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来源:快问晚报    发布时间:2019年11月17日 16:53:58    编辑:admin         

In the 1939 film classic The Women, much is made of the alluring quality of a specific color of nail polish: “Jungle Red.” It turns out that the characters’ faith in the product was not misplaced.在1939年的经典影片《女人们》中,主角们常常说到一种特殊的指甲油颜色——“丛林红”特别具有诱惑力。科学明,这些电影角色对这种指甲油色号的笃信并非没有根据。New research suggests the color red on a woman does indeed signal sexual availability—not only to men, but also to other women.现在科学研究指出,女性身上红色的装饰确实会向他人发送诱惑的信号——不仅向男性,也会向其他女性发送这种信号。As we have noted previously, studies have found that men tend to view women in red as more sexually attractive. But, ladies, if you were thinking wearing that color would send a subliminal signal only males would pick up on, you’re out of luck.我们已经知道,研究发现,男性往往认为穿红衣的女性更具有吸引力。但是姑娘们,如果你以为穿红衣只会对男性发送微妙的信号,那你就错了。“Our results suggest that women perceive and behave toward other women in red as if these other women are actively advertising” their openness to the possibility of a sexual encounter, writes a research team led by University of Rochester psychologist Adam Pazda.罗彻斯特大学的心理学家亚当·帕扎达所带领的研究团队指出,“我们的研究成果表明,当某些女性穿着红衣的时候,其他女性就会认为她们正在积极地招蜂引蝶,她们对这些红衣女士的态度和交流方式都会有所不同。”Pazda and his colleagues describe a experiment conducted on two different continents that provide evidence that wearing red sets off certain alarm bells. In the first, 196 women recruited online viewed a photo of “a moderately attractive women in her late 20s.”帕扎达的团队在两块不同的大陆上进行了三项实验,这些实验的结果实,穿红衣的女性会发出警示信号。在第一项实验中,科学家们请196名参与实验的女性观看一张“具有现代美的二十八九岁的女性”照片。Half saw an image of her wearing a white dress; the rest viewed an otherwise identical image of her in a red dress. Afterwards, all responded on a sliding scale to a series of statements such as “This person is sexy.”一半的实验参与者看到的照片上姑娘穿着白衣;另一半的实验参与者看到的照片上姑娘穿着红衣。实验结果是,所有的参与者都认为“这个人很性感”,但是性感的程度却有明显的高低之分。As expected, the woman was seen as more sexy if she was wearing red. This held true whether or not the study participants were in a committed relationship.如科学家们所料想的,穿红衣的姑娘被认为更加性感。无论实验参与者是否单身,他们的观点都是这样的。The researchers caution that, needless to say, “not all women displaying red are actively advertising sexual availability.” For those who are not, it’s valuable to understand the ways their wardrobe choices are being interpreted—both by men, and by their female acquaintances.研究者们提醒道,“并不是所有女性在穿红衣的时候都在故意显露性感。”——这一点毋庸置疑。对那些无意穿红色衣的姑娘们,你们有必要知道:你衣着的颜色不仅会向男性、也会向女性同胞们发送某种信息。 /201407/311662。

Wives may be better at lugging heavy loads than husbands, according to new research.据《每日电讯报》报道,妻子的负重能力可能更胜于丈夫。Scientists studying the physics of backpacking found that smaller hikers can be better equipped to carry heavy loads than people with larger frames.科学家研究背包客身体状况发现,身材矮小的徒步旅行者似乎比身材高大的徒步旅行者更能负重。The reason may be linked to the fact that walkers carrying backpacks also have to haul their own body weight, scientists believe.科学家们相信这个结果与如下事实有关:徒步旅行者携带背包的同时也负担着自己的体重。Hiking guidelines say that the weight of a pack should correspond to body size, with smaller individuals bearing lighter burdens.徒步旅行指南说道背包的负重应与自身体型相对应,身材矮小的人就应该背更轻负重。Professor Michael O#39;Shea, from Kansas State University, US, who conducted the research using a computer model, said: ;Online advice from several sources was somewhat misleading in suggesting that pack weight should be a certain per cent of a person#39;s weight. However, as the size of any animal increases, strength increases more slowly than body weight - the reason why tiny ants can carry a disproportionately heavy load compared to their weight.