楼主:天涯爱问 时间:2019年06月20日 10:11:56 点击:0 回复:0
A few years ago, I broke into my own house.几年前,我闯入了自己的家。I had just driven home, it was around midnight in the dead of Montreal winter,我开车回到家,在蒙特利尔的寒冬,大约午夜时分,I had been visiting my friend, Jeff, across town, and the thermometer on the front porch minus 40 degrees我开车从城镇一边到另一边,去看望我的朋友Jeff,门廊上的温度计显示零下40度and dont bother asking if thats Celsius or Fahrenheit, minus 40 is where the two scales meet -- it was very cold.不需要知道是摄氏度还是华氏度, 到了零下40度,两个温度显示都一样--天气非常冷。And as I stood on the front porch fumbling in my pockets, I found I didnt have my keys.当我站在门廊,摸索着我的口袋时,我发现找不到钥匙了。In fact, I could see them through the window, lying on the dining room table where I had left them.实际上,我透过窗户能看到我的钥匙,我把它们留在了餐桌上。So I quickly ran around and tried all the other doors and windows, and they were locked tight.我赶紧围着房子转,找能进去的门和窗户,而它们都被锁紧了。I thought about calling a locksmith -- at least I had my cellphone,我想到打电话给锁匠,至少我还有手机,but at midnight, it could take a while for a locksmith to show up, and it was cold.但在午夜,锁匠要过来可能需要一段时间,并且天气真的很冷。I couldnt go back to my friend Jeffs house for the night because I had an early flight to Europe the next morning,当晚我又不能回朋友Jeff的家,因为第二天我要坐早班机到欧洲,and I needed to get my passport and my suitcase.我必须要进屋里拿护照和行李。So, desperate and freezing cold, I found a large rock and I broke through the basement window,因此,在绝望和寒冷中,我找到一块大石头,打破了地下室的窗户,cleared out the shards of glass, I crawled through, I found a piece of cardboard and taped it up over the opening,清理了玻璃碎片后,我爬进屋里,找到了一块硬纸板,用胶带把它封贴在打破的窗户上,figuring that in the morning, on the way to the airport, I could call my contractor and ask him to fix it.我想着早晨去机场的路上可以打电话给承包商,请他来修理窗户。This was going to be expensive, but probably no more expensive than a middle-of-the-night locksmith,修理费会很昂贵,但不会比在午夜时找锁匠来开锁更贵,so I figured, under the circumstances, I was coming out even.所以我觉得,在这种情况下,即使打破了窗户也还划得来。Now, Im a neuroscientist by training and I know a little bit about how the brain performs under stress.我是一个职业的神经科学家,我大概知道在压力下大脑是如何工作的。It releases cortisol that raises your heart rate, it modulates adrenaline levels and it clouds your thinking.大脑会释放皮质醇引起你的心率加速,它调节你的肾上腺素水平,并阻碍你的思维能力。So the next morning, when I woke up on too little sleep, worrying about the hole in the window,第二天早晨,我醒来的时候严重睡眠不足,还在担心窗户上打破的洞,and a mental note that I had to call my contractor, and the freezing temperatures, and the meetings I had upcoming in Europe,心里想着必须打电话给承包商,还有,天气非常寒冷,在欧洲有个会要开,and, you know, with all the cortisol in my brain, my thinking was cloudy,还有,因为我大脑释放的皮质醇,我的思维变得混沌,but I didnt know it was cloudy because my thinking was cloudy.但我没觉察到它很混沌,因为我的思维很混沌。And it wasnt until I got to the airport check-in counter, that I realized I didnt have my passport.直到我在登机手续办理柜台时,才意识到我忘了带护照。So I raced home in the snow and ice, 40 minutes, got my passport, raced back to the airport, I made it just in time,于是,我在冰天雪地中用了40分钟赶回家,拿了护照后,又赶回机场,刚好赶上了飞机,but they had given away my seat to someone else, so I got stuck in the back of the plane,但他们已把我的座位给了别人,我不得不坐在飞机最后一排,next to the bathrooms, in a seat that wouldnt recline, on an eight-hour flight.紧挨着洗手间,在八个小时的飞行中,我的座椅都不能往后倾。Well, I had a lot of time to think during those eight hours and no sleep.于是我就有了很多时间去思考,因为我在八小时中无法睡觉。And I started wondering, are there things that I can do, systems that I can put into place, that will prevent bad things from happening?