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2019年07月19日 06:23:06 | 作者:快问对话 | 来源:新华社
China#39;s quality watchdog has started a campaign to ensure the safety of escalators after a mother in Hubei province was killed on an escalator at a department store after pushing her son to safety.湖北省一位母亲在百货公司搭乘自动扶梯时被卷入,临死前将儿子托出扶梯,随后中国质检总局开展安全检查确保自动扶梯安全运行。In a statement released on Tuesday, the special equipment bureau of the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine said it has ordered quality watch-dogs at local levels to examine the safety of escalators and moving sidewalks.周二,国家质检总局特种设备局在发布的一份声明中称,已经下令要求地方各级质检部门对自动扶梯和自动人行道开展安全检查。Unsafe equipment should be suspended immediately and repaired, the authority said.该部门称,不安全的设备应当立即停止使用进行维修。The measures followed the death of Xiang Liujuan, a 31-year-old woman from Jingzhou, Hubei province, who was killed on Saturday when she fell into a gap between the floor and the escalator at a store in Jingzhou.此前的周六,湖北省荆州市一名31岁的女子向柳娟在当地一家百货公司搭乘自动扶梯时,因陷入楼层和扶梯之间的空隙而被卷入电梯致死。Surveillance of the accident, showing Xiang lifting her toddler son to safety as she fell, was uploaded to social media, where it was shared more than 100,000 times on Sina Weibo.事故监控录像显示,向柳娟在陷入电梯之后,将其幼小的儿子托到安全的地方,这段视频被上传到了社交媒体上,并在新浪微中转发超过10万次。The number of escalators and elevators in China has risen sharply in the past decade amid the intense urbanization drive, according to the quality watchdog.质检部门称,在过去的10年间,由于城市化进程加快,国内自动扶梯和垂直电梯的数量急剧上升。In another accident on Tuesday, a woman in Wuxi, Jiangsu province, was killed after getting stuck between an elevator and a platform in a factory.周二发生的另一起事故,是江苏省无锡市的一名女子被卡在一家工厂的垂直电梯和平台之间致死。China had more than 3.6 million elevators and escalators in service by the end of last year, and the number is increasing by 20 percent each year. In 2003, the country had only 300,000 elevators in service.截止去年年底,中国有360万升降电梯和自动扶梯在运行,并以每年20%的速度在增长。而2003年全国总共才有30万垂直电梯在使用。A separate safety campaign was launched in March for elevators. Forty-eight elevator accidents resulting in 36 deaths were reported last year, according to the watchdog.质检部门消息称,去年有记录的垂直电梯事故达48起并造成36人死亡,今年3月份开展了垂直电梯专项安全检查。;The supervision of elevator safety in China is done by government departments, while in Western countries the responsibility lies with the users and property owners,; said an official with the administration#39;s special equipment bureau, who asked not to be identified.质检总局特种设备局一位不愿透漏姓名的官员称:“在西方国家电梯安全检查由用户和业主负责,而我国则是由政府部门来完成。”The subject of liability for a large number of elevators remains unclear, and that has made safety supervision difficult, he said.他说,大量电梯的责任归属不够明确,这使得安全监督很困难。;The safety problem mainly lies in the elevators that were put into service before 2003, when safety standards for equipment was relatively low,; he said.“出现安全问题的电梯大部分是在2003年以前安装投入使用的,当时的设备安全标准相对较低。”他说。An emergency response system has been established for elevators in 11 cities across the country, and residents who become trapped in elevators can dial 96333 to request rescue, the quality watchdog said.质检部门称,全国有11个城市建立了电梯应急响应系统,居民如果被困在天梯内,可拨打96333请求救援。 /201507/389442How would one describe a market in which the value of the same commodity varied by more than 100 to one? “Hugely distorted” is the answer. Yet that is precisely the situation for land near England’s most prosperous urban centres. As I have recently argued, these anomalies are the product of the UK’s system of land planning, introduced by the postwar Labour government in 1947. Their effect is to make a mockery of the claim that the country has a competitive market economy. If it did, these discrepancies simply could not exist.