来自美国堪萨斯州立大学的迈克尔·奥谢教授运用电脑模型完成了该项研究,他说:“网上那些认为身材矮小的人应该负重更轻完全是误导性的建议。然而,事实并非如此,随着体重的增加,力量的提升并没有与之成正比,这也就是为什么蚂蚁能够负重起远重于它体重的东西的原因。”;Overall strength of an individual does not determine how heavy a backpack a person can comfortably carry.;“一个人的力气并不决定他能负载多重的东西。”Prof O#39;Shea noticed that some of the smaller hikers could carry greater back weights than larger students with similar fitness levels.奥谢教授发现身材矮小的徒步旅行者似乎比身材高大的徒步旅行者更能负重。Incorporating pack weight and body proportion data, he came up with an equation to determine the maximum rucksack load suitable for a person of given size.通过比对负重与体重数据,他得出一个关于背包最大负重量与人体重量的等式关系。 /201411/340505。

If your dog looks pleased to see you – it is probably because it loves the particular way you smell.如果你的一见到你就显得很开心的话,有可能是因为它喜欢你散发出的独特气味。The odour of a familiar human apparently lingers like perfume in the animal’s brain – where it triggers an instinctive emotional response, research published yesterday reveals.根据近日公布的一份研究显示,熟悉的人所散发的气味会如同香水一般深深地存在于动物的脑海里。这些气味会触发大脑内部本能的情绪反应。Our scent acts on a part of the canine brain associated with reward and the strongest reactions are produced by humans that pets know best, say scientists in America.美国科学家声称,犬类的大脑中有一块负责“奖励”的区域,与宠物最亲密的人身上的气味能够激起该区最强烈的反应。Gregory Berns, of Emory University in Atlanta, said: ‘While we might expect that dogs should be highly tuned to the smell of other dogs, it seems that the “reward response” is reserved for their humans.埃默里大学的格里高利· 伯恩斯(Gregory Berns)说:“我们原以为这种反应是适用于之间的。目前看来这种‘奖励反应’只适用于的主人。”#39;When humans smell the perfume or cologne of someone they love, they may have an immediate, emotional reaction that#39;s not necessarily cognitive.“当人们嗅到爱人身上的香水或古龙水时,会立刻出现情绪上的反应,这种反应并不一定能被察觉到。”#39;Our experiment may be showing the same process in dogs. But since dogs are so much more olfactory than humans, their responses would likely be even more powerful than the ones we might have.“我们的实验或许可以表明,对气味的应激过程是相同的。不过鉴于的嗅觉比人类灵敏,因此它们对于气味的反应会比人类强烈得多。”#39;It#39;s one thing when you come home and your dog sees you and jumps on you and licks you and knows that good things are about to happen.“当你回到家时,你的一见到你就会扑到你怀里,不停地舔你,它知道有好事要降临了。”#39;In our experiment, however, the scent donors were not physically present.“但是在我们的实验中,气味样本的源体(主人)并不在场。”#39;That means the canine brain responses were being triggered by something distant in space and time. It shows that dogs#39; brains have these mental representations of us that persist when we#39;re not there.#39;“这意味着,犬类的大脑反应是由过去某处发生过的事所触发的。同时也表明,当我们不在身边的时候,我们的精神意识形态会留存在它们的大脑中。”The university’s experiment - the first of its type - involved 12 dogs of various breeds who underwent brain scans while five different scents were placed in front of them.埃默里大学这项开拓性的实验利用了十二只不同品种的作为实验对象,通过对这些的大脑进行扫描,来研究它们对五种气味的反应有何不同。The scent samples came from the subject itself, a dog the subject had never met, a dog that lived in the subject#39;s household, a human the dog had never met, and a human that lived in the subject#39;s household.气味样本有五个来源,分别是:被测自己、被测从未见过的另一只、居住在被测家中的另一只、被测从未见过的一个人,以及被测的家人。The familiar human scent samples were taken from someone else from the house other than the handlers during the experiment, so that none of the scent donors were physically present.在实验中,气味样本来自被测的家人,但他并不参与到实验中来。因此,所有气味样本的源体都没有出现在实验现场。The results showed that all five scents elicited a similar response in parts of the dogs#39; brains involved in detecting smells. Responses were significantly stronger for the scents of familiar humans, followed by that of familiar dogs.