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上饶医学整形美容祛除腋臭多少钱上饶激光祛黄褐斑哪家医院好This week London hosts a jamboree of computer geeks, politicians, and urban planners from around the world. At the Urban Age conference, they will discuss the latest whizz idea in high tech, the ;smart city;. Doing more than programming traffic, the smart city#39;s computers will calculate where offices and shops can be laid out most efficiently, where people should sleep, and how all the parts of urban life should be fitted together. Science fiction? Smart cities are being built in the Middle East and in Korea; they have become a model for developers in China, and for redevelopment in Europe. Thanks to the digital revolution, at last life in cities can be brought under control. But is this a good thing?本周伦敦请来世界各地的计算机极客,政治家和城市规划者搞了一个大聚会。 在城市年代会议上, 他们将讨论最新的高科技专家的建议 -关于’智能城市‘。在智能城市里, 计算机不仅管理交通,而且能够规划办公室和商店如何分布最有效率, 人们在什么地方睡觉最合适,以及城市生活的各个方面如何有机地结合在一起。 听上去像科幻小说吗? 实际上在中东和韩国,人们已经开始建造智能城市了,在中国智能城市也成为了开发者的样板,对欧洲的重新开发也是这样。 由于数字革命,城市生活终于变得可控了。 但是这算是一件好事吗?You don#39;t have to be a romantic to doubt it. In the 1930s the American urbanist Lewis Mumford foresaw the disaster entailed by ;scientific planning; of transport, embodied in the super-efficient highway, choking the city. The Swiss architecture critic Sigfried Giedion worried that after the second world war efficient building technologies would produce a soulless landscape of glass, steel, and concrete boxes. Yesterday#39;s smart city, today#39;s nightmare.即使不是浪漫主义者的人也会对此存有怀疑。 在1930年代, 美国城市规划专家Lewis Mumford 预见到了’科学规划‘ 所连带的交通灾难- 超级高效的高速公路把城市堵塞起来。 瑞士建筑批评家Sigfried Giedion 担心在二次大战后的高效建筑技术会产生出一批毫无生机的玻璃,钢铁和水泥盒子。 昨天的聪明城市已经成了今天的噩梦。The debate about good engineering has changed now because digital technology has shifted the technological focus to information processing; this can occur in handheld computers linked to ;clouds;, or in command-and-control centres. The danger now is that this information-rich city may do nothing to help people think for themselves or communicate well with one another.关于何为好工程的辩论今天已经改变了, 因为数字技术已经把技术重点转移到了信息处理方面; 这一点表现在手持电脑与’云‘,或者是命令与控制中心相连。 现在的危险在于, 这种信息丰富的城市可能对于帮助人们为自己考虑或者人们之间的良好沟通并方面毫无作为。Imagine that you are a master planner facing a blank computer screen and that you can design a city from scratch, free to incorporate every bit of high technology into your design. You might come up with Masdar, in the ed Arab Emirates, or Songdo, in South Korea. These are two versions of the stupefying smart city: Masdar the more famous, or infamous; Songdo the more fascinating in a perverse way.想象你自己是一个总规划师, 面对一个空白计算机屏幕,从零开始设计一座城市, 可以在规划中包含各种高新技术。 你可能会设计出阿联酋的马斯达尔,或者韩国的松岛。他们是两个令人瞠目的智能城市版本, 马斯达尔更出名或者更不出名, 而松岛以一种反常的方式更令人着迷。Masdar is a half-built city rising out of the desert, whose planning – overseen by the master architect Norman Foster – comprehensively lays out the activities of the city, the technology monitoring and regulating the function from a central command centre. The city is conceived in ; Fordist; terms – that is, each activity has an appropriate place and time. Urbanites become consumers of choices laid out for them by prior calculations of where to shop, or to get a doctor, most efficiently. There#39;s no stimulation through trial and error; people learn their city passively. ;User-friendly; in Masdar means choosing options rather than creating the .马斯达尔是在沙漠上建起的半完工城市, 由总设计师Norman Foster 主持规划, 包罗万象地涵盖了城市的功能,有一个中央控制中心来监控和规范整个城市。 整个城市是按’福特主义者‘来构思的 - 也就是说, 每一种活动都有个适当的地方和时段。 按照先前计算的最佳结果来选择去什么地方购物,去什么地方看医生。 没有了试试看之后的兴奋和刺激, 人们对城市的了解是被动的。 ‘用户友好’ 在马斯达尔意味着在现成菜单上做选择,而不是创造菜单。