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福州什么医院宫腹腔镜三明市哪个医院做人工授精Agriculture in the Eastern Han was more advanced than that of the Western Han, for iron farm tools and ox plough were popular, which was not only used in the central plain, but in the remote areas, like Gansu and Guangdong, as well.东汉时期的农业生产较西汉更有发展,这和铁农具、耕牛更加广泛的使用有密切关系。不仅中原地区在使用牛耕,远至甘肃、广东等边远地区也已使用牛耕。In most cases were two oxen drawing a plough, while occasionally one ox was used.大多数是二牛抬杠,也有少数用一牛的。In the earlier years of the Eastern Han, the government had attached importance to constructing water conservancy, in the reign of Emperor Ming, the noted specialist Wang Jing and Wang Wu organized the huge project to repair and harness the Yellow River and the Bianqu canal, in which hundreds of thousands of people were recruited.东汉初年,官府已注意水利的兴修。明帝时,命民间水利专家王景和将作谒者王吴主持修治黄河和汴渠,并为这项工程而征调数十万人。As a result, major breaks in the dykes or changes in the river course did not occur through the following 800 years.黄河经过这次整治后, 大约有800多年的时间,未再发生决堤改道之事。Many magistrates also paid attention to the local water conservancy.有些郡守县令也重视本地区的水利兴修。A lot of canals and ditches were rebuilt or dug, which contributed to the agricultural irrigation and water transport.沟渠的修复或开凿,对于农田灌溉和交通运输都起了很大的作用。Water power had been applied to the production activities in the early Eastern Han.东汉初年,各地已在利用水力进行生产。Besides the hydraulic water lifting devices, winnowers and water-powered mills were introduced, which raised efficiency by a wide margin.除先进的汲水工具外,风车、水磨坊亦投人使用,极大地提高了生产效率。Landlord manors came into being gradually in this period.东汉时期地主庄园逐渐形成。A landlord possessing a large-scale field was a manor landlord, while the manor county estate.拥有大范围田地的地主可称为庄园地主,庄园就是田庄。Manors included arable fields, mountain forests as well as rivers and pools, which were all in the possession of landlord.庄园中不仅有耕地,其中的山林川泽也为地主所霸占。Most of peasants on the manors were renders ,who engaged in agriculture or sideline activities under the instruction of landlords or his agents.在地主庄园内,绝大多数农民是地主的佃户。佃农们在地主或其手下的指挥下,从事农业或副业生产。The tenant farmers did not pay taxes to the state but only pay rental money to the landowner.佃户不必向国家交税,但要向地主交租。The farmsteads comprised not only the huge buildings for the living of the noble family but also farm buildings, mills and factories, which were surrounded by a wall that made the farmstead a small fortress.庄园中不仅有供贵族家庭居住的高大建筑,还有农舍,磨坊和作坊。庄园主筑起围墙将整个庄园围起来,使得庄园有如城堡一般。A few large estate owners also possessed a private army to defend their possessions.少数的庄园主还拥有武装,用以保护自己的私产。Generally speaking, a manor was a self-supporting economic unit in landlord economy.Salt-making, iron-smelting, bronze-casting, Lacquer wares and cloth-weaving were principle handicraft trades, most of which were privately running and superior in technology to that of the Western Han.东汉时期的重要手工业有煮盐、冶铁、铸铜、漆器、纺织等,以私营为主,生产技术都较西汉进步。The iron-smelting industry was kept freely.冶铁业自由经营。The state-owned one was engaged in the making of weapons, chariot and horse gears as well as other implements of production and living.国家或官府经营的冶铁业以制造国家或官府需要的兵器、车马具及其他生产、生活用具为主。To meet the demands of market, the private industry focused on the production of commodities, including farm tools, manual instruments and living appliances.民营的冶铁业以生产商品为主,以供市场上的需要。产品以农具、手工工具及生活用具为最多。Pottery objects found their way into the daily life of the common people as they were in the families of privileged aristocrats.