实验结果显示,脑内负责嗅觉的区域对这五种气味都产生了类似的反应。对于熟人的反应尤其强烈,对于熟悉的次之。The findings, which were published in the journal Behavioural Processes, showed that dogs reacted strongest to the scent of a familiar human even when they were not there.这项发现被刊登在《行为学过程》杂志上,文中写道,即使熟悉的人没在身边,他们的气味也会激发最强烈的反应。Pets trained as help or therapy dogs showed greater brain activity than the other dogs in the test.在实验中还发现,相比其他种类的而言,辅助犬和治疗犬的大脑对气味的反应更为明显。Researchers say the findings could improve the way animals who assist wounded veterans or disabled people are selected.研究者声称,这些发现对于如何为受伤老兵和残障人士选择合适的辅助犬大有裨益。 /201404/287797。

^X4a4N-xA.(Kx49euD@9Australians love instant coffee澳大利亚人爱速溶咖啡~()9v^Hx7T7H20vSTdt3)SqU#!Ogyye)XBKAustralians are the biggest consumers of instant coffee in the world. |egN8k|%jWv澳大利亚是世界上最大的速溶咖啡消费国1fq#LM8I[y~TuX~LAUSSIES love to believe we’re a nation of coffee snobs. But it turns out we’re a little more stingy than we’d like to admit.Dz%eF1y[D__澳大利亚人自认为是“咖啡专家”,但事实上澳大利亚人的吝啬程度可能超出我们自己的预期.owd~PRI;^9。CawBmK%n8%u!OL~PWhile we might buy a frothy latte from the local cafe each day, it’s instant coffee we’re buying to drink at home.@7VWIoh#(yGhIM相比每天在当地的咖啡厅买一杯泡沫满满的咖啡,我们更愿意买速溶咖啡回家自己冲0RdGv~)|O]~p)e^a。QrTLd1~_]_@Qz[h*%^4s#acJ[^g67!r!mrIL9Od^+|V^6[5B /201407/314069。

That tired truism about wanting only a healthy baby and not caring about gender? Puh-leeze. Women want daughters, and men crave sons, finds research in the journal Open Anthropology.还在老生常谈“不管性别如何,只要一个健康的宝宝”吗?呀,别提了!《开放人类学》杂志(Open Anthropology)近来研究发现女性实际上更喜欢生女孩而男性对儿子情有独钟。The results surprised even the researchers, from Queen’s University in Ontario, Canada, who’d surveyed more than 2, 000 students, staff and faculty at the college about gender preference in offspring. They’d assumed that respondents would show little or no preference, but they found that — no matter how they worded the question — there was a “significant offspring gender preference” along gender lines.这一结果让研究人员也震惊不已,来自加拿大安大略省(Ontario,Canada)皇后大学(Queen#39;s University)的研究人员们通过对在校2000多名学生,职工和教师进行后代偏好问题的调查,得出这一惊人结论。起初他们臆测,受访者基本没有或很少有性别偏好,但是后来发现——无论他们用怎样的方式提出问题,在性别方面总是呈现出“明显的后代性别偏好选择”。Respondents answered the following questions:受访者需要回答下述问题:1. What gender would you prefer your firstborn child to be (or did you hope for if you aly have a child)?1. 你希望你的第一个孩子是男是女?(即使你已经有了孩子,你是否考虑过这个问题?)2. If you were to have (or do have) more than one child, would you prefer the majority to be male or female?2. 如果你将至少生育几个孩子的话,你希望他们大多数是男孩还是女孩?3. If you were to have only one child, what gender would you prefer it to be?3. 如果你只打算生一个孩子的话,那么你更希望是男孩还是女孩?“Today, offspring gender preference conflicts with the ongoing mission in many nations, especially in Western Europe and North America, to pursue social and political agendas aimed at eliminating all discrimination on the basis of gender, ” write the authors.调查人员记录道:“如今,子女偏好与许多国家的当下社会任务产生了冲突,这尤其体现在西欧和北美等追求社会和政治议程旨在消除所有基于性别因素导致歧视的国家。”And yet, it persists. What gives?然而,性别偏好的现象依旧存在。