Creating your own, new entails, as it were, being in the wrong place at the wrong time. In mid 20th-century Boston, for instance, its new ;brain industries; developed in places where the planners never imagined they could grow. Masdar – like London#39;s new ;ideas quarter; around Old Street – on the contrary assumes a clairvoyant sense of what should grow where. The smart city is over-zoned, defying the fact that real development in cities is often haphazard, or in between the cracks of what#39;s allowed.过去, 在错误的时间,去到错误的地方, 是创造你自己的菜单所必然要带来的。 例如,在20世纪中叶的波士顿,新的‘大脑产业’在规划者们完全没有想到的地方开始成长。 与过去完全相反的是, 马斯达尔像伦敦古旧街道周围的新‘创意角’一样, ,假设一种知道什么东西应该生长于什么地方的遥感术。 智能城市的分区过度智能了, 不承认城市中真正的发展经常是很偶然的, 或者正是从正式规划的’缝隙‘中产生的。Songdo represents the stupefying smart city in its architectural aspect – massive, clean, efficient housing blocks rising up in the shadow of South Korea#39;s western mountains, like an inflated 1960s British housing estate – but now heat, security, parking and deliveries are all controlled by a central Songdo ;brain;. The massive units of housing are not conceived as structures with any individuality in themselves, nor is the ensemble of these faceless buildings meant to create a sense of place.松岛代表智能城市建筑反常的一面 - 巨大,干净,高效的房屋在韩国西部山区中拔地而起, 就像1960年代英国住宅去的膨胀版,但是现在供暖,安防,停车和送货都是受到松岛“神经中枢’控制的。 巨大的房屋单元不是按照任何个性本身的结构设计,也不是那些毫无个性的只是为了建个房子而已的建筑群。Uniform architecture need not inevitably produce a dead environment, if there is some flexibility on the ground; in New York, for instance, along parts of Third Avenue monotonous residential towers are subdivided on street level into small, irregular shops and cafes; they give a good sense of neighbourhood. But in Songdo, lacking that principle of diversity within the block, there is nothing to be learned from walking the streets.如果在地面规划足够有弹性的话, 上风格样式一致的建筑并不一定会造成一种死气沉沉的气氛; 例如在纽约,第三大道那些单调的住宅塔楼边上有很多小型的,不规则的店铺和咖啡馆; 这些小店给人以很舒适的邻家感觉。 但是在松岛, 街区里没有这种多样性的原则, 走在大街上看不到任何有意思的东西。A more intelligent attempt to create a smart city comes from work currently under way in Rio de Janeiro. Rio has a long history of devastating flash floods, made worse socially by widesp poverty and violent crime. In the past people survived thanks to the complex tissues of local life; the new information technologies are now helping them, in a very different way to Masdar and Songdo. Led by IBM, with help by Cisco and other subcontractors, the technologies have been applied to forecasting physical disasters, to co-ordinating responses to traffic crises, and to organising police work on crime. The principle here is co-ordination rather than, as in Masdar and Songdo, prescription.目前对于智能城市更聪明的一种尝试正发生在里约热内卢。 里约过去曾被毁灭性的洪水摧毁过,广泛分布的贫民区和暴力犯罪使得城市的状况更加糟糕。 以前人们之所以能够生存下来,要靠当地复杂的社区生活结构; 现在新的信息技术正在用与马斯达尔和松岛完全不同 方式帮助人们。 由IBM牵头,在Cisco和其他分包商的配合下, 新技术被用于自然灾害的预报, 协调交通事故处理,以及组织警察对抗犯罪。 这里的原则是协调,而不是像马斯达尔和松岛那样的发出指令。But isn#39;t this comparison unfair? Wouldn#39;t people in the favelas prefer, if they had a choice, the pre-organised, aly planned place in which to live? After all, everything works in Songdo. A great deal of research during the last decade, in cities as different as Mumbai and Chicago, suggests that once basic services are in place people don#39;t value efficiency above all; they want quality of life. A hand-held GPS device won#39;t, for instance, provide a sense of community. More, the prospect of an orderly city has not been a lure for voluntary migration, neither to European cities in the past nor today to the sprawling cities of South America and Asia. If they have a choice, people want a more open, indeterminate city in which to make their way; this is how they can come to take ownership over their lives.但是难道这种比较不是很不公平的吗? 在贫民窟里的人们如果可以选择的话, 难道不是更愿意生活在那种预先组织好的, 规划好的地方吗? 无论如何, 松岛市各方面都能正常运转。 过去十年在像孟买和芝加哥这样完全不同的城市中的大量研究表明,一旦基本务到位,人们就不会再关心效率问题,而是希望有更高质量的生活。 例如,手持GPS怎么也不可能带给人们社区的感觉。 