如果一个市场中的同类商品在价值上相差超过百倍,人们会如何形容这样的市场呢?是“严重扭曲”。然而,英格兰最繁华的城市中心附近的土地正是这种情况。正如我最近所讲,这些反常现象是战后英国工党政府在1947年引入的土地规划体制的产物。它们的效果却是对英国宣称拥有一个竞争性的市场经济的讽刺。如果真有市场经济,这些差异根本不可能存在。In an excellent book on housing, Housing: Where’s the Plan?, Kate Barker, a former member of the Bank of England’s Monetary Policy Committee, notes that in 2010, agricultural land around Cambridge was worth #163;18,500 a hectare, while neighbouring residential land cost maybe #163;2.9m a hectare. Land restricted to agricultural use and land open to development lie side by side but their value is hugely different.在一本关于住房的优秀著作《住房:计划在哪里?》(Housing: Where’s the Plan?)中,英国央行(Bank of England)前货币政策委员会成员凯特#8226;巴克(Kate Barker)指出,2010年,剑桥附近的农业用地价格在1.85万英镑/公顷,而邻近的住宅用地价格可能在290万英镑/公顷。仅限农业使用的土地与可供开发的土地紧靠在一起,而它们的价值却有天壤之别。In a recent paper, Christian Hilber of the London School of Economics and Wouter Vermeulen of the Netherlands bureau for economic policy analysis, note that real house prices have grown faster in the UK over the past 40 years than in any other member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Prices, particularly in London and the South East, are among the highest in the world. In the absence of controls, real prices would have risen by around 90 per cent between 1974 and 2008, instead of 190 per cent.在最近的一篇论文中,伦敦政治经济学院(London School of Economics)的克里斯蒂安#8226;希尔贝尔(Christian Hilber)与荷兰智库荷兰经济政策研究局(Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis)的沃特#8226;韦穆伦(Wouter Vermeulen)指出,过去40年期间,英国实际房价增长速度快于经合组织(OECD)其他任何成员国。英国(尤其是伦敦和英格兰东南部)是世界上房价最高的地区之一。若没有控制,实际价格原本会在1974年到2008年之间上涨约90%,而非190%。As usual, market distortions have large knock-on effects. Thus, a big proportion of the population have become land speculators; people who receive no help from their families are forced to live in cramped quarters or commute very long distances; the government feels forced to pay large subsidies for renting and now even house purchases; and the health of banking has come to depend on the continuation of the land scarcity. Paul Cheshire of the LSE even argues that these policies have made houses more similar to art or gold than to humble dwellings.就像通常的情况一样,市场扭曲会产生很大的连锁效应。因此,一大部分人口变成了土地投机者;无法获得家庭帮助的人被迫蜗居,或者忍受很远距离的通勤;政府被迫为租房甚至如今的购房付庞大的补贴;的健康状况已变得依赖持续的土地稀缺。伦敦政治经济学院的保罗#8226;切希尔(Paul Cheshire)甚至提出,这些政策使房子变得更类似于艺术品或黄金,而非普通居所。How can this be justified? The response is that this is how one preserves England’s green and pleasant land from the blight of urbanisation. Let us leave aside the fact that the majority of people want to live in cities. The big question is whether the amenity value justifies forgoing the value revealed in the extraordinary prices of residential land.这种现象如何被明为合理呢?对此的反应认为,这是保护英格兰绿色、宜人的土地免遭城市化破坏的办法。让我们暂且不谈多数人想住在城市这一事实。最大的问题是,绿地的宜人价值,能否明放弃住宅用地超高价格所体现的价值是合理的?To this, Prof Cheshire offers a powerful response. The core question, he notes, is what is to be done with the green belts around our cities. Supporters of the policy of “urban containment” argue that this is a small island whose countryside risks being concreted over.切希尔教授对此提出了一个有力的回应。他指出,核心问题是如何利用我们城市周围的绿化带。“城市遏制”政策的持者认为,英伦小岛的乡村有被混凝土覆盖的危险。In fact, the land in green belts alone is one and a half times greater than in all cities and towns together. Moreover, the towns are far “greener” than green belts. Gardens cover nearly half of the 10 per cent of England that is urbanised, while the dominant use of land in green belts is intensive arable farming, which is mostly hideous and offers less biodiversity than urban parks and gardens. Nor do green belts offer much if any amenity to the bulk of the population that lives in the great cities. Their value goes to the small number of people who own houses inside them.