陶器不再是达官贵族家中的稀罕之物,也开始进人寻常百姓之家。A great progress was made in the technique of smelting, like the invention of steel making at a low temperature.东汉的冶炼技术有很大的进步,发明了低温炼钢法。With the sp of this technology, steel was more popularized.这一技术的发明和推广, 使钢的使用更加普遍。Thus, iron and steel replaced bronze in making principal weapons like swords.于是,铁兵器如刀、剑等最后完全代替了铜兵器。With an enlarged planting of mulberry and hemp, sericulture, silk and flax fabrics weaving industries grew rapidly, and the weaving technology was also improved.东汉的桑、麻种植的范围比西汉扩大,养蚕和丝织业、麻织业都有很大的发展,纺织技术也有进步。Modern Shandong and Sichuan Provinces were the major producing area of silk.主要丝织品产地在今山东、四川等省。Business was booming, for the growth of agriculture and handicraft industry brought about more products in the Eastern Han Dynasty.东汉时期,由于农业和手工业的发展,商品较多,因之商业也在发展。In 40, Liu Xiu decreed to recast 5-zhu -coin with the abolition of the old currency, which got rid of the disordered currency and promoted the economic development.建武十六年(公元40年),刘秀下令重铸五铢钱,废除了一切旧币,消除了货币混乱的局 面,促进了商业的发展。Luoyang became the commercial center of the whole country. Other cities, such as Yangzhou (present Yangzhou City in Jiangsu Province), Jingzhou (present Shashi City in Hubei Province) ,and Yizhou (present Chengdu City in Sichuan Province) all witnessed prosperities in their handicraft industry and commerce. The urban population increased argely.洛阳成了全国商业中心,南方的扬州(今江苏扬州一带)、荆州(今湖北沙市一带)、益州(今四川成都一带)的手工业商业也都很兴旺,城市人口大量增加。During the reign of Emperor Zhang and Emperor He, silk from China was becoming familiar to people as far away as the Roman Empire. In return, China received variety of exotic goods.章帝、和帝统治时期,中国的丝绸已为罗马人所熟知,而大量的异域商品也不断涌人。The increasing transaction sped up the development of traffic.陆路与海外贸易的发展,促进了交通事业的发展。The thousand-mile-long plank road leading to economically important region of Ba Shu (modern Sichuan) was repaired many times, and many official roads were built, along which there were post stations to secure the safety of businessmen and travelers, provide accommodation and facilitate traffic.自关中通向巴蜀的千里栈道多次得到整治,又修筑多条官道。这些找道、大道的沿途,多筑有亭障、邮驿,以保卫商旅,安顿食宿,便利交通。 /201512/413043福州检查精液那里比较好 The first time a pig tastes bacon.当猪第一次尝到培根。Serioulsy! This is soooo good! Now I understand why they kill us ! It makes so much sense!说真的这太好吃了!现在我理解为什么他们要宰我们了,这样才意义。 /201512/417377福州做试管婴儿那家好

三明市做人流手术那个医院最好福州省立医院看阳痿好不好费用多少 In the later period of the Yuan Dynasty, the land was centralized. The people were poor, andethnic conflicts and class contradictions were intensified.元朝后期土地集中,人民贫困,阶级矛盾和民族矛盾激化。The rule of the Yuan Dynasty grew more and more corrupt. The scrambling for the throne was terribly serious.元朝的统治也日趋腐朽,帝位之争异常激烈。At the end of the Yuan Dynasty, the plagues of locusts, drought, flood and earthquake took place one after another and year after year.元朝末年连年出现蝗旱、水灾和地震。The natural disasters and man-made calamities pushed the masses to the edge of the death. Therefore rebellions happened one by one.天灾人祸把广大人民群众推到死亡的边沿,武装起义相继而起。The rising up of the Red Turbans led by Liu Futong destroyed the reign of Yuan completely.刘福通领导的红巾起义从根本上瓦解了元朝的统治。In 1352, Zhu Yuanzhang, who was a tenant, joined the Red Turbans led by Guo Zixing, and he developed his power and influence step by step. In 1367, he issued the war proclamation against Yuan and raised a clarion call “to drive out the Dalu and restore China”. He sent the generals Xu Da and Chang Yuchun to fight in the North.1352年佃农出身的朱元璋参加了郭子兴的红巾军并逐步扩大自己的势力和力量,于1367年发布讨元檄文,提出“驱逐鞑虏,恢复中华”的口号,派大将徐达、常遇春率军北伐。