不仅如此, 井然有序的城市并不是吸引人们自愿移民的诱因, 无论是过去的欧洲城市还是今天南美洲和亚洲那些蔓延发展的城市都是如此。 如果人们能够选择, 他们就会选择更加开放,有更多不确定性的城市来开创自己的生活。 只有这样他们才是真正的拥有了自己的生活。There#39;s nothing wicked about the smart city confab London is hosting this week. Technology is a great tool, when it#39;s used responsively, as in Rio. But a city is not a machine; as in Masdar and Songdo, this version of the city can deaden and stupefy the people who live in its all-efficient embrace. We want cities that work well enough, but are open to the shifts, uncertainties, and mess which are real life.本周在伦敦召开的智能城市讨论会并没有任何恶意。 当技术被适当地应用时,能够成为一种伟大的工具,就像在里约那样。 但是城市不是一台机器,不能像马斯达尔和松岛那样,那样版本的城市会在高效中使得生活其中的人们变得死气沉沉和昏头昏脑。 我们希望城市能够运转良好,但同时充满真正生活的那种变化,不确定性和混乱。 /201303/228903上饶市开眼角多少钱 Be careful blowing out the candles. Scientists have found we are more likely to die on our birthday than any other day.吹生日蜡烛的时候要当心哦。科学家发现,一个人在生日当天死亡的几率比其他日子都要高。Researchers who studied more than two million people over 40 years found a rise in deaths from heart attacks, strokes, falls and suicides.研究人员在40年间对200万余人进行了调查研究,发现在生日当天死于心脏病、中风、摔倒和自杀的人更多。William Shakespeare died on his birthday on April 23 1616. The actress Ingrid Bergman also died on her birthday, in August 1982.威廉#8226;莎士比亚死于1616年4月23日——他生日那天。女演员英格丽#8226;褒曼也在1982年8月的生日那天去世。On average, people over the age of 60 were 14 percent more likely to die on their birthdays.平均而言,60岁以上的人在生日当天去世的几率要高出14%。Heart attacks rose 18.6 percent on birthdays and were higher for men and women while strokes were up 21.5 percent - mostly in women.生日当天心脏病发的概率要高出18.6%,男女皆是如此。中风的几率则增加21.5%,女性占多数。Dr Vladeta Ajdacic-Gross of the University of Zurich, said: #39;Birthdays end lethally more frequently than might be expected.#39; He added that risk of birthday death rose as people got older.苏黎世大学的弗拉德塔#8226;阿吉达西克-格罗斯士说:“生日成忌日的情况比预想的更多。”他补充说,随着人们年龄增大,生日死亡的风险也会增大。Canadian data also showed that strokes were more likely on birthdays, especially among patients with high blood pressure.加拿大的数据还显示,在生日那天中风的可能性更大,特别是高血压患者。There was a 34.9 percent rise in suicides, 28.5 percent rise in accidental deaths not related to cars, and a 44 percent rise in deaths from falls on birthdays.生日那天自杀的可能性高出34.9%,和撞车无关的事故死亡可能性高出28.5%,摔死的可能性高出44%。Psychologist prof Richard Wiseman, from the University of Hertfordshire, said: ;It seems to be a valid finding.赫特福德大学的心理学教授理查德#8226;怀兹曼说:“这似乎是个确凿的发现。”;There are two camps - one is the camp that suggests you eat too much and your getting on a bit and that causes you to die.“有两种情况,一种是饮食过量、兴奋过了头,导致猝死。”;The other is a placebo effect . You are knife-edged on death. And you kept yourself going until your birthday. You think #39;that#39;s it I#39;ve had enough I#39;m out of here#39;.;“另一种情况是安慰剂效应。死亡已经步步紧逼,但是你却一直坚持到生日那天。然后你想‘好了,我已经从这个世界得到了足够的东西’。”Dr Lewis Halsey, of the University of Roehampton, said: #39;One interesting finding is that more suicides happen on birthdays, though only in men.罗汉普顿大学的路易斯#8226;哈尔西士说:“一个有趣的发现是,更多的人选择在生日那天自杀,不过只有男性是这样。”#39;Perhaps men are more likely to make a statement about their unhappiness when they think people will be taking more notice of them.#39;“也许男性认为生日这天人们会更多地注意他们,这样他们才更可能宣告自己的不幸。”The study is published in the journal Annals of Epidemiology.该研究发表在《流行病学纪事》杂志上。 /201304/236116Alibaba, China’s leading ecommerce company that is expected to list in the coming months, will invest HK.8bn (4m) in Haier, the Chinese appliance maker, to expand its logistics and distribution network. 中国领先电子商务公司阿里巴巴(Alibaba)将向家电制造商海尔(Haier)投资28亿港元(合3.64亿美元),以扩大其物流和配送网络。预计阿里巴巴将在未来几个月上市。 The tie-up between Alibaba and Haier comes as the explosive growth of ecommerce in China is sometimes hampered by patchy delivery logistics in the nation of 1.3bn people. The deal sent Haier’s shares in Hong Kong up 13.3 per cent yesterday. 