我开始想,我能做些什么,有什么切实可行的方法可以防止不好的事发生呢?Or at least if bad things happen, will minimize the likelihood of it being a total catastrophe.或者至少,就算不好的事情真的会发生,也能把损失降到最小。So I started thinking about that, but my thoughts didnt crystallize until about a month later.所以,我开始思考这个问题,但我没有想出来,直到一个月后。I was having dinner with my colleague, Danny Kahneman, the Nobel Prize winner,我和同事,也是诺贝尔奖的获得者Danny Kahneman,去吃晚餐,and I somewhat embarrassedly told him about having broken my window, and, you know, forgotten my passport,我有点尴尬地告诉他,我打破窗户爬进屋里,还有忘记拿护照的事,and Danny shared with me that hed been practicing something called prospective hindsight.而Danny和我分享了他一直在练习的称为“预测后见之明”的东西。Its something that he had gotten from the psychologist Gary Klein,这是他从心理学家Gary Klein那里学到的。who had written about it a few years before, also called the pre-mortem.Gary前几年已经写了这个理论,也称为“事前剖析”。Now, you all know what the postmortem is.你们都知道事后剖析是什么意思。Whenever theres a disaster, a team of experts come in and they try to figure out what went wrong, right?每当有灾难,一个专家小组就会前去调查,尝试找出导致灾难的原因,对吧?Well, in the pre-mortem, Danny explained, you look ahead and you try to figure out all the things that could go wrong,而Danny解释,在事前剖析中,你要预测、尝试想出可能出错的所有事情,and then you try to figure out what you can do to prevent those things from happening, or to minimize the damage.然后你要尝试可能的方法来防止这些错误发生,或将损失降到最小。So what I want to talk to you about today are some of the things we can do in the form of a pre-mortem.所以,今天我想和你们谈谈关于在事前剖析中我们能做的一些事情。Some of them are obvious, some of them are not so obvious. Ill start with the obvious ones.有些方式是显而易见的,而有些则不那么明显。我先谈显而易见的方式。Around the home, designate a place for things that are easily lost.在家里,指定一个地方,放容易丢失的东西。Now, this sounds like common sense, and it is,这听起来就像是常识,也的确是,but theres a lot of science to back this up, based on the way our spatial memory works.但这符合我们空间记忆的工作原理,有很多科学依据持这一点。Theres a structure in the brain called the hippocampus, that evolved over tens of thousands of years,在我们大脑里,有一个叫海马体的结构,已经进化超过数万年了,to keep track of the locations of important things -- where the well is, where fish can be found,它可以追踪重要东西的位置--例如,水井的位置,能够发现鱼的地方,that stand of fruit trees, where the friendly and enemy tribes live.果树的位置,以及友好物种和敌对物种分别居住在哪里。The hippocampus is the part of the brain that in London taxicab drivers becomes enlarged.海马体是大脑的一部分,伦敦出租车司机的海马体结构通常比常人要大。Its the part of the brain that allows squirrels to find their nuts.松鼠能找到坚果,也要归功于它们大脑的海马体。And if youre wondering, somebody actually did the experiment你们可能对这点感到疑惑,但有人的确做了一个实验。where they cut off the olfactory sense of the squirrels, and they could still find their nuts.他们切掉了松鼠的嗅觉器官,松鼠仍然能找到它们的坚果。They werent using smell, they were using the hippocampus, this exquisitely evolved mechanism in the brain for finding things.它们不是用嗅觉,而是用大脑的海马体,这个进化完美的大脑机制是用来找东西的。But its really good for things that dont move around much, not so good for things that move around.但只是对找固定的东西比较有效,找会移动的东西却不是很管用。So this is why we lose car keys and ing glasses and passports.这就是为什么我们会常常找不到车钥匙、老花镜和护照。So in the home, designate a spot for your keys -- a hook by the door, maybe a decorative bowl.所以,在家里指定一个地点存放你的钥匙--门上的挂钩,或是一个装饰碗。For your passport, a particular drawer. For your ing glasses, a particular table.在一个特定的抽屉存放你的护照。你的老花镜要放在特定的桌子上。If you designate a spot and youre scrupulous about it, your things will always be there when you look for them.如果你指定了特定的地方,并且一丝不苟地做这些事,当你寻找它们时,这些东西总是会在那里。What about travel? Take a cell phone picture of your credit cards, your drivers license, your passport,关于旅行呢?