实际上,仅绿化带内的土地就相当于所有城镇土地总和的一倍半。此外,城镇远比绿化带“更绿色”。英格兰10%的城市化土地上,近一半都由花园覆盖,而绿化带中土地的主要利用方式是集约化的耕种农业,它们大都很难看,而且就生物多样性而言还不如城市公园和花园。绿化带也没有给生活在大城市的大部分人口带来多少宜人效益(如果有任何宜人效益的话)。只有少数在绿化带里有房子的人才能享受到它们的价值。So what is to be done? The price mechanism should rule. There should be a presumption of development in green belts, unless the cost of new infrastructure exceeds the benefits. Developers should pay a fee to local councils at least equal to the additional infrastructure costs, and ideally more than that, in order to encourage development. Some combination of fees and subsequent taxes on beneficiaries should also meet all additional cost of public services. A tax on undeveloped sites would help ensure that land was developed. Finally, those prepared to argue that a valuable amenity risked being lost should be entitled to challenge the presumption of development. But they would also need to produce evidence of value of the lost amenities.那么,需要做些什么呢?应该由价格机制来决定。开发绿化带应该成为一个设想,除非新建基础设施的成本超过效益。开发商付给地方议会的费用至少应该等于建设额外基础设施的成本,而且最好是更多,这样可以鼓励开发。受益人承担的相关税费也应该满足额外的公共务成本。对未开发土地征税将有助于确保地块被开发。最后,那些准备主张宝贵的宜人性有丧失风险的人,应该有权质问开发的设想。但他们也需要举说明,失去的宜人性到底有哪些价值。I understand the vested interests of those with houses in or near the green belts. I understand, too, the risks of a policy that might actually lower house prices. But building an economy upon a massive and growing distortion in the market for land is foolish. We do not need to concrete over England. We do need to stop constraining the growth of the places where people really want to live. It is untrue that the green belts are areas of outstanding amenity. They are rather sources of increasing misery, as an ever-larger population is crammed into an artificially limited space.我理解那些在绿化带之内或附近拥有住房的居民的既得利益。我也知道一项可能会降低房价的政策的风险。但是,将经济建立在土地市场巨大且愈演愈烈的扭曲之上是愚蠢的。我们不需要用混凝土浇盖英格兰。我们需要停止在人们真正想住的地方制约增长。说绿化带是具有出色宜人价值的地区是不对的。相反,它们是不断加剧的痛苦的来源,因为越来越多的人口被塞进人为设限的空间。This is a really big issue. That is, of course, why no politician dares touch it.这的确是一个非常大的问题。当然,这也是为什么没有政界人士敢碰这一问题。 /201504/372003

Cynics earn less愤世嫉俗者赚钱少People who take a dim view of the world and those around them earn less, research shows.一项研究发现,对于世界和周围人们持悲观看法的人,赚的钱更少。The difference is far from insubstantial, with the most cynical taking home 5 a month less, on average, than the most trusting types.这一区别非常明显:那些最愤世嫉俗的人,比最信任他人的人平均月薪少305美元(约合1892元人民币)。Employees who believe others to be exploitative and dishonest are likely to avoid collaborative projects and to forgo the related opportunities, said a psychologist at the University of Cologne in Germany.德国科隆大学一位心理学家表示:那些认为别人会利用自己、别人都不可靠的雇员,倾向于避开合作项目,从而放弃相关机会。People who hold a more benevolent view of human nature, in contrast, are more likely to benefit from joining forces with others, he said.相比之下,对人性看法更乐观的人们,则更容易在与他人的合作过程中获益。 /201506/379307

