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2019年08月19日 08:44:07 | 作者:美丽常识 | 来源:新华社
Floating free in the hostile vacuum of space, astronauts push the boundaries of exploration. Join them on an incredible journey as spacecraft Voyager explores the solar system.From planetary orbit, the earth and heavens look serene. But the vacuum of space is a hostile environment, lacking oxygen and permeated by radiation. Since the advent of manned space flight in the 1960s, humankind has been exploring this inhospitable realm from the relative safety of spacecraft. But occasional extravehicular activities have led astronauts to leave these confines and explore the unknown. In order for astronauts to survive in space, spacesuits provide a self-contained environment. Their tough material, along with heating and cooling elements, protect astronauts from extreme temperatures, ranging from around 250 degrees Fahrenheit to minus 250 degrees. The suits are pressurized with pure oxygen, allowing astronauts to breathe and keep their blood from boiling in the vacuum of space. The first venture outside the spacecraft was made by Soviet cosmonaut Alexey Leonov in 1965, lasting only 12 minutes. This feat was duplicated a few months later by American astronaut Edward White during the Gemini 4 mission. Although these excursions were meant to test the feasibility of humans to exist outside the spacecrafts, spacewalks have become a relatively common part of missions in the space shuttle era. On spacewalks, astronauts have performed vital tasks that could not be accomplished from inside the shuttle. They've been able to recover lost satellites, restoring them to their proper orbit. They have serviced orbiting bodies, like replacing the solar panels on the Hubble Space Telescope. And they have become the construction crew for the International Space Station. Conducting spacewalks is dangerous, and astronauts work in pairs, tethered to the spacecraft for safety. Walking in these spacesuits is not as easy as it seems. The thick pressurized gloves make grasping tools difficult, while the weightlessness of space creates its own issues. To ensure spacewalk missions are successful, astronauts practise their planned excursions at NASA’s Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory. Immersed in a tank of water, the astronauts neither sink nor float, creating a sensation close to weightlessness. For every hour a task is scheduled on a mission, up to 10 hours is spent practising underwater. As NASA moves forward on the maintenance and construction of the International Space Station, spacewalks will continue to be vital to the process.permeate: v.if liquid, gas etc permeates something, it enters it and sps through every part of itthe advent of sth:the time when something first begins to be widely usedextravehicular activity: n.Abbr. EVAActivity or maneuvers performed by an astronaut outside a spacecraft in space.duplicate: repeat tether: v.fasten (an animal) within a limited area200810/54022India seems to excel at making things smaller and cheaper. The ,500 car and the computer are just two of the country's latest innovations. Now, India increasingly is focused on low-cost solar technology. The front lines of that effort are seen in a tiny village in the Indian state of Rajasthan called Tiloniya.印度的优势就是能将所有的东西做得又小又便宜。最新研制的2千5百美元的汽车和35美元的电脑就是明。现在印度逐渐将焦点聚集在低成本的太阳能技术上。这项技术的发源地是印度拉贾斯坦邦的一个名叫提洛尼亚的小村庄。In this sunlit workshop, Tenzing Chonzom solders parts onto a device that regulates electrical currents. It will eventually be connected to a solar panel, allowing it to power everything from lamps to laptops.在这个充满阳光的工作间里,肖赞正在焊接一些调节电流用的元器件。这些零件最终将被焊接到一个太阳能板上,为从电灯到电脑的一切电器供电。Make low-cost solar panelsChonzom says she was chosen by her community to come here to learn about solar technology. She says she will take the knowledge back to the villages where she lives. She says many people in her region, in the Himalayan foothills, still do not have access to electricity.