用手机拍下你信用卡的照片,还有你的驾照和护照,mail it to yourself so its in the cloud.把这些照片发到你的电子邮箱,储存在数据云端。If these things are lost or stolen, you can facilitate replacement.如果一旦丢失或被盗了,你可以很方便地用电子件代替它们。Now these are some rather obvious things. Remember, when youre under stress, the brain releases cortisol.这些是一些显而易见的事前剖析方法。记住,当你有压力时,大脑会释放皮质醇。Cortisol is toxic, and it causes cloudy thinking.皮质醇是有毒的,它会导致思维不清晰。So part of the practice of the pre-mortem is to recognize that under stress youre not going to be at your best,所以,做事前剖析的练习,是要认识到在压力下,你不是在最佳状态,and you should put systems in place.你还应该把事情做到井然有序。And theres perhaps no more stressful a situation than when youre confronted with a medical decision to make.不过也许没有什么比你要做医疗决策更紧张的情况了。And at some point, all of us are going to be in that position,有时,我们都会经历这种事情,where we have to make a very important decision about the future of our medical care or that of a loved one, to help them with a decision.我们必须要做出一个很重要的决策,为我们自己或自己爱的人做医疗决策。And so I want to talk about that. And Im going to talk about a very particular medical condition.所以,我想谈谈这个话题。我要说一个非常特殊的医疗情况。But this stands as a proxy for all kinds of medical decision-making,但它代表了各种决策:医疗决策,and indeed for financial decision-making, and social decision-making当然还有财政决策和社交决策any kind of decision you have to make that would benefit from a rational assessment of the facts.任何你必须做的决策,可以让你从理性的事实评估中受益。So suppose you go to your doctor and the doctor says, ;I just got your lab work back, your cholesterols a little high.;假设你去看医生,而医生说,“我刚拿到你验血结果,你的胆固醇有点高。”Now, you all know that high cholesterol is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, heart attack, stroke.你们都知道,胆固醇高会增加患心血管疾病、心脏病和中风的风险。And so youre thinking having high cholesterol isnt the best thing, and so the doctor says,所以,你会想高胆固醇不是一件好事,那么医生会说:;You know, Id like to give you a drug that will help you lower your cholesterol, a statin.;“我给你开点药,帮助你降低胆固醇,他汀类药就可以。”And youve probably heard of statins, you know that theyre among the most widely prescribed drugs in the world today,你可能已经听说过他汀类药物,现如今是医生开的最多的处方药之一。you probably even know people who take them.你甚至可能认识用这药的人。And so youre thinking, ;Yeah! Give me the statin.;于是你想,“好吧,给我他汀类药。”But theres a question you should ask at this point,但这个时候,你必须问一个问题,a statistic you should ask for that most doctors dont like talking about, and pharmaceutical companies like talking about even less.一个许多医生不愿谈论,制药公司更不喜欢谈论到的一个统计数字。Its for the number needed to treat. Now, what is this, the NNT?这个统计数字就是治疗所需人数。NNT是什么意思呢?Its the number of people that need to take a drug or undergo a surgery or any medical procedure before one person is helped.它是指多少人用了某种药,或接收了手术或其他任何治疗方式,才会有1人收益。And youre thinking, what kind of crazy statistic is that? The number should be one.你心说,这是哪门子统计数字?这数字应该是1啊。My doctor wouldnt prescribe something to me if its not going to help.如果这药对我没有帮助,那医生就不会开给我。But actually, medical practice doesnt work that way.但实际上,医疗实践不是这样运行的。And its not the doctors fault, if its anybodys fault, its the fault of scientists like me.这不是医生的错,如果是某些人的错,那就是像我一样的科学家的错。We havent figured out the underlying mechanisms well enough.我们还没有想出足够好的运作机制。But GlaxoSmithKline estimates that 90 percent of the drugs work in only 30 to 50 percent of the people.但据葛兰素史克制药公司估计,90%的药品只对30%到50%的人有用。So the number needed to treat for the most widely prescribed statin, what do you suppose it is?