在阿里巴巴与海尔合作之际,在这个拥有13亿人口的国家,电子商务的爆炸性增长有时会受到参差不齐的物流配送务的影响。这笔交易促使海尔在香港的股票昨日上涨13.3%。 Most of the funds will go towards establishing a joint venture with Haier subsidiary Goodaymart, a retailer that has 26,000 stores and distribution sites in 2,800 counties in China. The joint venture will focus on developing a China-wide network for delivering and installing appliances and other large goods, according to a statement from the companies. 多数资金将用来与海尔子公司日日顺物流(Goodaymart)组建合资公司,日日顺物流拥有约26000个乡镇专卖店,并在全国2800多个县建立了物流配送站。两家公司的一份声明称,合资公司将关注于在全国打造一个家电及大件物品的送货及安装务网络。 On last month’s Single’s Day – a shopping holiday promoted by Alibaba – the ecommerce group sold .7bn worth of goods. The US’s Cyber Monday after Thanksgiving this year had just .7bn spent on desktop online shopping, according to ComScore. In total last year, Alibaba’s multiple online platforms handled 1bn worth of orders. 在今年的11月11日,阿里巴巴集团销售了价值57亿美元的商品。这个双11购物节是由阿里巴巴倡导的。根据ComScore的数据,美国今年感恩节过后的网购星期一(Cyber Monday)的在线交易额仅为17亿美元。去年整整一年,阿里巴巴的多个在线平台处理了价值1710亿美元的订单。 Although Alibaba is an online platform for other companies to sell goods and does not stock any products itself, it works with brands such as Haier that sell on its online sites, which include Tmall and Taobao. Before Single’s Day, Alibaba employees visited sellers and logistics companies to check that they had enough capacity to handle the orders expected. 尽管阿里巴巴是一个让其他公司销售商品的在线平台,本身没有任何商品存货,但该公司与海尔等在其网站——包括天猫(Tmall)和淘宝(Taobao)——销售商品的品牌合作。在双11之前,阿里巴巴员工曾参观卖家和物流企业,查看他们是否有足够的能力处理预期的订单。 /201312/267976江西省上饶玻尿酸多少钱一支

横峰县妇幼保健人民中医院整形科上饶玉山县激光脱腋毛多少钱 A small vehicle that looks like a Jetsons version of a smart car rests in a room at MIT#39;s Media Lab. Here#39;s how it works. When parking, the rear of the electric CityCar slides under the chassis, allowing the body to fold up into a compact shell. Once folded, the CityCar will fit into a space just one-third the size of a standard parking spot. A single door on the front of the car pops open, allowing the driver to step out onto the sidewalk.麻省理工学院(MIT)的媒体实验室中停放着一辆小型车,它看起来就像《登家庭》中的智能车。它的工作原理是这样的:停车时,电动城市智能微型车;(CityCar)的尾部滑到底盘下面,车体折叠成一个紧凑的壳状。折叠起来以后,这辆车只需要标准停车位1/3的空间就能停放。同时,车头的单门可以弹开,让司机走上人行道。The CityCar is just one example of how MIT#39;s Changing Places group envisions the urban lifestyle of 2022. In October the world population hit 7 billion, and now for the first time in history more than half of the world#39;s population lives in urban centers. MIT is studying how to house and move all those people in ways that will make urban living still bearable. Says Kent Larson, the program#39;s director: ;We#39;re focusing on more efficient uses of resources, on ways to lower costs and energy use and at the same time increase personal space.; Larson sees the CityCar, for example, as fitting into the shared-use programs aly gaining traction through companies such as ZipCar (ZIP) and Getaround. The cars would complement what he hopes will be a full system of sharing, from bicycles and scooters for shorter commutes to cars for longer jaunts. A prototype of the CityCar built by MIT and the Spanish company DenokInn will be unveiled at European Union headquarters in Brussels this month under the project name Hiriko.城市微型车只是麻省理工学院的换位研究小组(MIT#39;s Changing Places group)构想的2022年城市生活方式中的1个例子。10月份,世界人口达到了70亿人,而有史以来,如今首次有超过半数的世界人口生活在城市中心。麻省理工学院正在研究如何在维持城市生活的基础上解决这些人口的居住和交通问题。该项目的负责人肯特;拉尔森说:;我们着重研究更有效的资源利用方式,以及如何在降低成本和能源用量的同时增加个人空间。;拉尔森认为城市微型智能车与Zipcar和Getaround等公司方兴未艾的汽车共享务异曲同工。他期望这种车能够协同跑短途的自行车、小型托车和跑长途的车辆,共同形成完备的拼车系统。这款由麻省理工学院和西班牙公司DenokInn制造的城市微型车样车本月初将在位于布鲁塞尔的欧盟(European Union)总部亮相,其所属项目名名叫Hiriko。