肖赞说,她的社区推举她来这里接受太阳能技术的训练。她说,她将把这个技术带回她所居住的村庄。她说,她居住在喜马拉雅山脚下,那里很多地方还没有通电。Chonzom is 50 years old, and one of two dozen people being trained here as solar engineers. Most have had no formal education. It is all part of a program to help India's rural poor by teaching them to make and install low-cost solar panels. Then they teach others to do the same. It is called Barefoot College, and so far it has trained thousands. Sanjit Bunker Roy started the program 25 years ago.肖赞今年50岁,她与另外23个人一起参加太阳能技师的培训,其中很多人过去都没有接受过正规教育。这是印度正在推行的一项计划,通过教授印度农村贫困人口如何制造和安装低成本的太阳能板来帮助他们。之后这些人能够把技术传播给更多的人。这被称为“赤脚大学”,目前已经培训了数千人。罗伊在25年前开始了这个项目。"You have to see how you can demystify the technology and bring it down to the community level so that they can manage, control and own the technology," said Roy.罗伊说:“你能感觉到你解开了这项技术神秘的面纱,将它带入每一个社区。人们能够掌握、控制和拥有它。”Roy is among Time Magazine's Top 100 most influential people for 2010. He says grassroots solar technology is crucial for India. Nearly half the country's rural population – more than 300 million people – has either no electricity or just a few hours of it a day.罗伊是美国时代周刊评选出的2010年全球百大影像力人物之一。他说,普及太阳能技术对印度来说至关重要。该国3亿多人,也就是农村人口的近一半,居住在没有电力供应的地区,或者每天只能使用几个小时的电。201011/116978A gold medal is worth 0K 金牌的价值 Pablo Torre from Sports Illustrated breaks down how Olympic athletes bring home the bank along with glory.So you’re an Olympic athlete. You train practically your whole life, cause you get one chance maybe two to represent your country and compete. But how exactly do you make a paycheck at the same time? Let’s bring in Pablo Torre from Sports Illustrated. How exactly do they compete, spend all of their time training but still make money?Well, you know. Once you get that elusive gold medal, there is a payoff and it’s not just in the tangible thing you hold in your hand. You make about a hundred thousand dollars regardless of any sport of individual event, in speaking engagements and advertising, in sponsorships that will last you about through the year. But after that it's sort of up in the air once again.Michael Phelps, he seems to be transcending the Olympics one year rule. He’s gonna be having sponsors for how long? 10 years?You know, for a very long time. I’m not gonna put a number on that ,but the guy will be with us as one of those historic all time great athletes regardless of the event he swam, or even ran, or anything, he is up there with the Tiger Woodses at this point right now. So,you know he will be there for a very long time and he will be raking in money . He’s making about 5million dollars right now. After he gets the 8 gold medal, fingers crossed, you know, he will be doing even better than that.If, something else said that's interesting is, if you wanna be an Olympic athlete, I’m pretty sure neither of us are quite there yet.Women’s team handball shooting for…I think you have a shot .I think, if back in high school I’m pretty good at Ping-Pong. And actually I raced one of our co-workers /a/ hundred yard dash, but two weeks ago, /that/ I’m still exhausted.I’m sure that’s roughly comparable to what Olympic athletes do.It’s pretty much exactly the same.But for the people that are actually trying to play in the Olympics to compete, they really do give up everything, their risks are associated with this. But they’re not making money until they win so what’s their life like when you’re at home practicing waking up everyday not knowing if you’re gonna get a sponsorship.Yeah, it’s a true labor of love. And you’re not doing it for the money. And if you are, you’re sort of a bit are too big for your bridges, I think, unless you are character like Michael Phelps who started in the Olympics at the age of 15. You don’t know whether the money is gonna come in. You’re doing it because you love the sport. And often times, even if you get that hundred thousand dollars, no one’s gonna recognize you beyond that, that niche community that you have in your own events. So you really doing it with