In the year of 1368, Zhu Yuanzhang made himself the emperor in Yingtian and founded the Ming Dynasty.1368年朱元璋在应天称帝,建立明朝,始称明太祖。He was honored Ming Taizu (the first king of the Ming Dynasty). In the same year, the Ming armies occupied Dadu. The Mongol gentry escaped to the North, and the Yuan Dynasty died out.同年,明军攻占大都,蒙古贵族逃亡塞北,元朝灭亡。The features and historical meaning of the Peasant Uprisings at the end of Yuan:The Peasant Uprising at the end of the Yuan Dynasty is a great struggle a-gainst the Yuan feudal control and national oppression with the major force of the Hans and the other nationalities.元末农民大起义的特点和历史意义:元末农民大起义是以汉族人民为主体、包括其他各族劳动人民在内的反对元朝封建统治和民族压迫的一场大规摸斗争。The peasant armies raised the call to fight against the Yuan and restore Song, which had the color of national struggle, but actually a class one.农民军在斗争中提出反元复宋等口号,带有民族斗争的色,但其实质仍然是阶级斗争。The peasant uprising overthrew the Yuan Dynasty though it was made use by the class of landlords as tools to change dynasties. It made the four Khan countries lose their common leader, and this is a great event with world historical importance.元末农民大起义虽然最后被地主阶级利用去作为改朝换代的工具,但它推翻了元朝,使四大汗国失去了共主,这是具有世界历史意义的大事。It blew the feudal landlords with the Mongol gentry as the main force and the peasants got certain land.这次起义打击了以蒙古贵族为首的封建地主阶级,使农民获得部分土地。In the rising, many Qukou (they had lower social status than the tenants), slaves and craftsmen got their freedom and created conditions for the production development in the early years of the Ming Dynasty.在起义中,大量驱口(比当时佃农的社会地位还要低)、奴隶、匠户争得了自由,为明初的生产发展创造了条件。 /201602/426240福州检查精液正规医院

福州市第八医院检查男性精子质量As China#39;s sex toy industry penetrates more and more people#39;s bedrooms, experts have again called for industrial standards to be established to better regulate the almost unsupervised sector.越来越多的国人喜欢买充气娃娃。专家再次强调,应当建立相关监管部门,妥善制定产业标准。More sex toys were sold on this year#39;s Singles#39; Day on November 11 - the country#39;s annual online shopping spree - than in previous years.双十一是一年一度的网上购物狂欢节。今年双十一,情趣玩具销量火爆。A search of online retail platform Taobao for sex dolls yielded 61,900 hits as of press time. The three most popular models on the site, which cost between 150 to 600 yuan (-92) each, have been ordered 10,900 times in November so far.网上销售平台淘宝的充气娃娃卖到了61900件。最火的三种娃娃在150-600元(23-92美元)之间,自11月以来已经卖出了10900件。According to the Guangzhou-based New Express newspaper, an online pharmacy sold 500 sex dolls on November 11 and another sex doll store owner claimed that 2,500 sex dolls were sold on the same day.根据广州《新快报》的消息,一家在线药店在双十一卖出了500件充气娃娃。另一家充气娃娃店主称一天卖出去了2500件。Citing Taobao data, the newspaper said that the number of sex toys being bought online has grown by 50 percent annually in recent years, with an estimated 30 million Chinese people buying sex toys online in 2015.根据淘宝的数据,该报纸称今年情趣玩具的销量比前几年上涨了50%。2015年,大概有3000万的中国人购买情趣玩具。Data released by market research firm Analysys International showed that the B2C market volume of sex toys in China topped 3.38 billion yuan in 2013, up 73.6 percent on the previous year. The figure will grow at 58 percent annually in the next three years, Analysys estimated.根据市场公司易观国际的数据显示,2013年中国电子商务市场的情趣玩具销售额达到了33.8亿元,比前一年上涨了73.6%。