所以,这种最广泛的处方药的治疗所需人数,你们猜是多少?How many people have to take it before one person is helped? 300.多少人要用它才会出现一个受益的人?300。This is according to research by research practitioners Jerome Groopman and Pamela Hartzband, independently confirmed by Bloomberg.com.这是根据研究工作者Jerome Groopman和Pamela Hartzband做的、由Bloomberg.com权威网站独立实过的研究得出的数据。I ran through the numbers myself.我自己想了一下这个数字。300 people have to take the drug for a year before one heart attack, stroke or other adverse event is prevented.必须有300人用此药一年,才能预防一起心脏病、中风或其他疾病。Now youre probably thinking, ;Well, OK, one in 300 chance of lowering my cholesterol. Why not, doc? Give me the prescription anyway.;现在你可能在想,“好吧,还有300分之1的机会可以降低我的胆固醇。为什么不用呢?医生,给我开这个药。”But you should ask at this point for another statistic, and that is, ;Tell me about the side effects.; Right?但是你应该问医生,有关这药的另一个统计数字,那就是,“告诉我这药的副作用。”对吧?So for this particular drug, the side effects occur in five percent of the patients.那么针对这种药,副作用会发生在5%的患者身上。And they include terrible things -- debilitating muscle and joint pain, gastrointestinal distress这些副作用包括一些可怕的情况--肌无力、关节疼痛和肠胃不适but now youre thinking, ;Five percent, not very likely its going to happen to me, Ill still take the drug.;但你可能觉得:“才5%的比例,不太可能发生在我身上,我还是会用它。”But wait a minute. Remember under stress youre not thinking clearly.但是,请等等。记住在压力下,你可能思维混乱,不能考虑清楚。So think about how youre going to work through this ahead of time,所以,要提前思考一下你该如何做,so you dont have to manufacture the chain of reasoning on the spot.这样你就不用事到临头时再去进行一连串的推理了。300 people take the drug, right? One persons helped, five percent of those 300 have side effects, thats 15 people.300人要用这药,才会有一个人受益,对吧?300人中5%的人会受药物副作用的影响,也就是15人。Youre 15 times more likely to be harmed by the drug than you are to be helped by the drug.你受药物副作用伤害的可能性是你受益于药物的15倍。Now, Im not saying whether you should take the statin or not.我并不是想表明 你该不该用他汀类药物。Im just saying you should have this conversation with your doctor.我只是说,你应该咨询你的医生。Medical ethics requires it, its part of the principle of informed consent.医德要求我们这样做,这是知情同意原则的一部分。You have the right to have access to this kind of information to begin the conversation about whether you want to take the risks or not.你有权力要求知道这类信息,有权和医生谈你是否愿意承担这样的风险。Now you might be thinking Ive pulled this number out of the air for shock value,现在你可能会想,我为了制造震撼的效果凭空捏造了这个数字,but in fact its rather typical, this number needed to treat.但实际上,这个治疗所需人数是相当具有代表性的。For the most widely performed surgery on men over the age of 50, removal of the prostate for cancer, the number needed to treat is 49.对于50岁以上的男性,做的最多的手术是为治疗前列腺癌而切除前列腺,治疗所需人数是49。Thats right, 49 surgeries are done for every one person whos helped.是的,49个患者做了手术才会出现一个受益的人。And the side effects in that case occur in 50 percent of the patients.而这种情况手术的副作用会发生在50%的患者身上。They include impotence, erectile dysfunction, urinary incontinence, rectal tearing, fecal incontinence.这些副作用包括阳痿、勃起功能障碍、尿失禁、直肠撕裂、大便失禁。And if youre lucky, and youre one of the 50 percent who has these, theyll only last for a year or two.如果你“有幸”成为了50%受副作用影响的人中的一个,这些副作用通常只会持续1-2年。So the idea of the pre-mortem is to think ahead of time to the questions that you might be able to ask that will push the conversation forward.所以,事前剖析是要提前想好你想问医生的问题,这样会深入推进你和医生的对话。You dont want to have to manufacture all of this on the spot.毕竟你不想事到临头再来思考所有事情。And you also want to think about things like quality of life.而且你也需要考虑一下生活质量。