little lights turned down and with no one else watching you in order to actually succeed.So, really it’s a risk. It’s all like a start-up company. Think about it.It is. You know, you are a young guy putting in time when no one else really has faith in you often. The fact that is you need to do it when the lights are turned down and no one else is watching you. You need to wear with all to really, you know, encourage yourself and not doing it for money but for the love of the game. Pablo Torre, he is from Sports Illustrated. My name is Lan Orefice, /and/ I’m from CNNMoney.com. Thanks for being with us.体育画报Sports Illustrated 的记者Pablo Torre 称,奥运会运动员带回国的不只是荣耀,还有“”。假设你是一个奥运会运动员。你一辈子都在勤奋的训练,因为你有些许机会代表你的祖国去参加比赛。但是同时,你那什么来开票呢?我们请来了来自体育画报Sports Illustrated的Pablo Torre 。“运动员所有时间都花在比赛和训练的同时是怎样赚钱的呢?”“你知道,一旦你获得至高无上的金牌,会有很丰厚的回报,而不只是你手里所触摸到的那个东西。在接下去的一年里,即使你不参加任何形式的比赛,仅仅是参加演讲,拍广告,还有赞助商给的费用,你就可以赚几十万美元。但是以后,你的生计似乎又悬而未决了。”但是菲尔普斯似乎会超越奥运会这个所谓的一年的规律。他在多长的时间里都会有赞助商?10年?你知道,肯定会是非常长的时间。我不想设定一个具体的数字。但是,那个小伙子是有史以来最伟大的运动员,即使他以后不参加游泳比赛,或赛跑,或者其他任何比赛,他都会和我们在一起。他现在拥有Tiger Woodses 一样的地位。所以,你知道,将会有很长一段时间他会和我们在一起,而且他会赚很多钱。他现在已经赚了大约500万美圆。而他获得了8枚金牌之后,上帝呀!你知道,他会赚的更多!另外一件可以称之为有趣的事情是,如果你要成员为一个奥林匹克运动员,我很肯定我们中没有一个现在够得了格。女子手球队射门………………我认为你射中了一次。我想,如果重回高中,我非常擅长乒乓球。事实上,两个星期之前,我还在100米的比赛中赢了我的同事,但是直到现在我仍然筋疲力尽。我确定那绝对可以和奥运会运动员们所做的训练相提并论。那是完全相同的。但是对于那些真正想要参加奥运会比赛的人来说,他们真的放弃了一切,风险也相伴而生。但是直到他们赢得了比赛他们才能赚到钱,所以,他们的生活就像你每天早上醒来,不知道你会不会获得资助一样。是的,或许这是你真心喜欢做的事情。你做这些不是为了钱。否则,你也太冒险了,除非你有像菲尔普斯那样的资质,可以从15岁开始就参加奥运会。你不知道什么时候会赚钱。你参加比赛是因为你真心喜爱这项运动。即使你赚了几十万美圆,在日常生活中,除了你参加比赛的那个小圈子,没人认识你。所以,如果为了真正赢得比赛,你关掉灯光,没有任何观众观看你的比赛,你才是真心的喜欢这项运动。所以,这确实是一个风险。这就像一个刚刚起步的公司。你可以仔细考虑一下。是的。你知道,你是一个即使没人为你衷心的疯狂的时候也要花费时间练习的年轻人。事实是,当灯光关掉和没人关注你的时候,你仍然需要训练。你需要这样做来鼓励你自己,不是为了钱,而是因为真心爱这项比赛。 200811/56461

针对朝鲜宣布成功发射“光明星2号”试验通信卫星一事,美国军方5日说,朝鲜当天发射的是导弹,而且导弹已坠入海中。位于美国科罗拉多州的北美防空司令部与北方司令部就此进行简要通报时说,朝鲜发射的是一枚导弹,发射后其一级助推火箭坠落日本海,其余助推系统与有效载荷一同坠入太平洋。在这一过程中,没有任何物体或碎片坠落日本。朝鲜中央通讯社5日发表新闻公报说,朝鲜于5日当地时间11时20分(北京时间10时20分)在东海卫星发射场成功发射“光明星2号”试验通信卫星。I'm Asieh Namdar at the CNN.com newsroom in Atlanta. Here's a look at what's happening NOW IN THE NEWS. Despite international pressure, North Korea launched a rocket late last night. It says carried a satellite. But the North American Aerospace Defense Command says the payload crashed in the Pacific Ocean instead of going into orbit. US and other countries fear the launch could have been a missile carrying a warhead. UN Security Council meets today to discuss the launch. China and Russia have called for restraint and calm. Ahead of the Security Council meeting, Secretary of State Hilary Clinton is busy working to build an international consensus on condemning the North Korean rocket launch. Clinton spoke on the phone today with the foreign ministers of China, Japan and Russia this morning. All three countries in talks aimed at getting that North Korea to abandon nuclear weapons. President Obama is traveling through Europe on an 8-day-trip. He and first lady are now headed to Turkey. In Prague, Mr. Obama called North Korea's launch a provocative act and called for the elimination of nuclear weapons. The US military says an American soldier has been charged with murder in connection with the shooting death of a contractor in Iraq. Pfc. Carl Stovall was arrested last month the day of the contractor’s death. The military has not released any other details about the incident. It didn't say the contractor was neither Iraqi nor American. Police in Washington State say a father apparently shot and killed his five children and then took his own life. The children's bodies were found in the family’s mobile home near Takoma. The youngest, 7 years old. Police say after the father killed them, he drove to a nearby casino and shot himself. It’s not clear where the mother was at the time of the shootings. And millions of Christians around the world have begun their Holy Week with Palm Sunday celebrations. Pope Benedict XVI held an open air mass at the Vatican. He called for an end to human trafficking which he says could increase during the global economic slowdown. And those are the headlines this hour. For more on these stories and other news of the day, CNN is your source online, on TV, or when you're on the go.PFC: Private First Class04/66564