One in three homeowners admit they regularly #39;spy#39; on their neighbours, it emerged yesterday.And nearly half say they peek from behind the curtains whenever they hear #39;goings-on#39; in their street。Almost 50 per cent of people surveyed said they could recite the times their neighbours leave and return from work and spot a new car immediately, with a fifth noticing if a stranger visits。Noticing parcels being delivered, if a couple argue more than normal or even when the online shopping comes, were other common aspects people knew about those living close by。But one in ten admit they had been caught peering through the windows by their neighbour。The study of 2,000 adults – commissioned by Yale as part of National Home Security Month – found that the most common reason given for keeping tabs on the neighbours was #39;to check they are all right#39;。For neighbours even the intimacy of a relationship is common knowledge - over a quarter knew a neighbouring couple were having real troubles and one in ten even know a neighbour currently having an affair。Nigel Fisher, from Yale, lead sponsor of National Home Security Month, said: #39;This shows just how closely the people who live next to us are watching and the things that don#39;t go unnoticed。#39;However, the results show that where people did admit to keeping tabs on a neighbour it was usually with good intentions of making sure everything#39;s alright.#39;The study also saw a quarter of people confess to spying on the neighbours at least once a week。据英国《每日邮报》报道,有1/3的屋主都承认自己会定期“监视”邻居。更有近半数的人说自己只要听到街上有“骚动”就会躲在窗帘后面偷窥外面的情况。受访的人中几乎一半表示他们能背出邻居出门和回家的时间并能一眼看出来邻居是否换了新车,有1/5的受访者表示能察觉到邻居家有陌生人来访。这还不算什么,谁签收了包裹,隔壁夫妻俩是不是吵得更厉害了,甚至于别人网上买的东西什么时候到这种邻居家的琐事,我们都一清二楚。但是,有1/10的受访者承认自己曾被邻居抓到过在窗户边儿偷看。这项对2000名成人的调查由耶鲁大学委托进行,是美国全国家庭安全月(National Home Security Month)的活动项目之一。调查发现,当被问到为什么要密切关注邻居的动向时,大家说得最多的理由就是“只是为了看看他们是不是一切都好”。了解邻居的婚恋关系甚至也是小菜一碟儿——超过1/4的受访者称自己知道隔壁夫妻俩出现了感情危机,1/10的人甚至还知道邻居有外遇。耶鲁大学的尼格·费希尔(Nigel Fisher)是全国家庭安全月的主要赞助商,他说:“由此可见邻居把我们看得有多紧,几乎没有什么能逃过他们的眼睛。”“然而,调查结果显示,大家承认会密切关注邻居,但通常都是出于好心想确认对方一切都好。”调查中一半人坦言自己会“监视”邻居且至少一周一次。

As executives at GlaxoSmithKline PLC last year were reviewing an internal whistleblower#39;s allegations of bribery in China, they received something else: a sex of their top China executive in his home with a female companion, a person familiar with its contents said.据一位知情人士称,在去年葛兰素史克(Glaxosmithkline plc)的高管们对指控该公司在中国行贿的一位内部告密者进行调查之际,他们还收到了别的东西:葛兰素史克前中国高管马克锐(Mark Reilly)在家中与一位女伴的性爱录像。The British drug maker regarded the --apparently shot without the executive#39;s knowledge--as a breach of security, the person said.该人士称,葛兰素史克将拍摄此段录像视为违反安全的行为。该录像显然是在马克锐不知情的情况下拍摄的。The executive in the , Mark Reilly, directed the company to hire a Shanghai-based private investigation firm run by a British national and his Chinese-born wife to investigate the breach, the person said.该知情人士还称,马克锐要求公司雇佣上海一家私人调查公司来调查此事。这家公司由一位英国人及其华裔妻子运营。Those investigators--former journalist Peter Humphrey and Yu Yingzeng, a naturalized U.S. citizen--subsequently were arrested by Chinese authorities last year and remain in custody. Official Chinese media said their investigative firm, ChinaWhys Co., had illegally gathered large amounts of personal information on Chinese citizens.这两位私人调查员是曾当过记者的韩飞龙(Peter Humphrey)及其美籍华人妻子虞英曾(音)。二人随后于去年被中国政府逮捕,目前仍被拘留。据中国官方媒体称,这对夫妻开设的调查公司中慧(ChinaWhys Co.)非法获取了大量中国公民的个人信息。Until this weekend#39;s disclosure about the , it wasn#39;t clear whether ChinaWhys had been working for Glaxo when its owners were seized by authorities. The details of the were reported by Britain#39;s Sunday Times newspaper.在韩飞龙和虞英曾被中国政府逮捕时,外界并不清楚中慧是否在为葛兰素史克提供务,直至周末上述录像被披露时真相才水落石出。英国《星期日泰晤士报》(Sunday Times)最先报道了该录像的细节。The disclosures add new details to a series of events that has shaken up the U.K. drug maker#39;s operations in China and put the industry under a microscope.此前的一系列事件已经撼动葛兰素史克的中国业务,并让医药行业被放在显微镜下审视,这段视频为这一系列事件又增添了一些新细节。