什么是导致这一切的根源呢?Men’s preference for sons is pretty easy to explain in terms of evolution. Males have a greater chance of perpetuating the family genes by fathering far more children than a woman could ever bear. Women’s preference for daughters is more nuanced. Maybe it’s a maternal desire to have a shared experience of pregnancy, or maybe women are subscribing to visions of perceived mom-daughter emotional bonds. Call it a “legacy drive, ” say the authors, and consider that modern women are so infused with pride over their social and financial empowerment that they want to share the good life with their girls. “There is currently a tendency in North American society to place a high degree of emphasis on realizing one’s own ‘success’ through the success of one’s children, ” write the authors. “The present data suggest that this opportunity for legacy is envisioned for males generally through sons, but for females generally through daughters.”从进化的角度来看,很容易便能解释男人对儿子的偏爱。男性往往比女性拥有更多机会来通过养育孩子延续家族基因。女性对女儿的偏爱之情就更为微妙了,或许是一种母性的期待母女二人能够分享妊娠的经历,或者是女性更认同这种称为情感纽带的物质。作者写道:“将之称为遗产的驱使吧”,考虑到现代女性在社会和财政权力方面“掌握大权”并如此沾沾自喜,使得她们想同女儿分享这一美好的生活。对此,作者继续记录道:“在北美社会,目前的趋势是高度强调通过孩子的成功来实现自己的成功之梦,当下的数据也表明遗产继承一般都由父辈传至儿子,而母亲往往是传至女儿。”The study didn’t look at thornier questions of whether would-be parents are so committed to the idea of having a child of the same sex that they would practice gender selection to achieve their dreams. But an editorial published in the current edition of the Canadian Medical Association Journal makes the case that parents shouldn’t learn their baby-to-be’s sex until after 30 weeks of pregnancy when abortions are no longer permitted. Female feticide — aborting girls — isn’t unusual in countries including India and China, but it’s apparently also happening in some ethnic groups in Canada and the US.该项学术研究并没有关注这一更为棘手的问题——“准爸爸妈妈”们是否会通过性别选择手段统一孩子的性别来实现自身的梦想。但是最新一期的《加拿大医学协会杂志》上发表的一篇社论表示父母不应当在妊娠30周之内便知晓胎儿的性别情况,这个30周的时间过后便不再允许堕胎行为的发生。在中国和印度等国家女性堕胎流产胎儿的案例屡见不鲜,但在美国和加拿大某些种族群体中,也明显存在着堕胎现象。“This evil devalues women, ” writes Dr. Rajendra Kale, the journal’s interim editor-in-chief. “How can it be curbed? The solution is to postpone the disclosure of medically irrelevant information to women until after about 30 weeks of pregnancy.”杂志临时主编拉金德·卡勒(Rajendra Kale)写道:“堕胎这个恶魔贬低了女性的地位。”“怎样才能禁止堕胎呢?解决方法便是延期告知时间,在怀30周之后再告知当事人这些无关痛痒的具体信息。”That probably wouldn’t go over well stateside, where pregnant women have become accustomed to learning their baby’s sex courtesy of an ultrasound wand before 20 weeks.这一提议在美国本土并不会收获良好效果,在美国,妇们在20周之前通过超声波检测仪了解腹中胎儿的性别已成惯例。“A pregnant woman being told the sex of the fetus at ultrasonography at a time when an unquestioned abortion is possible is the starting point of female feticide from a health care perspective, ” writes Dr. Kale. Although a woman has a right to information about herself that relates to her health and medical care, “the sex of the fetus is medically irrelevant information (except when managing rare sex-linked illnesses) and does not affect care.”卡勒士写道:“从医疗保健的角度来看,妇一旦下定决心堕胎时,通过超声波得知胎儿的性别情况将是执行堕胎手术的起点。”尽管女性有权力知晓自身健康和医疗保健情况,但是“除了能够检测到罕见的伴性疾病时,胎儿的性别着实是无关信息,它也不会影响到妇的日常护理。” /201408/320984。

Photographers Create the Tiniest of Dramas onYour Dinner摄影师设计的晚餐迷你剧Ifyou#39;re playing with your mashed potatoes at dinner, it#39;s a safe bet you#39;resocially uncomfortable or preoccupied by something. Unless, of course, you’rewith Pierre Javelle and Akiko Ida, inwhich case you’re probably helping them craft their next work of art. TheirMINIMIAM series uses fruit, vegetables, and sweets as the edible backdrops forsurprisingly engaging dramas played out by figurines like those used in model train sets.如果你不时拨弄着晚饭中的土豆泥,那你一定心不在焉或在发呆。除非…你和Pierre Javelle、 AkikoIda一样,在这个情形下,帮助他们设计另一个艺术作品。他们的MINIMIAM系列是用水果、蔬菜、以及一些甜品,以食物做场景,在一套火车模型外布置一些小人,创造出令人惊奇的引人入胜的情景。;This scale is really interesting as it allows you to work in thevery small,; says Javelle. ;The size of the figurines is perfect for creatingsurprising scenes with very ordinary elements.;在这么小的微型场景中工作确实很有趣,贾维尔说,这样大小的人偶,是创作这种神奇场景最常见的要素。