thermal takeaway bag that fits securely on the bottom rails of the drone.外卖将装在保温外卖袋里,牢牢地绑在无人机底部的横梁上。Restaurant owner Aki Rahman has applied for a Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) licence so he can legally pilot the aircraft.餐馆老板阿基·拉赫曼已经向民航局(CAA)申请合法飞行的执照。The 30-year-old said: #39;I#39;m determined to beat Google and Amazon and be the first to use delivery drones.这位30岁的老板说:“我决定先于谷歌和亚马逊,成为第一家使用无人机投送快递的公司”。#39;We#39;ve done a trial run to my grandmother#39;s house and it all went well.#39;“我们向我祖母家进行了一次试飞,一切顺利。”The progress of the curry-drone will be tracked back at The Don restaurant, which is based on Elder Gate near Milton Keynes Central railway station, and a specialist camera will even film its progress.;唐餐厅;位于米尔顿·凯恩斯中央火车站附近的埃尔德门大街,工作人员将在餐厅实时监测携带着咖喱美味的无人机的飞行路线,甚至有专门的摄像机记录下这一飞行过程。Aki plans to offer customers a copy of the film showing how their meal travelled to them.阿基打算为客户提供一份食物飞行配送时的录像。The innovative restaurateur was today keeping his fingers crossed in the hopes that the CAA will grant him permission to fly over built-up areas where power lines can pose a problem.这位很有创新思维的老板正在祈祷民航局能批准他在这样建筑林立的地方飞行,因为附近的电线可能影响飞行。#39;I#39;m 80 per cent sure I will be allowed,#39; he said.“我有80%的把握能获得批准,”他说。#39;But if not, I will stick to delivering in rural, open areas - perhaps delivering to a park if people want a special occasion picnic.#39;“但如果没有批准,我会坚持在乡村空旷的地方使用——或许能给在公园野炊的人送上一份特别用餐。”The Don opened four months ago and prides itself on offering authentic Indian cuisine without colourings or additives to suit Western taste.这家餐馆营业四个月了,其特色在于提供原汁原味的印度菜,不会为了适应西方人口味而添加任何色素或添加剂。Aki added: #39;These ingredients are not genuine. They are not what Indian people eat - and they would only provide more weight for my drone.#39;阿基补充道:“这些添加剂不正宗。印度人不吃这些东西——它们只会增加无人机的负载。”The restaurant serves up a number of popular favourites including madras, vindaloo and jalfrezi, as well as a fiery dish called #39;Naga#39; made with the infamous world#39;s hottest naga chilli pepper.这家餐厅提供许多颇受大众喜爱的菜品,比如马德拉菜、文达卢咖喱肉、什锦蔬菜,以及一种名叫“那加”的口味浓烈的菜,由世界闻名的最辣的那加辣椒烹制而成。 /201511/410632When modern tablet computers first arrived to market, many people thought they would be primarily used to consume, rather than create, content. And who could argue? Without a keyboard or mouse, and only a stubby finger to flick, creation seemed like it would be troublesome at best.当华丽丽的平板电脑在市场上初次亮相时,许多人认为它主要是用来消费内容,而不是创作内容的。谁能反驳呢?没有键盘和鼠标,只能用短粗的手指来敲击和滑动。要用它来创作,怎么看都显得十分麻烦。My, how things change. My Apple iPad has quickly become an indispensable tool for work. For the last two years I’ve worked from an iPad on a daily basis. I often tout it as my favorite computer even when I’m asked to compare it to my iMac, a full-fledged desktop, or MacBook Air, a featherweight laptop. The iPad’s portability, day-long battery life, and built-in cellular connection—not to mention the broad selection of apps—only help.但事物的变化是如此之快。我的iPad很快就成为了工作中不可或缺的工具。在过去两年中,我每天都用iPad来工作。我经常吹嘘说,它是我最爱的电脑,即使要拿它同我功能全面的台式机iMac,或轻薄笔记本MacBook Air相比也不例外。iPad轻便易携,电池能撑一整天,还内置无线网络,更不用说海量的应用,这些特征皆是它的加分项。As the winter holiday season approaches each year, I find myself more excited for Apple’s iPad event than I am for its iPhone event, which typically precedes it. This year was no different: right on schedule in October, Apple introduced an updated iPad lineup.我发现,每次临近圣诞假期,我对苹果iPad发布会的期待都要超过iPhone发布会。后者通常会更早举行,今年也不例外:苹果在10月如期推出了最新的iPad系列产品。The improved iPad line comes at a time when Apple AAPL -0.73% has seen a decline in that product’s sales for three consecutive quarters. The decline itself coincides with a trend in which smartphones, including Apple’s own iPhone, are growing in size. The shift blurs the line between phone and tablet, and prompts the question: where should the iPad fit in our lives?在这次升级版的iPad问世之前,该系列产品的销量已经连续三个季度下滑。与之相对应的,则是包括苹果iPhone在内的智能手机市场规模逐渐扩大。