分析人员认为,销售额在未来三年以每年58%的速度持续增长。The production of sex-related products was overseen by the food and drug administration until 2012. Now, different products are managed by different government departments including the family planning department and the health authorities. However there is no specific department responsible for regulating the production of sex toys, said an Analysis report issued in February.二月份的一份分析报告称,2012年以前,性用品都是受到食品和药品监管的。现在,不同用品由不同的政府部门监管,包括家庭计生部门和健康机构。然而,没有一家单独的部门负责监管情趣用品。Chinese sexologists have called for a standardization of the industry since 2012, but little has been done.从2012年起,中国的性学家就呼吁将该产业标准化,但是几乎没什么效果。;As China produces 70 percent of the world#39;s sex toys, some big manufacturers that conduct international trade will use international standards such as a FDA certification, while the domestic market remains poorly-regulated,; Tony Tong, founder of New Kinsey, a Shanghai sexology research institute, told the Global Times.童托尼是上海性调查机构金赛研究所的创始人,他认为:“中国生产世界上70%的情趣玩具,就应该使用美国食品药品(FDA)书标准。但是,中国的市场让人没有得到妥善监管。”According to research conducted by Su Weiguo, chairman of the China Council on the Science of Sex, some vibrators are made from industrial silicone rather than materials designed for human contact.根据中国性科学理事会苏卫国发起的研究结果,许多震动棒都是由工业硅树脂做成,而非皮肤可接触的材料。Many comments on Taobao sex toy stores complain about the ;sour and sticky; plastic smell of the products as well as their dirty packages. Others wrote of feeling ;uncomfortable; after using the products, with some claiming their genitals became inflamed. A few sex doll users wrote that their shoddy inflatable lovers exploded during sex.淘宝上关于情趣用品商店的的评价很多都是抱怨塑料味“又酸又粘”和包裹太脏。其他人认为用完产品后“不舒”,或生殖器感染。有些充气娃娃使用者表示他们在使用过程中充气娃娃爆炸了。 /201511/412673 LONDON — The international art market is gearing up for a hectic autumn of auctions and fairs. Trading conditions could be challenging. Shanghai’s Composite Index of Shares has lost more than 35 percent of its value since June, destabilizing stock markets across the world. Slowing growth in China has depressed oil and commodity prices, tipping the Russian and Brazilian economies into recession.伦敦——国际艺术市场正在为繁忙的秋季拍卖与展会做准备。交易环境可能会面临挑战。自从6月以来,上海券交易所综合股价指下跌了35%还多,令全球的股票市场都产生动荡。中国经济增长的放缓令油价与商品价格下降,推动俄罗斯与巴西的经济走向衰退。At the Frieze and FIAC fairs in October and at Christie’s, Sotheby’s and Phillips’s flagship auctions in New York in November, much attention is likely to be focused on whether the ultra-rich still want to spend millions on postwar and contemporary art. Larger or smaller telephone bids at those New York sales will be watched as a definitive indicator of whether the art market is still “booming” or not.10月有Frieze与FIAC艺术览会,11月,佳士得、苏富比和菲利普斯拍卖行都将在纽约举行期间拍卖会,在这些活动中,关注的焦点很可能集中在那些超级富翁是否还愿意斥资百万,购买战后与当代艺术品。纽约拍卖活动中的电话竞拍金额多寡,将被视为艺术市场是否依旧“繁荣”的决定性指数。At the same time, the market for older, less-fashionable objects will again be tested by other dealers and auctioneers at several significant fairs and auctions.与此同时,古老而不那么流行的艺术品的市场如何,将在其他一些重要展会与拍卖上,由其他交易商和拍卖者做出检验。Postwar and contemporary art was by far the biggest seller at Christie’s auctions in the first half of 2015, contributing 927.7 million pounds, about .4 billion, to total sales of 2.9 billion. First-half sales at Christie’s in the catch-all old masters category, which now includes 19th-century pictures and Russian art, were 71.1 million. Contemporary sales were up 16 percent and old masters down 32 percent, the London-based company said in a statement on July 20.