MIT#39;s Media Lab is also working on what it dubs the CityHome. Again, greater flexibility is key. The CityHome concept takes a Murphy-bed approach. A bedroom can double as anything from a kitchen to a personal gym with stoves, fridges, and StairMasters swinging out from hidden panels in the walls. Larson says that the customization cost for a small apartment would be as much as ,000. However, the savings of paying for a one-room studio that functions as a three-room apartment could be 10 times that amount. MIT hopes to launch pilot programs in the Boston area.麻省理工学院媒体实验室还开展了名为CityHome的智能家居项目。同样,其关键要素在于更大的灵活性。CityHome概念采纳了墨菲多功能床的理念。1间卧室可以兼作多种用途,既可以做厨房、也可以用作个人健身房,里面有烤炉、冰箱,还有通过隐形活页固定在墙上的隐形活动班霸牌楼梯机(StairMasters)。拉尔森说,为小户型定制智能家居的费用可能将高达30,000美元。然而,这种可以充当三居室公寓的单居室工作室节约的钱可能是这个数字的10倍。麻省理工学院希望在波士顿地区进行试点。The system can be customized to fit different income brackets. Want a Sub-Zero to pop out of your wall? The benefit for real estate developers is that they can stack more units into each building. The biggest hang-up for adoption? Parking spaces for the denser housing. The problem is solved ; surprise ; by matching the CityHome with the CityCar.这种家居系统可以定做,以适应不同收入阶层的需求。想把Sub-Zero冰箱(美国高档冰箱品牌;;译注)嵌进墙壁里吗?没问题。而对房地产开发商来说,好处在于他们可以在每座楼里搭建更多套房子。那么,采用智能家居系统的最大麻烦是什么呢?那就是当住户越来越密集时,停车位就会变得更紧张。但令人欣喜的是,这个问题同样可以得到解决,那就是:将CityCar和CityHome配套使用。 /201201/168052上饶铅山县无痛隆鼻收多少钱

上饶横峰县去除红色胎记费用Science and technology.科技。The search for alien life寻找外星生物Twinkle, twinkle, little planet闪烁吧,小行星An undervalued optical trick may help to find life in other solar systems一个不被人重视的光学方法可能能帮助寻找其他太阳系的生命MOST astronomical telescopes employ reflection to focus starlight. A concave mirror creates an image from this light using a design pioneered in the 17th century, by Sir Isaac Newton. Those telescopes that do not employ reflection use refraction. They have a system of lenses, an idea first used to look at the stars by Galileo.大部分天文望远镜都是运用的焦点星光的反射原理。早在17世纪,艾萨克.牛顿就开创性的利用这个光,让凹透镜产生了一个图像。那些不利用反射的望远镜利用的是折射。他们有透镜系统。利用透镜系统的想法最早是伽利略用来观测星星的。But there is a third way to focus light. A century and a half after Newton, and more than two after Galileo, a Frenchman called Augustin-Jean Fresnel worked out that you can do it using diffraction. A set of concentric rings, alternately transparent and opaque, will scatter and sp light waves in a manner that causes them to reinforce each other some distance away, and thus form an image. The rings are known as a zone plate. And Fresnel#39;s countryman, Laurent Koechlin, of the Midi-Pyrenees observatory, thinks zone plates are the way to find out if there is life on other planets.但还存在第三种聚焦光源的方法。在牛顿利用星光的150年后,伽利略的透镜系统的两百多年后,一个名叫奥古斯丁.让.菲涅尔的法国人想到也可以利用衍射来达到目的。一组兼有透明和不透明的同轴环可以分散和传播光波,并且在稍远的地方可以再使他们重新聚焦,由此形成一个图像。这些环被称作波带片。法国南比利牛斯天文台劳伦.凯什兰认为波带片可以用来寻找其他星球上是否存在生命。Seeing oxygen in another planet#39;s atmosphere would be a giveaway of biological activity because the gas is so reactive that it needs to be continuously renewed. That would almost certainly mean something akin to photosynthesis was going on, for no known non-biological process can produce oxygen from common materials in sufficient quantity. Looking at such an atmosphere, though, is tricky. Stars are so much brighter than the planets which orbit them that their light overwhelms the small amount reflected from a planet#39;s surface. And this is where Fresnel comes in.在其他星球的大气层发现氧气则表明这个星球上有生物活动,因为氧气是一种非常活跃的气体,所以他需要不停的更新。而这也就基本上意味着星球上进行着某些类似于光合作用的活动,因为在我们已知的非生物学过程中,没有一种过程可以在普通材料供应充足的情况下产生氧气。然而,观测到这样的大气层也是非常难的。恒星比以他们为轨道运行的行星亮得多。他们的光盖过了从行星表面上反射过来的少量光。而这也就是菲涅尔的突破口。