Report: N. Korean Leader Signals Possible Return to Nuclear Talks北韩释放愿重返六方会谈信号North Korea's leader has apparently told a senior Chinese envoy he is willing to resume talks to resolve the issue of Pyongyang's nuclear weapons.北韩领导人据报对中国高级特使表示,他愿意返回有关解决北韩核武器计划的会谈。China's Xinhua news agency says North Korean leader Kim Jong Il promises to work toward making the Korean peninsula free of nuclear weapons. Mr. Kim also is willing to engage in what the report describes as "bilateral or multilateral talks" to help push that goal forward.中国官方的新华社说,北韩领导人金正日允诺为实现朝鲜半岛无核化而努力。报道还说,金正日还愿意参加朝这一目标努力的“双边或多边会谈”。Those comments, if accurate, would be the first explicit sign in months that North Korea is willing to resume diplomacy aimed at ending its nuclear weapons programs. Mr. Kim reportedly made them to senior Chinese envoys visiting Pyongyang.如果报道属实,这将是数月以来北韩第一次明确表示愿意重新参加旨在终止北韩核计划的外交努力。据报道,金正日向访问平壤的中国特使做出这个表示。A North Korean state broadcaster says Mr. Kim met with Dai Bingguo, an envoy of Chinese Premier Hu Jintao. They held talks in a "cordial atmosphere" about continuing the North Korea-China friendship.北韩国家广播电台说,金正日会见了中国总理温家宝的特使戴秉国,在“亲切气氛中”讨论了北韩和中国继续发展友谊的问题。China's envoy to six-nation nuclear talks, Wu Dawei, also attended the meeting. The often-stalled six-nation talks also involve the ed States, South Korea, Japan, and Russia. Earlier this year, North Korea declared the six-party process "useless" and over with. It conducted its second nuclear test in May.六方会谈的中国代表团团长武大伟也参加了会见。参加有关北韩核计划的六方会谈的还有美国、韩国、日本和俄罗斯。六方会谈经常搁浅。今年早些时候,北韩宣称六方会谈“毫无用处”,将不再参加。北韩5月进行了它的第二次核试验。South Korean officials caution against interpreting Mr. Kim's reported comments as a signal the North is y to come back to the talks. The South's foreign minister, Yu Myung-hwan, told business leaders in Seoul Friday that Pyongyang has other ideas.韩国官员说,不应急于把报道提及的金正日讲话视为北韩将重返六方会谈的信号。韩国外交通商部长柳明桓星期五在首尔对商界领袖说,平壤另有想法。Yu says now that North Korea possesses nuclear weapons, Pyongyang intends to have U.S.-North Korea arms reduction talks, which the U.S. cannot accept. 柳明桓说,北韩现在已经拥有核武器,打算和美国进行削减军备的谈判,而美国不会接受这个要求。Washington has ruled out such arms reduction talks, which would implicitly recognize North Korea as a nuclear weapons state. The ed States and its regional partners say they will accept nothing less than a complete and verifiable end to North Korea's nuclear arms capabilities. 美国排除了与北韩进行削减军备谈判的任何可能。进行这种谈判将等于明确承认北韩是核国家。美国及其东亚盟友说,必须以可核查的方式全面废止北韩的核武器能力,除此之外不接受任何其它方案。President Obama's administration has expressed willingness to talk to North Korea one-on-one, but only in a context that is directly connected to the six-party talks.奥巴马政府表示愿意与北韩进行一对一的谈判,但条件是这种谈判必须直接相关六方会谈。North Korea analysts here in the South Korean capital find it significant that Mr. Kim's reported comments come during a visit from China. Beijing is the North's only significant ally, and provides a lifeline of food, fuel, and resources to its hobbled economy.首尔的北韩问题分析人士认为,在中国特使访问北韩之际报道金正日的这个讲话具有重大意义。Hong Hyun-ik is a North Korea researcher at the Sejong Institute in Seoul.韩信一是首尔世宗研究所的北韩问题研究员。He says China felt the need to stop the North's nuclear activities from getting out of hand. He says Beijing also does not want to be isolated from any one-on-one diplomatic arrangement between North Korea and the ed States. So, China sent its envoy, says Hong, to remind Kim Jong Il how crucial it is to the North's economic fate.他说,中国感到有必要制止北韩的核活动,以防事态失控。他说,北京不希望被排斥在北韩和美国任何一对一谈判之外,因此派遣特使提醒金正日,中国对北韩经济具有至关重要的作用。09/84603