战后与当代艺术是2015年上半年佳士得拍出金额最多的类别,共拍出9.277亿英镑,约合14亿美元,而佳士得同期的总销售额为29亿英镑。佳士得笼统的“早期大师”类别,现在把19世纪的作品和俄罗斯艺术品也纳入其中,上半年,这一类别拍出了7110万英镑。这家位于伦敦的拍卖公司在7月20日发布的声明中称,当代艺术类的销量增长了16%,早期大师类的销量则下降了32%。“It’s a different situation from 20 or 30 years ago,” said the Japanese photographer Hiroshi Sugimoto. “There are now few serious collectors of antiquities. It’s kind of a pity. There are serious collectors of contemporary art, and I have benefited from them. There’s always a mixture of motives, but most of them are collecting for investment purposes.”“这和二三十年前的情况不同,”日本摄影师杉本司说。“现在已经没有多少认真收藏古董的收藏家了。这有点遗憾。倒是有很多认真收藏当代艺术的藏家,我从他们身上受惠。他们的动机总是多种多样的,但其中大多数人都是为了投资的目的。”Mr. Sugimoto, 67, has achieved international fame for his haunting, black-and-white landscape and figure studies made with a large-format, 19th-century-style camera. He is one of 10 postwar and contemporary artists featured in the exhibition “Magnificent Obsessions: The Artist as Collector,” which will open at the Sainsbury Center for Visual Arts in Norwich, England, on Sept. 12. The show debuted at the Barbican Center in London in February.现年67岁的杉本司使用大画幅、19世纪风格的照相机拍摄黑白风景,进行形象研究,获得了国际声誉。9月12日在英国诺维奇的塞恩斯伯里视觉艺术中心举办的“壮丽的迷恋:作为收藏家的艺术家”(Magnificent Obsessions: The Artist as Collector),涵盖了10位战后与当代艺术家,杉本司是其中之一。该展览于2月在伦敦的巴比肯中心(Barbican Center)首次开幕。Mr. Sugimoto informs his photographic practice by collecting, among many other things, fossils (which he calls “pre-photographic time-recording devices”), medical instruments and Japanese Shinto religious art. Like his fellow featured artists, Andy Warhol, Peter Blake and Damien Hirst, Mr. Sugimoto evinces a historical eclecticism and intellectual curiosity that has become a rarity among today’s financially minded collectors.杉本司说,自己的摄影活动始于收藏化石(他称之为“摄影发明之前的时光记载装置”)、医疗用品和日本神道教艺术品。和这次展览中的其他艺术家,如安迪·沃霍尔(Andy Warhol)、彼得·布莱克(Peter Blake)和达米安·赫斯特(Damien Hirst)一样,杉本司展现出一种对历史的兼容并蓄,以及睿智的好奇心,在当今收藏家都以经济为优先考虑的背景下,这是极为罕见的品质。But why have tastes narrowed? Is it just that works by an international “brand” artist like Mr. Sugimoto are perceived as a better investment?但是人们的品位为什么变得狭隘?杉本司这种具有国际“品牌效应”的艺术家的作品是不是只被当做更好的投资?“People like certainty above knowledge,” said Norman Rosenthal, the former exhibitions secretary at the Royal Academy of Arts in London, who is organizing a new “Collections” section at the Frieze Masters fair, whose fourth edition will be held from Oct. 14 to 18 in London’s Regent’s Park. “And they go to museums and just don’t know these sorts of things are available.”“人们喜欢确定性多于喜欢知识,”位于伦敦的英国皇家美术院(Royal Academy of Arts)的前展览秘书诺曼·罗森塔尔(Norman Rosenthal)说,他在Frieze大师览会上组织了一场新的“收藏”展活动,第四次展览将在10月14日至18日在伦敦摄政公园举办。“他们去美术馆,完全不知道这些东西也是可以得到的。”The new Frieze Masters section will feature eight dealers presenting museum-style displays of neglected collecting fields, such as Italian Renaissance ceramics (Bazaart, London); Japanese netsuke (Sydney L. Moss, London); German Expressionist prints (Simon Theobald, London); and ancient Egyptian wood sculpture (Sycomore, Geneva).新的Frieze大师展中有八名交易商,以物馆展览的形式展示受人忽略的收藏领域,诸如意大利文艺复兴时期的陶艺(Bazaart,伦敦)、日本坠子(Sydney L. Moss,伦敦)、德国表现主义版画(Simon Theobald,伦敦)与古埃及木雕(Sycomore,日内瓦)。