Fresnel telescopes have not been developed in the past because the image formed by one that was large enough to rival a useful-sized reflecting telescope would be several kilometres from the zone plate. But Dr Koechlin does not worry about that, because his Fresnel telescope will be in space. Free of the confounding effects of the Earth#39;s own atmosphere, it will be able to isolate images of alien planets, make spectra of the light from their air, and examine those spectra for the characteristic dark lines that are caused by part of the light being absorbed by particular gases-oxygen among them.过去,菲涅尔设计的望远镜还制造不出来,因为要想使衍射望远镜的大小和正常使用的反射望远镜大小相同,它所产生的图像就会距离波带片数千米远。然而,凯什兰士并不为此担心,因为他的菲涅尔望远镜将会在太空中。脱离了地球大气层的混淆效应,望远镜将能够分离外星生物的图像,在他们的大气中制作出来光谱,并且为这些有特点的暗线检查光谱。这些暗线部分是由特殊气体——大气中的氧气——所吸收的光产生的。Plate tectonics行星构造地质学Space telescopes are nothing new, of course, and several more are in the works (see article). But existing plans to photograph extrasolar planets in this way involve orbiting arrays of reflecting telescopes all pointing in exactly the same direction. An array is needed because a single mirror big enough to do the job of separating star from planet would be too large to launch. The problem is the word ;exactly;. It means just that. The formation would have to fly with a precision of a few billionths of a metre.当然,太空望远镜并不是什么新事物,并且已经有几个已经在使用中了(见文章)。但是在现在的计划中,利用这种方法给太阳系以外的行星拍照就需要让多组的反射望远镜在轨道运行的时候全部精准的朝向同一个方向。由于一个体积足够大到能够将恒星与行星分开的单一镜面将会由于体积太庞大而无法发射,因此一组反射望远镜就是必须的。而问题就出在;精准;上。它就如字面意思一样,要精准到十亿分之一米。Using a zone plate instead of a mirror gets around this. Because the plate is flat, it can be made of plastic and folded up for launch. Size thus ceases to be an issue. And although a second satellite containing the ;eyepiece; (a special lens that also uses Fresnel optics, and a camera to record the image) must fly at the focus, the accuracy required is only hundredths of a metre, not billionths. That, Dr Koechlin reckons, gives Fresnel optics a big advantage over Newtonian ones.用波带片代替镜面在轨道运行。因为波带片表面是平的,他可以用塑料制作而成,然后折叠起来发射。而尺寸大小就不再是问题。并且,尽管还必须有一个含有;目镜;(也是一种运用菲涅尔视觉的特殊透镜,也是一种记录图像的相机)的卫星在焦点上运行,所需要的精准度也只是百分之一米。凯什兰士认为,这将是菲涅尔视觉超越牛顿的设计的一大优点。To test the idea, he and an international consortium of his colleagues have built a ground-based prototype. This is a piece of copper foil 20cm square that has 696 rings, a portion of which is reproduced above. Because it is this small, its focal length is only 18 metres. In order that the foil does not fall apart, each transparent ring is actually a series of curved slots in the copper rather than a continuous gap. This, though, does not affect the system#39;s optical properties and it can, indeed, see small, faint objects that are near large, bright ones.为了检测这一想法,他和他各国的同事建立了一个陆基的雏形。这是一片20平方厘米的铜箔,它有696个环。铜箔的一部分是再生的。因为它体积偏小,所以它的聚焦只有18米。为了不让铜箔散开,每一个透明的环实际上都是铜箔里的一系列的曲线轮槽,而不是连续的空隙。尽管如此,这并不影响整个系统的视觉特性,并且,它也确实能够看见巨大且明亮的恒星旁边那些小型且微弱的物体。When Dr Koechlin and his team pointed it at Mars they could distinguish that planet#39;s two tiny moons-a task which would require a Newtonian telescope with a mirror at least 30cm across. And when they aimed at Sirius they could see the dim white-dwarf which orbits what is the brightest star in the night sky. Extrapolating from these results, they think that an orbiting zone plate measuring somewhere between 15 metres and 40 metres across will be enough to distinguish the spectrum of an Earthlike planet at a distance of 30 light-years. With that, they should be able to find out if mankind really does have any next-door neighbours, and Fresnel will have come into his own at last.当凯什兰士和他的团队观测火星时,他们可以分辨火星的两个微小卫星——这样的任务如果是利用牛顿的望远镜则需要一个直径最少长达30厘米的镜面。并且,当他们观测天王星时,他们能够看见暗淡的白矮星。它围绕着夜空中最亮的那颗星运行。从这些结果推测,他们认为,一个直径在15到40米、并且在轨道上运行的波带片足够在30光年以外的距离分辨一个与地球相似的行星的光谱。如此一来,他们就应该能够找到人类是否还有其他邻居,而菲涅尔也最终能实现自己的想法。 /201208/194545 Further evidence of the tough conditions facing international airlines emerged in Australia on Tuesday after flagship carrier Qantas Airways Ltd. said it will post a full-year loss and the president of Emirates, the Middle East#39;s largest airline, warned of a ;perfect storm; in the industry that could force many airlines to downsize. 