Because you have a choice oftentimes, do you I want a shorter life thats pain-free,因为通常你是有选择的,你是想要较短的没有痛苦的人生,or a longer life that might have a great deal of pain towards the end?还是想要较长的最终要承受巨大痛苦的人生呢?These are things to talk about and think about now, with your family and your loved ones.这些都是现在需要谈论和思考的问题,和你的家人、爱人一起。You might change your mind in the heat of the moment, but at least youre practiced with this kind of thinking.你可能会在事发时改变你的想法,但至少你练习了这种思维方法。Remember, our brain under stress releases cortisol,请记住,我们的大脑在压力下会释放皮质醇,and one of the things that happens at that moment is a whole bunch on systems shut down.在那一刻发生的一件事是你整个思维系统似乎停工了。Theres an evolutionary reason for this.这里有一个进化方面的原因。Face-to-face with a predator, you dont need your digestive system, or your libido, or your immune system,和一个捕食者面对面时,你不需要你的消化系统、性欲或者免疫系统的帮助。because if youre body is expending metabolism on those things and you dont react quickly,因为如果你的身体忙着在这些事情上进行新陈代谢,你就不能迅速作出反应,you might become the lions lunch, and then none of those things matter.那么你可能会成为狮子的午餐,然后那些事情也就不重要了。Unfortunately, one of the things that goes out the window during those times of stress is rational, logical thinking,不幸的是,在紧张时,其中一件会出错的事情是理性地、有逻辑地思考。as Danny Kahneman and his colleagues have shown.Danny Kahneman和他的同事已经明了这点。So we need to train ourselves to think ahead to these kinds of situations.所以,我们需要培养自己超前思考的习惯,去面对这类事情。I think the important point here is recognizing that all of us are flawed.这里很重要的一点是,要认识到我们所有人都不是完美的。We all are going to fail now and then.我们都会不时地经历失败。The idea is to think ahead to what those failures might be,事前剖析就要超前思考可能的失败会是什么,to put systems in place that will help minimize the damage, or to prevent the bad things from happening in the first place.井然有序地做事有助于把伤害减到最小,或者在第一时间防止糟糕的事情发生。Getting back to that snowy night in Montreal, when I got back from my trip,说回到我在蒙特利尔那个冰天雪地的晚上,当我从欧洲返程回到家时,I had my contractor install a combination lock next to the door, with a key to the front door in it, an easy to remember combination.我的承包商在门旁边安装了密码锁,还有一把钥匙以及一个简单易记的密码。And I have to admit, I still have piles of mail that havent been sorted, and piles of emails that I havent gone through.我不得不承认,我还是有一堆没有分类的信件,以及一堆没有处理的邮件。So Im not completely organized, but I see organization as a gradual process, and Im getting there. Thank you very much.所以,我还没能完全做到井然有序,但我把井然有序做事看成是一个渐进的过程,也正在慢慢实现这个目标。谢谢。201706/514856When I found out you were coming当我发现你即将到来时,it was the happiest day of my life那是我生命中最幸福的一天。A boy. A boy that would love football as much as I did.一个男孩。一个会像我一样热爱足球的男孩。I waited nine long months我已经等了长达9个月。And then you were born and you gave me the most unexpected surprise然后你就出生了,你给了我最意想不到的惊喜。You were a beautiful girl, football just wasnt your sport.你是一个美丽的女该,而足球并不是你的运动。I wanted so much to teach you about this game我是那么希望教你这项运动的一切but in the end up, it was you ended up teaching me about life.但是最终,是你教会了我关于生活的一切。Im your biggest fan.我是你最忠实的粉丝。201703/500216栏目简介:Domestic TV manufacturers are struggling to make a profit partially due to tougher competition from the Internet. Reporter Wu Ying visited one TV maker to see how it is dealing with the challenge.201701/487353TED演讲集 那些匪夷所思的新奇思想201609/463936