A century ago, when wealthy bankers and industrialists bought art across a range of historical periods and cultures, Italian tin-glazed pottery, or maiolica, from the 15th to 17th centuries was one of the great prestige purchases. In 1912, for example, the London dealer Duveen, bidding on behalf of the American financier John Pierpont Morgan, bought a 1524 dish by Maestro Giorgio Andreoli of Gubbio at auction for 2,835, or about 0,000 in today’s money.一个世纪以前,当富有的家与工业家购买各种历史时期、各种文化的艺术品时,15世纪到17世纪的意大利釉陶器“maiolica”就是人们抢购的对象。1912年,伦敦交易商杜维恩(Duveen)代表美国金融家约翰·皮尔庞特·根(John Pierpont Morgan),以2835英镑(约合如今的33万美元)拍下一个1524年由古比奥的乔治·安德利奥利大师(Maestro Giorgio Andreoli)制作的盘子。If inflation calculators are to be believed, auction prices for maiolica are now in fact higher — a 1525 figural and armorial dish attributed to the workshop of Nicola da Urbino was sold for .7 million by Christie’s in 2009 — but it has become a niche market whose top-level prices have been sustained by a handful of specialist collectors, such as the German businessman Bernd Hockemeyer.如果考虑通胀因素,意大利釉陶器的价格如今实际上上涨了——一个尼古拉·达·厄尔比诺(Nicola da Urbino)工作室1525年出产的人像与盾形徽章盘子在2009年的佳士得拍卖会上拍出了170万美元,但这成了一个小众市场,最高价格由几个专家收藏者把控,如德国商人贝恩德·霍克梅尔(Bernd Hockemeyer)。“It is a sophisticated taste,” said Justin Raccanello of Bazaart, who will be trying to widen interest in maiolica at Frieze Masters with a display of about 40 pieces. A 1528 plaque of the Holy Family, newly attributed to Nicola da Urbino, is priced at 275,000. “But it’s one of the few Renaissance art forms that retains its original colors, and in a modern environment one or two pieces wouldn’t look amiss next to a Richter.”“这是一种精妙复杂的风格,”Bazaart物馆的贾斯汀·拉卡尼罗(Justin Raccanello)说,他将在Frieze的大师展上展览40件意大利釉陶器,试图发展人们对这一领域的兴趣。一件1528年的神圣家族徽章最新被鉴定为由尼古拉·达·厄尔比诺所创作,标价为27.5万英镑。“但这是少数几种保持着原有色的文艺复兴时代的艺术形式,在现代环境下,即便放在里克特(Richter)的作品旁边也不会显得不协调。”Such is the understandably wishful, if not magical, thinking that dealers in historic items can sometimes fall into as they watch Nike-shod contemporary collectors hurry past their booths.对于历史物品的交易商们来说,这种一厢情愿,有点像施魔法的想法是可以理解的,毕竟他们要经常看着那些脚穿耐克鞋的当代藏家们匆匆走过自己的展位,看也不看一眼。Frieze, like Christie’s and Sotheby’s, is eager to promote the concept of “crossover” collecting. But few of today’s wealthy art buyers are willing to mix and match with the connoisseurship and commitment that characterized collecting in the early 20th century.Frieze览会也同佳士得和苏富比一样,热衷推出“跨界”的收藏概念。但是如今富有的艺术买家们却很少愿意像20世纪初的收藏家们那样,以自己的艺术鉴赏力和责任心,进行各种混搭收藏。The French financier David David-Weill (1871-1952), for example, had a taste for Art Deco and 18th-century furniture, Impressionist and old master paintings, Baroque sculpture and Byzantine objects. He also amassed a pioneering collection of early Chinese art, whose finest bronzes were eventually bequeathed to the Musée Guimet in Paris.比如法国金融家大卫·大卫-维尔(David David-Weill,1871-1952),对装饰艺术(Art Deco)、18世纪家具、印象派画家和早期大师作品、巴洛克雕塑和拜占庭艺术品都有涉猎。他还是中国古代艺术品收藏领域内的先驱,那些精美的青铜器后来被捐献给了巴黎的吉美物馆(Musée Guimet)。His collection was plundered by the Nazis during World War II. After his death, most of what remained of the collection was sold at auction in the early 1970s. The family will offer a final residue of about 56 lots of archaic Chinese jades and bronzes at Sotheby’s in Paris on Dec. 16.“二战”期间,他的藏品遭到纳粹掠夺。他去世后,大部分保存下来的藏品都在70年代初的拍卖会上卖掉了。他的家人将于今年12月16日在巴黎苏富比拍卖他的最后一批藏品,包括56件中国古玉和青铜器。Estimated at 1.2 million to 1.8 million euros, about .4 million to .1 million, the auction will include a 1200 B.C. Shang dynasty bronze ritual food vessel, valued at ㄠ50,000 to ㈠50,000, and a large jade notched disc, dating to as early as 2000 B.C., valued at 80,000 to ㄠ20,000.