Thefood often provides inspiration for the wide variety of cleverly crafted scenesthe married couple composes. The surface of a sprinkled donut becomes a rollinggolf course, the innards of a gourd an alien landscape with a healthy dashof RidleyScott. Other times, the figures fuelthe idea.这些吃的经常给这对夫妇搭档带来灵感,用于精心设计各种场景。(例如)把甜甜圈表面变成起伏(不平)的高尔夫球场,用南瓜瓤做出雷德利斯科式的令人作呕的外星场景。工作之余,他们就在(一起)构思创意!(RidleyScott雷德利·斯科特《异形》的导演);For example, one of first images is a figurine of a man with a mowermowing, which gave us the urge to cut a kiwi,; says Javelle, ;especially sincea new breed of hairless kiwi appeared at our super market!;例如,有这么一个场景,一个人偶推着割草机割着草,这时我们朝着一个猕猴桃推过去, 贾维尔说道,直到忽然发现一个特别的新品种---无毛猕猴桃在超市里诞生了!Theseries, which began in 2002, includes more than 60 diptychs. The first of eachpair shows a close crop on a strange or funny scene playing out on unfamiliarterrain. The second image zooms out to reveal its culinary context,often inspiring a chuckle through a watering mouth. The figurines are 1/87scale — thepopular HO model train scale — purchased from hobbyshops. “They are about 1.2 cm (0.47 inches) tall, and itwould be very difficult for us to manufacture the figures with the detail yousee in our images,” says Javelle.这个系列起始于2002年,由多达60对场景组成。其中第一步就是要用相关的食材搭建出古怪的或有趣的场景,展现出一个与众不同的地貌。第二步把它们缩小到可以烹饪的状态,(制作过程)常让人乐的直流口水。那些比例为1/87大小的人偶和火车模型都是从专卖店买来的,它们大约1.2厘米(0.47英寸)高。你看到的这些细致的场景,制作起来是非常难的。贾维尔 说道。Theproject grew from the couple#39;sshared childhood interests in food and tiny things. Javelle cites Ida#39;s early habitof creating wee comic strips and photographing piecesof food. Javelle grew up enamored by theminiscule pebble gardenhis grandmother had. “I was fascinated by the composition of the colorfulpebbles and tiny bridge,” he says. “This was a mind-blowing landscape thatreally impressed me.”这项事业的不断发展,取决于这对夫妻搭档在吃的和一些小玩意上(总是)保持着一颗童心。贾维尔经常说起艾达以前有创作迷你漫画和拍摄食物的习惯。贾维尔成长期间一直迷恋着外婆的小鹅卵石盆景,“我迷上了五颜六色的卵石和微缩小桥”他说道,“这是个梦幻般的场景,给我留下了非常深刻的印象”Thesmall scenes also imply larger concerns of today — GMOs, global warming, war,mankind#39;s relationship with nature. ;This desire to dominate, convert, enslavenature is a bit like what we do when cooking,; says Javelle, whoalso insists that the images are not meant to be takentoo seriously. ;The purpose of these images is, above all, to please people. Webelieve that art is not there only to reveal the injustices or the horror ofthe world. Sometimes of course it is a subtler means of conveying messages, butthe boundary between activism and artistic expression caneasily become blurred.;有些小场景也能反映出当今很多大问题,例如转基因、全球变暖、战争、人与自然的关系。这种对自然世界的主宰,背叛,奴役的那种欲望,有点跟我们拿什么去做饭时的想法差不多。贾维尔说道,同时他还要求大家不要太在意这些场景。(创作)这些场景的首要目的就是要让人们喜爱,我们相信艺术不止是揭示不公平或阴暗的世界。有时还应以一种微妙的方式传达信息,但行动主义和艺术表现之间的区别,很容易地变得模糊起来。Inaddition to using food photography as means of expression and entertainment,the pair behind MINIMIAM also have successful careers as commercialphotographers of cuisine. Even as veterans of the trade, and with their artsitting on the plate, the urge to take a bite can be pretty hard to resist.;Often when I place a figure next to a big piece of cake chocolate, Ihave a furious desire to become the figure,; says Javelle. ;But I would definitely have a very upset stomachafterwards.;除了利用食物摄影作为表现的方式,在MINIMIAM背后的这对夫妇搭档也在商业美食摄影师这项事业上取得了成功。甚至有望成为业界先锋,那些堆在盘子上艺术作品,你很难把持住想咬一口的冲动。“若在平时我身边要是摆着一块大巧克力蛋糕,我一定琢磨怎样把它做成一个造型”贾维斯说道,“但是到后来我一定会把它吃掉“。Photos:Pierre Javelle and Akiko Ida /201408/324406。