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Selling a free-trade agreement at home is hard work, given public scepticism about their effect on American jobs. So as supporters of the Trans-Pacific Partnership try to round up backers, they increasingly emphasise the geopolitical case for concluding a deal.在美国国内兜售自由贸易协定是项艰难的工作,因为公众对这类协定对美国就业的影响持怀疑态度。因此,《跨太平洋伙伴关系》(Trans-Pacific Partnership,简称TPP)协定的拥趸们在努力赢取持者时,日益强调达成协定带来的地缘政治好处。They are correct that a good trade and investment agreement would be geopolitically beneficial, and that a collapse in the talks would be deeply damaging. But too often they overstate the case and, in doing so, generate real geopolitical risks of their own, while also jeopardising the agreement they seek.这些人看法的正确之处在于,好的贸易与投资协定的确会带来地缘政治上的好处,谈判破裂的确会产生严重破坏。但他们往往夸大这个因素的重要性——而且,这种夸大其实也会催生切实的地缘政治风险,危及他们想要达成的协定。The geopolitical case for TPP is straightforward. It could help US allies in Asia, most notably Japan, reform and thus strengthen their economies, making them more capable geopolitical partners. Asian participants could diversify their economic relationships, becoming less dependent on an unpredictable China. A deal that genuinely offers China the option of eventually joining could also help draw Beijing in a more liberal direction.TPP的地缘政治好处显而易见。它可帮助美国的亚洲盟国(特别是日本)进行改革,由此加强它们的经济,使它们成为更具实力的地缘政治伙伴。参与TPP的亚洲国家可使它们的经济关系变得更加多元,减少对难以捉摸的中国的依赖。如果该协定真的能为中国提供一个最终加入进来的选择,那么它还有助于把中国拉上一条更加自由化的发展道路。Conversely, if the talks collapse because of domestic squabbling, it will compound the narrative of US dysfunction, making it far harder for the US to lead. It would also make it easier for China to push its own trade arrangements in ways that exclude the US.相反,如果美国国内的争吵导致TPP谈判破裂,会让所谓美国机能紊乱的说法变得更有市场,大幅加大美国领导世界的难度,还会让中国更容易推进它那些将美国排除在外的贸易安排。But selling the TPP by screaming “geopoliticscomes with serious risks. Unless the US is careful, China may come to see the deal as an attempt at economic containment. It is one thing to have a pact that reinforces America’s economic relations with friends and allies; one that encourages China to join after making a set of plausible economic reforms, much as it joined the World Trade Organisation. It is another to present the deal in a confrontational manner as a counterweight to China the economic counterpart to a military strategy that would seek to keep the country pinned in.但是,以强调“地缘政治”的方式兜售TPP,也伴随着严重的风险。如果美国不小心行事,中国可能会将该协定视为一个从经济上遏制中国的企图。达成一项加强美国与盟友经济关系、同时鼓励中国在推行一系列合理经济改革后也加入其中(与中国加入世贸组织(WTO)的过程大致相同)的协定是一回事,以对抗性方式搞出一项协定、以此来制衡中国(即从经济上遏制中国,与从军事上遏制中国的战略相对应)则是另一回事。来 /201504/370552Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko has warned that there are 9,000 Russian troops in the rebel-controlled area of eastern Ukraine and warned the country must be on alert for a large-scale attack.乌克兰总统波罗申科警告说,乌克兰东部分离分子控制区内有9千名俄罗斯军人。他警告说,乌克兰必须警惕大规模袭击。Mr. Poroshenko made the comment to parliament Thursday, saying there exists a ;colossal; threat of major new attacks.波罗申科星期四在议会讲话时说,乌克兰面临新的重大攻击;巨大威胁;。He spoke a day after a major battle flared outside a main separatist stronghold in eastern Ukraine.在此前一天,乌克兰东部分离分子的主要据点顿涅斯克附近爆发战斗。Firefighters scrambled to put out a fire at an open air market near Donetsk following a suspected rocket attack.顿涅斯克附近的一家露天市场疑遭火箭炮弹袭击,消防人员紧急扑灭火灾。The Kremlin insists it has no direct role in the crisis, and has repeatedly denied supporting the rebellion with arms and fighters.俄罗斯当局一直否认直接卷入乌克兰危机,并一再否认向乌克兰反政府武装提供武器和战斗人员。The truce signed by Russia, Ukraine, France and Germany in February required both sides to withdraw heavy weapons from the line of contact.俄罗斯、乌克兰、法国和德国今年二月签署的停火协议要求冲突双方从接触地区撤走重型武器。But international observers say those provisions have been routinely violated.但是国际观察人员说,这些规定经常被违反。来 /201506/379596U.S. Senator Bernie Sanders of the northeastern state of Vermont says he will seek the 2016 Democratic presidential nomination.来自东北部佛蒙特州的美国联邦参议员伯尼·桑德斯宣布竞争2016年民主党总统候选人提名。Sanders revealed his plans in interviews with the Associated Press and USA Today. He will hold a press conference Thursday to further outline his plans.桑德斯在接受美联社和今日美国电视节目采访时透露了他的计划。他星期四举行记者会,进一步介绍他的计划。