Chinese law enforcement in May accused Mr. Reilly of ordering subordinates to commit bribery that generated billions of yuan in revenue for Glaxo#39;s China operations. Authorities alleged that Mr. Reilly, a Briton, ordered his sales team and other employees to bribe hospital doctors, health-care organizations and other parties on #39;a large scale#39; to boost drug sales in China.中国执法部门5月份指控马克锐指示下属行贿,从而为葛兰素史克的中国业务创造了人民币数十亿元的收入。中国有关部门声称,为了提高在中国的药物销售额,英国籍人士马克锐指示其销售团队及其他雇员对医院医生、医疗保健组织以及其他人员大规模行贿。Glaxo has said that some of its employees may have broken Chinese laws and that the company, including Mr. Reilly, were assisting the investigation.葛兰素史克曾表示,其部分雇员违反了中国的法律,该公司包括马克锐在内正在协助相关调查。Mr. Reilly couldn#39;t be reached for comment and hasn#39;t commented in the past. As of last month he was in China and hadn#39;t been arrested or detained, a person familiar with his movements said. He remains a Glaxo employee, though the company appointed a new head of its China operations last year.记者无法联系到马克锐置评,他之前也从未发表过。据熟悉他行动的知情人称,直到上个月他还在中国,也没有被逮捕或拘留。他仍是葛兰素史克的雇员,不过该公司去年已经任命了新的中国业务主管。Regarding the husband-wife investigative firm, Glaxo had declined to say whether they working for Glaxo, though people familiar ChinaWhys had said it had done work for Glaxo in the past. Ms. Yu and Mr. Humphrey were detained in July, days after Chinese authorities first accused Glaxo of bribery. They were formally arrested in August.至于这家夫妻调查公司,葛兰素史克拒绝说明他们是否为该公司工作。不过熟悉中慧公司的人称,这家公司过去曾为葛兰素史克工作。虞英曾和韩飞龙于去年7月份被拘留,就在中国当局第一次指控葛兰素史克行贿之后。他们于去年8月份被正式逮捕。The couple couldn#39;t be reached for comment. China Central Television in August broadcast footage of the couple in which Mr. Humphrey said they used #39;used illegal means to obtain personal information.#39; The circumstances under which he made the statement couldn#39;t be determined.记者未能联系到这对夫妻置评。中国中央电视台去年8月播放了对他们的一段采访,汉弗莱说他们为获取个人信息使用了非法手段。但无法判断他是在何种情况下说这番话的。Family members of the couple last year said the two were suspected of breaking Chinese laws related to purchasing information that was considered personal.这对夫妻的家人去年表示,他们在中国涉嫌违法购买私人信息。ChinaWhys described itself as #39;a professional services consultancy that specials in discreet risk-mitigation solutions, consulting and investigation services to corporate clients in matters of high sensitivity across Greater China and the Asia Pacific.#39;中慧公司将自身描述为一家专业咨询务公司,专门向公司客户就大中华和亚太区的高度敏感事件提供谨慎的风险削减方案、以及咨询和调查务。It isn#39;t clear whether the arrests of Ms. Yu and Mr. Humphrey are connected with Chinese authorities#39; bribery allegations against Glaxo, nor whether the revelation of the would affect the bribery case. Chinese authorities have shown an increasing emphasis on protecting the privacy of Chinese citizens.目前还不清楚,虞英曾和韩飞龙被捕是否与中国当局对葛兰素史克贿赂指控有关,也不清楚被披露的录像是否会影响到贿赂案。中国当局已显示出其对保护中国公民隐私日益重视。Before receiving the email containing the of Mr. Reilly, Glaxo was investigating alleged corruption at its China division. An anonymous person in January of last year had presented the company with allegations that between 2004 and 2010 sales staff provided doctors with speaking fees, cash payments, dinners and expense-paid trips in return for prescribing the drug company#39;s products. The allegations sparked an internal probe, Glaxo said.在收到包含马克锐上述录像文件的电子邮件之前,葛兰素史克正在其中国部门调查腐败指控。有匿名者去年1月向有关方面透露情况,使该公司受到在2004-2010年期间存在贿赂行为的指控。指控称该公司销售人员向医生提供演讲费、现金、宴请以及免费旅游,用以换取他们在处方中开葛兰素史克药品。葛兰素史克称,该指控促使公司展开内部调查。It isn#39;t clear why the was sent to Glaxo executives, nor who shot it. At the time the was shot, Mr. Reilly was separated from his wife, the person familiar with the #39;s contents said.目前尚不清楚,为何这段录像被发送给葛兰素史克的管理人士,也不知道是谁拍摄的。据知情人士称,拍摄这段视频的时候,马克锐与其妻分居。 /201407/308991

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