这一变化模糊了手机和平板电脑的界限,并且抛出了一个问题:iPad在我们的生活中应当扮演什么样的角色?The new iPad Air 2 (the most notable model of the new crop) offers a display with improved color and contrast, a slimmer profile, and Apple’s fingerprint scanning technology. It also has a faster processor and more storage.全新iPad Air 2(新产品中最值得注意的一款)的屏幕色和对比度有所提升,机身更加轻薄,还拥有苹果的指纹扫描技术。它还搭载了更快的处理器,含有更大的存储空间。I spent two weeks testing the iPad Air 2, and at the end of my time with the device, I found myself equally impressed and disappointed. The tablet is impressively responsive and smooth when it comes to scrolling through documents or web pages and launching applications. Yet when I set aside the physical keyboard that I used with the device and attempted to use it strictly as a mobile device, I often felt as if the iPad was nothing more than an extra screen offering bigger pictures and larger text than my phone.我花了两周来测试iPad Air 2。最终结论是:它既让我印象深刻,但同时也让我非常失望。在滚动文档和网页,或加载应用时,这款平板电脑响应速度之快,运行之顺畅,令人难忘。但当我抛开外接物理键盘,完全把它当作移动设备时,我感觉与手机相比,iPad不过是有了一块能够展现更大图画、更多文字的屏幕而已。(It should come as no surprise that I have been using Apple’s new iPhone 6 Plus in recent weeks, which I’m sure helped contribute to the feeling.)(这应该并不让人意外,因为我最近几周一直在用苹果最近的iPhone 6 Plus,我相信正是使用这款手机的体验让我产生了这种感觉。)Instead of picking up my iPad to an article or watch a on YouTube, I would find myself remaining with the iPhone, the experience just as pleasant. Anecdotally, friends have told me similar scenarios: since upgrading to the iPhone 6 Plus, their iPad sits on a shelf, collecting dust.与其用iPad来阅读文章,或是在YouTube上观赏视频,我宁愿继续用我的iPhone,这种体验同样令人愉悦。说来有趣,朋友们的做法和我类似:自从换上了大屏幕的iPhone 6 Plus,他们的iPad就被搁在架子上积灰了。The similarities are underscored by the fact that the latest version of iOS, Apple’s mobile operating system, is exceedingly similar between the iPad, iPad mini and iPhone 6 Plus. For example, there is now enough room on the iPhone for two column-views in landscape mode, something only the larger iPad previously enjoyed.由于苹果移动操作系统iOS的最新版本在iPad、iPad mini和iPhone 6 Plus上极其相似,其产品类似性更加凸显出来。比如说,iPhone的横屏模式已经足够阅读双栏文字,而之前只有在屏幕更大的iPad上才有这种效果。But that’s alright. If the tablet is the new laptop, the blurred line between it and the phone matters less, and there may be room for growth at the other end—certainly from a productivity standpoint. I would love to see Apple release a physical keyboard built specifically for the iPad and with software support for custom interactions and auto-correct. I would love the ability to run two apps in a split-screen arrangement, for example. And going out on limb that’s sure to fall, I’d love to see Apple bring more information to the home screen using widgets. Yes, widgets.不过这没关系。如果说平板电脑就是新式的笔记本电脑,那么平板电脑和手机的界限模糊也就不那么重要了。而从另一方面来说,产品还可能有发展空间——从工作效率的角度来看显然如此。比如说,我乐于看见苹果推出专为iPad设计的物理键盘,搭配带有用户互动和自动纠错功能的软件。我也想要有分屏同时运行两个应用的功能。再大胆说个不可能实现的想法:我还希望苹果使用小工具,在主屏幕上显示更多信息。是的,小工具。Despite these shortcomings, I developed an appreciation for the iPad Air 2. I found the addition of the tablet’s fingerprint sensor for secure access convenient (it works with the handy password manager 1Password) and a productivity boost. The recently released Pixelmator for iPad, an image editor, combined with the new model’s improved graphics performance has helped reaffirm it as a PC replacement for me.尽管iPad Air 2有这些不足,我还是慢慢开始欣赏它了。我发现在加入指纹传感器之后,解锁平板电脑时变得更加方便(它能与密码管理软件1Password同时激活),工作效率也有了提升。而有了最近为iPad发布的图像编辑工具Pixelmator,搭配上新款iPad更加强劲的图形表现能力,使我更加确信它足以取代个人电脑。But let’s be honest: My use case is far from the norm. I’ve spent countless hours and dollars researching apps and accessories in order to make the iPad work for me. I have forced the iPad to fit into my life. The average person is less likely to invest that kind of time. For those people, that burden lies at Apple’s feet.不过老实说,我的情况与一般人大不相同。为了让iPad变得好用,我花了无数时间和金钱来研究应用和配件。我花了大力气让iPad适应我的日常使用习惯,而一般人不太可能投入这么多时间。对于这些人来说,改进iPad功能的压力可全在苹果那边了。 /201411/343197

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