Mars is dry — so dry that some trickles in a ravine were big news last year. 火星是干旱的,如此的干燥以至于在峡谷发现细流成了去年的大新闻。But Mars was once wet, and new evidence shows it used to have oceans. And those oceans had giant tsunamis. 但是火星曾是湿的,新的据表明它曾经有海洋。并且那些海洋产生巨大的海啸。New maps show signs of at least two huge tsunamis, probably caused by meteors. The waves were up to 400 feet tall. 新的地图显示至少发生2次巨大海啸,可能是由流星造成的。海浪高达400英尺高。In disaster-movie terms, thats about the same as ;San Andreas,; but smaller than, say, ;Deep Impact.;在灾难电影方面,这类似于“末日崩塌”,但不及“天地大冲撞”。Mars is thought to have had an ocean the size of the Atlantic. That was more than 3 billion years ago. 火星被认为存在大西洋面积的海洋。那是30亿多年前。The planet eventually lost its atmosphere, and most of the water either evaporated or froze. 这个星球最终失去了大气,大部分的水要么蒸发要么被冻结。译文属。201605/445531

【视频讲解】Foreign firms were lukewarm on America long before Donald Trump.特朗普上台前,外国公司对美国早已丧失热情。Lukewarm不热情的; 不感兴趣的-Economists have never been more than lukewarm toward him.经济学家们从未对他有过多少兴趣。Which is it? The home of free speech, the rule of law and the rich world’s most dynamic economy?以下两者哪个才是美国?言论自由、法治之地、富裕世界中最具活力的经济体?Free speech 言论自由-When we were silent, you said you wanted us to have free speech.当我们沉默的时候,你们说你们想让我们言论自由。Dynamic有活力的(If you describe something as dynamic, you approve of it because it is very active and energetic)-South Asia continues to be the most dynamic economic region in the world.南亚仍然是世界上最具活力的经济区。Or a land of social decay, septic politics and the rich world’s worst roads and schools?还是社会堕落、政治腐败、富裕世界里道路和学校最糟糕的国家?Decay1. 腐坏-The bodies buried in the fine ash slowly decayed. 埋在细灰里的尸体慢慢腐烂了。2. 衰败-There are problems of urban decay and gang violence. 存在都市衰败和黑帮暴力问题。Septic受感染的-A flake of plaster from the ceiling fell into his eye, which became septic.天花板上的一片灰掉进他眼睛里,引起了感染。America divides foreign observers. It divides foreign firms, too.外国观察家对美国看法不一。外国公司同样如此。Some bosses fall head over heels for its insatiable consumers and dazzling technology.有些公司老板为美国庞大的消费群体和炫目的科技倾倒。Fall head over heel爱到死心塌地-I fall head over heels in love. 我为爱情神魂颠倒。Insatiable无法满足的; 贪得无厌的-A section of the ing public has an insatiable appetite for dirty stories about the famous.阅读大众中有一部分人对名人的风流韵事的欲望总是无法满足。Other executives are put off by its insufferable lawyers and hypocritical protectionism.也有高管因美国那些令人讨厌的律师和虚伪的保护主义而却步。put off1. 使反感; 使对…失去兴趣-The high divorce figures dont seem to be putting people off marriage.高离婚率好像并没有使人们对婚姻望而却步。2. 使…等待; 把…搪塞过去-The old priest tried to put them off, saying that the hour was late.那位老牧师试图把他们搪塞过去,说时间太晚了。hypocritical 虚伪的-It would be hypocritical to say I travel at 70 mph simply because that is the law.如果仅仅因为法律规定的时速是70英里我就说自己的行驶时速是70英里,那就太虚伪了Donald Trump promises to give foreign firms a rude awakening when he reaches the White House: last month he beat up Toyota for making cars in Mexico and selling them north of the border.特朗普承诺入主白宫后给外国公司猛敲一记警钟:上月,他便因丰田公司在墨西哥制造汽车并销往美国而向其开炮。Rude无礼的; 粗鲁的 brutal-Hes rude to her friends and obsessively jealous.他对她的朋友粗鲁无礼而且过分嫉妒。beat up毒打-Then they actually beat her up as well.然后他们事实上也毒打了她一顿。But in truth many foreign firms fell out of love with America years ago.但实际上,许多外国公司在多年前便已不再钟情美国。The conventional view is that foreign companies are irresistibly attracted to the place.一般看法认为,外国公司难以抗拒美国的魅力。Irresistibly难以抗拒-The Pragmatic justification does not touch Humes position because Hume himself after all says we irresistibly, inevitably, assume the future will resemble the past.实用主义论并没有触及休谟的地位,因为他归根结底还是认为我们无法抗拒,且不可避免地假设未来将是对过去的效仿。If one affair ends in tears, there is always a new paramour in the wings.假如一段情缘悲剧收场,总会有新的情人伺机而动。In the 1970s British buccaneers, led by Sir James Goldsmith, picked up neglected firms.上世纪70年代,以詹姆斯#8226;戈德史密斯爵士(Sir James Goldsmith)为首的英国“海盗”把受冷落的美国公司收入囊中。