有关国际航空公司面临恶劣环境的更多据周二在澳大利亚浮现。此前,澳大利亚旗舰航空公司澳洲航空公司(Qantas Airways Ltd.,简称澳航)说将公布全年亏损的数据,而中东最大航空公司阿联酋航空(Emirates Airline)的总裁也提醒说,航空业可能出现迫使很多公司瘦身的“完美风暴”。 Qantas is forecasting as much as a 91% slump in pretax earnings for the fiscal year ending June 30 amid a drop in passenger numbers. The airline is trying to restructure its unprofitable long-haul business and cut costs in areas such as staffing, aircraft maintenance and fuel.澳航称,由于乘客人次减少,预计在截至6月30日这一财年公司税前收益下滑幅度或将达到91%。该公司目前正努力将其不盈利的长途飞行业务进行重组,同时在人员、飞机维护和燃料等方面削减成本。 Higher fuel costs and a treacherous economic environment are weighing on global airlines, including Qantas and Emirates Airline. Asia#39;s carriers last year earned 47% less in net profit than in 2010, at US.8 billion, according to the Association of Asia Pacific Airlines. Last month, Cathay Pacific Airways Ltd. said it was considering whether to accelerate the retirement of aging aircraft after it warned of #39;disappointing#39; first-half financial results. Singapore Airlines Ltd. and Korean Airlines recently posted quarterly losses, forcing both to rethink schedules and adjust aircraft deployment to boost profits.不断上涨的燃料价格和暗流涌动的经济环境令全球航空公司承压,包括澳航和阿联酋航空。据亚太航协(Association of Asia Pacific Airlines)统计,亚洲航空公司去年实现净利润48亿美元,较2010年跌47%。国泰航空有限公司(Cathay Pacific Airways Ltd.)上个月说,正在考虑是否加快老化飞机的淘汰速度。该公司此前曾警告说,今年上半年的财务业绩可能令人失望。新加坡航空公司(Singapore Airlines Ltd.)和大韩航空(Korean Airlines)前不久也公布了季度亏损,因此均不得不为提高利润而重新考虑航班安排并调整飞机调度问题。 Even fast-growing Middle East airlines, once perceived to be immune from global trends, have started to voice concern about business conditions. ;It#39;s a perfect storm of adversity now facing airlines,; Tim Clark, president of Dubai-based Emirates Airline, said in an interview. #39;The euro is going south, the pound is going south, fuel costs are still too high.#39;Agence France-Presse/Getty Images燃油成本和日趋疲软的经济正给亚太地区的航空公司带来麻烦。图为新加坡,一名澳航的飞行员正在检查一架空客飞机的尾部。就连快速增长的中东地区的航空公司也开始对航空业面临的环境表示担忧。这些航空公司一度被认为不受全球趋势的影响。总部位于迪拜的阿联酋航空的总裁克拉克(Tim Clark)接受采访时说,欧元正在走弱,英镑也在走弱,当前的燃料价格依旧太高。 Amid those challenges, though, Abu Dhabi-based Etihad Airways said Tuesday it has bought a nearly 4% stake in Qantas rival Virgin Australia Ltd. Shares in Virgin Australia closed at 41 Australian cents (40 U.S. cents) each Monday, leaving the company with a market capitalization of 906.2 million Australian dollars (US1.5 million). That gives an implied valuation of A.9 million on Etihad#39;s 3.96% stake.尽管面临着众多挑战,总部位于阿布扎比的阿提哈德航空公司(Etihad Airways)周二仍说,该公司收购了与澳航的竞争对手维珍澳大利亚航空公司(Virgin Australia Ltd.)近4%的股份。维珍澳大利亚航空的股价周一收于每股0.41澳元(合0.40美元)。按照这个价格推算,该公司的市值为9.062亿澳元(合8.815亿美元),而阿提哈德航空收购该公司3.96%的股份应该花了3,590万澳元。 A spokesman for Etihad said it would like to raise its holding to at least 10%. Etihad operates 24 flights a week between Abu Dhabi in the Persian Gulf and Australia.阿提哈德航空的发言人说,希望将对维珍澳大利亚航空的持股比例提高至最少10%。阿提哈德航空每周有24个航班往返于阿布扎比和澳大利亚。阿布扎比位于波斯湾(Persian Gulf)。 Mr. Clark of Emirates cautioned that many global carriers could be forced to retrench. Last month, Emirates said its latest fiscal-year net profit fell 72% after the company took a US.6 billion hit from high fuel costs. Mr. Clark added Tuesday that the price of Brent crude oil will need to drop to between US and US a barrel, from about US0, to revive margins.克拉克提醒说,全球很多航空公司可能都会被迫压缩开。阿联酋航空上个月说,公司最近一个财年的净利润跌幅达72%,高昂的燃油价格使得成本上升了16亿美元。克拉克周二还说,布伦特原油价格要从目前的每桶约100美元跌至80至90美元,才有可能恢复原来的利润率。 The International Air Transport Association in March cut its forecast for airlines#39;2012 net profit to a combined US billion, off from US.5 billion in an earlier estimate.