这次拍卖包括一件公元前1200年商朝的青铜祭祀食器,估价15万到25万欧元,还有一件大型玉玦,时间大约在公元前2000年,估价在8万到12万欧元,拍卖品总估价在120万到140万欧元之间,约合140万到210万美元。The Chinese economy might be in a febrile state at the moment, and most of the pieces in the sale might be less than museum quality, but the prestige of the David-Weill provenance should ensure bidding from Asia. What, then, can be expected from Western “crossover” buyers?中国经济可能目前正处于动荡时期,拍卖会上的大多数物品可能低于物馆收藏的质量,但大卫-维尔的声望肯定会吸引来自亚洲的买家。然而西方的“跨界”买家们又能期待什么呢?“We exhibited some highlights in Paris in June and some collectors of pre-Columbian art were impressed with the jades,” said Caroline Schulten, Sotheby’s senior specialist in Chinese art in Paris. “But it’s difficult to get younger collectors engaged with the decorative arts. It’s all about contemporary.”“6月,我们在巴黎做了一些重要展览,有些前哥伦布艺术(pre-Columbian)的收藏者对那些玉器非常感兴趣,”苏富比中国艺术高级专家卡洛琳·舒尔腾(Caroline Schulten)在巴黎说,“但是要令年轻收藏家对装饰艺术感兴趣是非常困难的,他们都收藏当代艺术。”Perhaps something like Sven Gahlin’s 160-lot collection of Indian miniatures, which Sotheby’s is selling in London on Oct. 6, might be easier to engage with, both visually and financially. Dating from the 16th to 19th centuries, these vivid gouache-on-paper studies, mainly of Mughal, Deccani and Rajput courtly life, had been acquired by Mr. Gahlin, a London dealer and collector, since the 1960s.10月6日,苏富比将在伦敦拍卖斯文·加林(Sven Gahlin)收藏的160件印度微型画,这样的活动或许从视觉上与经济上更容易吸引人们的兴趣。这些画来自16世纪到19世纪,是栩栩如生的纸面水粉画,主要描绘莫卧儿、德感与拉其普特王朝的宫廷生活,加林先生是一位伦敦交易商,从20世纪60年代开始相关收藏。Indian miniatures have long been admired — the British abstract painter Howard Hodgkin owns a collection featured in the “Magnificent Obsessions” show — but because few works can be ascribed to individual artists, values remain reasonable compared with much contemporary art. The best of Mr. Gahlin’s examples are mostly estimated in the 30,000 to 60,000 range.印度微型画一直为人们所喜爱——英国抽象画家霍华德·霍奇金就收藏了许多,并在“壮丽的迷恋”上展出——但是这些作品大都无法归功于个人艺术家,和许多当代艺术作品相比,它们的价格比较公道。加林的收藏品中,最好的作品估价在3万到6万英镑。The market for Indian miniatures, like that for Italian maiolica, archaic Chinese bronzes and almost everything made before 1900, has a far smaller client base than that for international contemporary art.印度微型画的市场和意大利釉陶器、中国古代青铜器以及各种1900年之前物品的市场一样,购买者要比国际当代艺术的购买者少得多。“When I started, there were only two contemporary galleries in London,” said Mr. Rosenthal, who co-curated the Royal Academy’s controversial 1997 “Sensation” exhibition of Young British Artists. “Now art has become an industry. It’s vast.”“我进入这个行业时,伦敦只有两家当代艺术画廊,”罗森塔尔说,1997年,他曾为皇家艺术院极具争议的,旨在推出年轻英国艺术家的“感知”(Sensation)展担任联合策展人。“如今艺术已经成了一种工业。非常庞大。”“The Slump of the Old,” as the critic Robert Hughes might have called it, is a complex cultural phenomenon. The digital age’s totalitarian sense of “now” might have something to do with it, as might the pecuniary prestige of brand-name contemporary art and the horror of clutter and financial risk.家罗伯特·休斯(Robert Hughes)可能会称之为“旧物的暴跌”,这是一种复杂的文化现象。数字时代“当下”的暴政也与此有关,此外的影响因素还有当代艺术中品牌艺术家的金元声望,以及对混乱与金融危机的恐慌。But at least one group still possesses the curiosity and imagination to collect earlier art without worrying about investment outcomes. Artists.但是至少有一个群体仍然对收藏早期艺术抱有好奇和想象,并不担心投资的前景,那就是艺术家们。 /201510/402415福州去那间医院做人授好福州第二医院做宫腔镜费用



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