The 73-year-old self-described socialist is a registered independent, but has been part of the Senate Democratic caucus since he was first elected in 2006. Along with Massachusetts Senator Elizabeth Warren, Sanders has become a favorite in the Democratic Partys emerging left wing for his stands on such issues as alleviating income inequality, strengthening Social Security, imposing tougher regulations on Wall Street and opposition to free trade deals, including the Trans-Pacific Partnership currently being negotiated by President Barack Obama.73岁的桑德斯自称是社会主义者,是不正式加入民主共和两大政党的独立人士。不过,006年当选参议员以来,一直参加参议院民主党党团的活动。桑德斯在一些问题的立场使他成为新兴民主党左翼的最爱。这些问题包括缩小收入差距,加强社会保障,对华尔街实行更严格的管理,以及反对自由贸易协定,其中包括奥巴马总统正在谈判的跨太平洋伙伴关系。Sanders is considered a longshot against former secretary of state Hillary Clinton, the only other declared candidate for the 2016 Democratic nomination, but his entry into the race could force Clinton to adopt views similar to those of Sanders.此前民主党内只有前国务卿希拉釷克林顿宣布竞选民主党总统候选人提名。有人认为桑德斯不是克林顿的对手,但他的竞选可能会迫使克林顿靠近桑德斯的观点。来 /201505/373164South Korea’s government may take back control over school history textbooks from private publishers next month, the education minister said, as debate over the region’s past heats up ahead of the 70th anniversary of Japan’s defeat in the second world war.韩国教育部表示,韩国政府下月可能从民间出版社手中收回对学校历史教科书的控制权。目前,在人们即将迎来日本二战战0周年之际,围绕东亚历史展开的辩论正在升温。“History should be taught in one way to avoid division of the people,Hwang Woo-yea told the Yonhap national news agency, in remarks published on Wednesday. “At the moment, since there are various history textbooks, there can be confusion.”在周三发表的讲话中,韩国教育部长黄伍延(Hwang Woo-yea)向韩国国家通讯社韩联社(Yonhap)表示:“历史教育应避免分裂人民。目前,历史教科书五花八门,可能存在着(认识上的)混乱。”Mr Hwang a trusted associate of President Park Geun-hye, who has given him the additional title of deputy prime minister said that he would not rule out the reintroduction of a single, state-provided history textbook “if necessary黄伍延说,他不排除这种可能性,即在“必要情况下”,重新推出由政府提供的单一历史教科书。黄伍延是韩国总统朴槿Park Geun-hye)信赖的副手,朴槿惠还任命他兼任韩国副总理。The government’s position on the subject will be announced next month, following a 20-month review by the education ministry that was launched in the wake of a controversy over a supposedly misleading textbook.韩国政府下月将宣布其在这个问题上的立场。此前,韩国教育部展开了长0个月的评估。这一评估是在一本据认为有误导性的教科书引起争议后启动的。Government control over the school history syllabus was asserted under military rule in 1974, and ended in 2010. Since then, schools have been free to choose between a range of books produced by private publishers, which must first be approved by the education ministry.韩国政府对学校历史教学大纲的控制是在1974年军事统治时期确立的010年废止。此后,学校可在民间出版社编制的各种教科书当中自由选择,但这些教科书首先必须得到韩国教育部的批准。The prospect of next month’s final report bringing a return to a single, government-determined history syllabus has sparked strong opposition from liberal opposition politicians, who say it would restrict the diversity of views central to a strong democracy.下月的最终评估报告有可能使韩国回到由政府确定的单一历史教学大纲的时代,这一前景引发了自由派反对党政治人士的强烈反对。这些人士表示,这么做将对强大民主制所必需的观点多样性造成限制。Yoon Gwan-seok, a member of the opposition New Politics Alliance for Democracy, said Mr Hwang’s remarks hinted at a “political movethat would divorce South Korea from the standard practice in advanced countries, and leave it with a similar system to North Korea, Russia and Vietnam. Ms Park’s supposed intolerance of dissent has been a favourite theme for her opponents.韩国反对党新民主政治联盟(New Politics Alliance for Democracy)成员Yoon Gwan-seok表示,黄伍延的言论暗示着一种“政治举措”,将导致韩国背离发达国家的标准做法,使韩国体制向朝鲜、俄罗斯和越南看齐。某些人眼中朴槿惠对异见的不容忍,一直是其反对者喜欢谈论的话题。History education has long been a fraught subject in east Asia particularly since the 2012 election as Japanese prime minister of Shinzo Abe, who stands accused in Beijing and Seoul of playing down Japan’s aggressive acts during its early-20th century colonial expansion.在东亚,历史教育长期以来一直是个争议不断的话题,特别是012年安倍晋Shinzo Abe)当选日本首相之后。中国和韩国对安倍淡化日本在20世纪初殖民扩张时期的侵略行为提出了谴责。Mr Abe has called for education to avoid “self-torturing views of history and it emerged in April that textbook publishers have pared back descriptions of atrocities such as the sexual enslavement of Korean women a development that prompted Seoul to summon the Japanese ambassador.安倍一直呼吁教育要避免“自虐史观”。今月有消息称,日本教科书出版社已删减了对日本战争暴行(比如强征朝鲜半岛慰安妇)的描述——这一事件导致韩国政府召见了日本驻韩大使。来 /201508/391132

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