国际航空运输协会(International Air Transport Association)今年3月将其对全球航空公司2012年净利润的预测从此前估计的35亿美元下调至30亿美元。 Concern that Qantas will need to raise funds to retain its investment-grade debt rating helped drive the company#39;s shares to a record low Tuesday. The stock ended down 19% at 1.16 Australian dollars (US.13) a share after the profit warning. Chief Executive Alan Joyce said Qantas has a cash balance of more than A billion and an undrawn debt facility of A0 million that it can draw on if Europe#39;s economic problems turn global, hitting commercial aviation.周二,由于市场担心澳航需要筹集资金以维持其投资级的债务评级,其股价因此被拉低至纪录低位。在公司发出盈利预警之后,澳航股价收盘跌19%,至1.16澳元(约合1.13美元)。澳航的首席执行长乔伊斯(Alan Joyce)说,澳航的现金余额超过30亿澳元,还未动用的信贷额度有3亿澳元,如果欧洲的经济问题影响到全球,冲击到商业航空市场,那么澳航可以动用这些信贷额度。 Still, Mr. Joyce said Qantas has the #39;flexibility to reinstate or further reduce capital investment as appropriate.#39;不仅如此,乔伊斯还说澳航拥有一定的灵活度,能够重新进行或进一步缩减资本投资,以将其保持在适当的水平。 The airline aly plans to delay two deliveries of A380 superjumbo jetliners, valued at US0 million each at list prices, from the Airbus unit of European Aeronautic Defence amp; Space Co. Qantas in August ordered as many as 110 single-aisle A320 Airbus jets, valued at US billion at list prices, in the biggest single aircraft order in Australian history. The order included 78 A320neos, the more fuel-efficient version of the A320, that Qantas will operate primarily on domestic and Asian routes. Qantas is also awaiting delivery of 50 Boeing Co. 787 Dreamliners.澳航已经计划推迟从欧洲航空防务和航天公司(European Aeronautic Defence amp; Space Co., 简称EADS)旗下的空中客车公司(Airbus)接收两架A380超大型客机,按目录价格计算,每架客机的售价为3.9亿美元。去年8月,澳航订购了多达110架空客单走道A320客机,按目录价格计算,订单价值达90亿美元。这是澳大利亚历史上单笔额度最高的飞机订单。订单中包括78架A320neo。A320neo是A320的改款机型,其燃油效率更高。澳航将主要在国内和亚洲航线上使用A320neo。澳航也正在等待波音公司(Boeing Co.)交付50架787梦想客机(787 Dreamliner)。 As of June 30 last year, Qantas had net debt including off balance-sheet liabilities of 6.97 billion Australian dollars (US.78 billion). The airline said Tuesday that its pretax profit could fall as much as 91% to A million for the fiscal year ending later this month. Most analysts had expected pretax earnings of about A0 million.截至去年6月30日,澳航的净债务(包括表外负债)达到了69.7亿澳元(约合67.8亿美元)。澳航周二表示,在截至今年6月底的这一财年其税前利润降幅可能高达91%,至5,000万澳元。大多数分析师此前预计澳航这一财年的税前利润能够达到约3亿澳元。;People were aware of the economic environment but it#39;s really starting to bite into earnings,; said Angus Gluskie, managing director of White Funds Management, which holds a small stake in Qantas. ;It#39;s also biting into cash flows. It#39;s highly likely you#39;re going to see them needing capital very shortly.;White Funds Management的董事总经理格拉斯基(Angus Gluskie)说,人们已经意识到经济环境不好,但这已经开始影响到公司利润,同时还影响到现金流;你很可能将会看到这些公司马上需要资金的情况。White Funds Management持有澳航少数股份。Qantas is seeking to turn around its unprofitable long-haul business, which the carrier aims to return to break-even by 2014. To stem losses, the airline is terminating poorly-performing routes, cutting thousands of jobs, consolidating engineering and catering bases, and establishing joint ventures in Asia such as Jetstar Japan and Jetstar Hong Kong. 澳航正试图转变长途航线无法盈利的状况,澳航的目标是到2014年前该项业务能够重新实现盈亏平衡。为了遏制亏损,澳航关停了业绩不佳的航线,削减了数千个就业机会,合并了工程和餐饮基地,在亚洲设立了捷星日本(Jetstar Japan) 和捷星香港(Jetstar Hong Kong)等合资企业。Despite Tuesday#39;s profit warning, the status of the company#39;s investment-grade rating is likely to be dependent on the outcome of the airline#39;s strategic review. ;Very importantly from a credit perspective is the trend in cash flow over the next two years,; said May Zhong, a credit analyst at Standard amp; Poor#39;s.尽管周二公布了盈利预警,但澳航能否保住投资级的债务评级可能取决于澳航战略审查的结果。标准普尔(Standard amp; Poor#39;s)的信用分析师May Zhong说,未来两年澳航的现金流变化趋势对其信用评级十分重要。 /201206/186244波阳县卫生学校附属医院激光去斑多少钱玉山县去老年斑多少钱

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