Intellectual property知识产权Many patents, still pending悬而未决的专利Congress tweaks, but does not overhaul, America’s patent system国会将对美国专利制度进行小幅修改Sep 10th 2011 | NEW YORK | from the print edition AFTER years of dithering, America is set for patent reform. On September 6th a bill proposing to change the system passed its highest procedural hurdle in the Senate. With Barack Obama supportive, this means the America Invents Act could soon be signed into law.徘徊犹豫了多年,美国终于着手专利改革。9月6号,整改议案过了最艰难的一关——参议院。得到总统巴拉克#8226;奥巴马的持,美国发明法规将很快能正式写入法律。Instead of the “first to invent” principle, which America currently uses, patents will be awarded to inventors who are the “first to file”. This is similar to the system most other countries use. The aim is to avoid long and difficult legal arguments over who was the first to come up with an idea.美国专利目前遵循“第一发明”原则,将改为授予第一个申请注册的人。目前大部分国家都实行这种规定,这样可避免对第一发明人的确定争论不休,难以确定。As in most cases of patent law it is not going to be that simple. One criticism is that being first-to-file gives big and sophisticated organisations, highly experienced at the difficult job of filing for patents, an advantage over smaller outfits that may be technically brilliant but not legally savvy. Another problem is that first-to-file may make companies rush to put in for a patent before their invention is truly y.如专利法中涉及的案例很多都不能简单的界定。有一种批评意见是,申请注册专利会造成庞大复杂的机构,特别是申请过程更是项困难的工作,小型机构的优点在于技术上的优越而不只是合法的专业知识。另一个问题是专利的申请可能促使一些公司在一些发明尚未成型时就急于将其注册。201109/154473

Bush, Obama Remember Troops at Christmas布什奥巴马号召过节不忘驻外美军 Both U.S. President George Bush and President-elect Barack Obama are spending a quiet Christmas out of the media spotlight with family and friends. They are urging Americans to remember U.S. troops abroad as they celebrate this holiday season. 美国总统布什和当选美国总统奥巴马都在新闻媒体的视线外与亲友一起静悄悄地欢度圣诞节。他们敦促美国人在庆祝节日佳期时别忘了在国外的美国军人。President Bush is at Camp David - the U.S. presidential retreat in the mountains of western Maryland. President-elect Obama is in Hawaii, where he was born and raised. 布什总统目前在马里兰州西部山区的美国总统度假地戴维营。当选总统奥巴马则在夏威夷,他生长的地方。They are one in spirit on this Christmas - uniting in calling on all Americans to remember and honor U.S. troops who are far from home for the holidays. 他俩在圣诞节期间一致呼吁全体美国人在节日期间要记得并尊重远离家乡的美国军人。Mr. Bush called nine members of the armed forces on Christmas Eve to thank them for their service. All are deployed abroad, primarily in Iraq and Afghanistan. 布什总统在圣诞节前夕打电话给九位军人,感谢他们为国务。这九位军人全都部署在海外,主要是在伊拉克和阿富汗。In his weekly radio address - released early to coincide with the holiday - Mr. Bush reflected on their love of country. 布什总统因为节日而提前发表每周广播讲话。他在讲话中谈到了军人们的爱国精神。"Every one of them has sacrificed to serve our nation. And with their sacrifices, they preserve the peace and freedom that we celebrate during the season," he said. 他说:“他们每一个人都由于为国务而作出了牺牲。他们以自己的牺牲让我们在庆祝节日时享有和平与自由。”President-elect Obama echoed those thoughts in the official Democratic Party response.  当选总统奥巴马在民主党的正式回应中表达了跟布什总统相同的想法。"Our troops and military families have won the respect and gratitude of their broader American family," he said. "Michelle and I have them in our prayers this Christmas, and we must all continue to offer them are full support in the weeks and months to come." 他说:“我们的部队和军人家属赢得了美国大家庭的尊重和感激。我和米歇尔在今年圣诞节的祷告中也会为他们祈祷,我们都必须在今后一段时间内继续向他们提供全力持。”But Mr. Obama went on to stress these are also tough times for Americans hit hard by the nation's economic ills. He said there are many who need a job, struggle to pay bills, and worry that they could lose their homes. 奥巴马接着强调指出,还有一些美国人因为受美国经济弊病的沉重打击而处境困难。他说,有许多人没有工作,挣扎着付账单,并且还担心可能会失去自己的住房。"That is why this season of giving should also be a time to renew a sense of common purpose and shared citizenship. Now, more than ever, we must rededicate ourselves to the notion that we share a common destiny as Americas - that I am my brother's keeper, I am my sister's keeper," he added. 奥巴马说:“那就是为什么在这个施予他人礼物的节期,我们也应当再次感受到我们作为美国公民的共同目标。如今我们要比以往任何时候都更加意识到,作为美国公民,我们要有同舟共济的理念,我们要互相帮助。”The Obama family is expected to remain in Hawaii to ring in on January 1. President Bush will travel from Camp David to his Texas ranch on Friday and will remain there until New Year's Day. 奥巴马一家预计将在夏威夷迎来年的元旦。布什总统将在星期五从戴维营前往德克萨斯州的农场,并将在那里庆祝元旦。200812/59629

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