End in tears 以悲剧收场-This does not have to end in tears.这一考验不一定以悲剧收场。Paramour 情人In the wings 等待时机-If you know your partner has someone waiting in the wings, it’s hard to be motivated to work on your relationship, or to be enthusiastic about it.如果你知道你的另一半有别的人在翘首以待,确实是很难让你经营这段感情或是对它抱有热情。Buccaneer 海盗In the 1980s Japanese firms lost their financial virginity by paying too much for Hollywood studios and Californian skyscrapers.80年代,日本公司首度大举投资,高价收购好莱坞的电影公司和加州的天大楼。Financial Virginity That state of innocence in which you live until you have to pay your first income tax, insurance premium or legal fee.第一次缴纳过社会保险等费用的社会成人》成年了!》首次投资-Im going to lose my financial virginity this month.A decade later continental European firms rushed across the pond, culminating in Daimler’s doomed tryst with Chrysler, a rival carmaker.十年后,欧洲大陆的公司竞相跨越大西洋涌入美国,随着戴姆勒与对手克莱斯勒发生一场注定难有善终的幽会,这一风潮达到顶峰。Rush急着 (做)-Russian banks rushed to buy as many dollars as they could.俄罗斯各急着尽可能多地买入美元。Culminate 以…告终; 结果成为-They had an argument, which culminated in Tom getting drunk.他们发生了争论,结果导致汤姆喝醉了酒。Doomed 注定的-Their plans seemed doomed to failure.看起来,他们的计划注定要失败。Tryst engagement 约会gt;幽会By this account, Chinese firms are the latest to get the love bug, with China’s richest man, Wang Jianlin, in the role of the besotted tycoon, having paid a blockbuster bn to assemble a chain of mature American cinemas since 2012.这样看来,中国公司是美国市场的最新情人。中国首富王健林就扮演了一位为美国疯狂的大亨,自2012年来,他已投入惊人的40亿美元来整合一系列成熟的美国院线。Besotted 痴迷的-He became so besotted with her that even his children were forgotten.他那么痴迷于她以至于把他的孩子都忘了。Tycoon 大亨-a self-made Irish-American property tycoon一个靠自己奋斗成功的爱尔兰裔美国房地产大亨Blockbuster 炸弹,轰动性的 》 大片; 畅销书-the latest Hollywood blockbuster.最新的好莱坞大片。But this narrative is hopelessly out of date.不过这样的故事已经完全过时了。The most accurate metaphor for foreign firms in America today is of disappointed hopes.对于如今在美的外国公司,最准确的形容是“美梦破灭”。,Out of date 过时-Much of the information in that book is now out of date.那本书的材料中有许多现在已经过时。Metaphor1. 隐喻-the avoidance of violent expressions and metaphors like ;kill two birds with one stone.; 避免使用有暴力意味的表达和隐喻,如“一石二鸟。”2. 象征-The divided family remains a powerful metaphor for a society that continued to tear itself apart. 破裂的家庭仍然是一个持续分裂的社会的有力象征。Their share of private output has been flat at about 6% since 2000.自2000年以来,它们在私营部门产出中所占份额一直停留在6%左右。The share of sales that European firms make in America has declined from 20% in 2003 to 17% now, according to Morgan Stanley, a bank.据根士丹利的数据,欧洲公司在美国的销售份额已从2003年的20%下降至如今的17%Flat1. 仅仅-Youre sitting behind an engine thatll move you from 0 to 60mph in six seconds flat.你现在坐的这辆车的引擎只需6秒钟就能从0加速到每小时60英里。2. 固定的,-Fees are charged at a flat rate, rather than on a percentage basis.费用按固定的费率收取,不是按百分比。3. 不景气的During the first eight months of this year, sales of big pickups were up 14% while car sales stayed flat. 今年的头8个月,大货车的销售量增长了14%,而轿车的销售仍不景气Foreign firms’ profits in America fell from 4bn in 2006 to 3bn in 2014, the latest year for which figures are available.外国公司在美利润从2006年的1340亿美元降至2014年的1230亿美元(可获得数据的最近一年)。Their return on equity fell to 6%, compared with 11% in 2006.其股本回报率下降到6%,而2006年为11%。available1. 可获得的-Since 1978, the amount of money available to buy books has fallen by 20%.自1978年以来,可供买书的钱已减少了20%。2. 有空的-Mr. Leach is on holiday and was not available for comment. 利奇先生在休假,没空作。return on equity 净资产收益率;股本回报;股权收益201705/510290

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