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时间:2019年08月21日 05:45:31

WASHINGTON — An unusual question is capturing the attention of cyberspecialists, Russia experts and Democratic Party leaders in Philadelphia: Is Vladimir V. Putin trying to meddle in the American presidential election?华盛顿——一个不寻常的问题正引起网络专家、俄罗斯问题专家和身在费城的民主党领导人的注意:弗拉基米尔·V·普京(Vladimir V. Putin)是否在干预美国总统选举?Until Friday, that charge, with its eerie suggestion of a Kremlin conspiracy to aid Donald J. Trump, has been only whispered.这一指责,以及它所带来的可怕暗示——克里姆林宫密谋协助唐纳德·J·特朗普(Donald J. Trump)——直到周五前都还只是捕风捉影。But the release on Friday of some 20,000 stolen emails from the Democratic National Committee’s computer servers, many of them embarrassing to Democratic leaders, has intensified discussion of the role of Russian intelligence agencies in disrupting the 2016 campaign.但周五公布的约2万封窃自民主党全国委员会(Democratic National Committee)务器的电子邮件,促使人们更迫切地开始讨论俄罗斯情报机构对2016年竞选的干扰活动,其中有不少邮件令民主党领袖十分难堪。The emails, released first by a supposed hacker and later by WikiLeaks, exposed the degree to which the Democratic apparatus favored Hillary Clinton over her primary rival, Senator Bernie Sanders of Vermont, and triggered the resignation of Debbie Wasserman Schultz, the party chairwoman, on the eve of the convention’s first day.邮件最初来自一个据推测为黑客的人,而后由维基解密(WikiLeaks)公布。它们的内容揭示了在希拉里·克林顿(Hillary Clinton)和其主要对手佛蒙特州参议员伯尼·桑德斯(Bernie Sanders)的竞争中,民主党机关严重偏袒前者,此事已导致该党全国委员会主席黛比·沃瑟曼·舒尔茨(Debbie Wasserman Schultz)在全国大会即将开幕之际辞职。Proving the source of a cyberattack is notoriously difficult. But researchers have concluded that the national committee was breached by two Russian intelligence agencies, which were the same attackers behind previous Russian cyberoperations at the White House, the State Department and the Joint Chiefs of Staff last year. And metadata from the released emails suggests that the documents passed through Russian computers. Though a hacker claimed responsibility for giving the emails to WikiLeaks, the same agencies are the prime suspects. Whether the thefts were ordered by Mr. Putin, or just carried out by apparatchiks who thought they might please him, is anyone’s guess.明网络攻击的源头非常困难,人所共知。但研究人员已经得出结论,全国委员会是遭到了两个俄罗斯情报机构的攻击,同一批人还在去年针对白宫、国务院和参谋长联席会议发起了网络行动。从泄露邮件的元数据来看,文档由俄罗斯的计算机经手过。有一名黑客宣布邮件是由他提供给维基解密的,但前述两家情报机构被认为有重大嫌疑。至于窃取邮件的行动是由普京下令进行的,还是手下的喽啰为了讨好他而主动展开的,就各有说法了。On Sunday morning, the issue erupted, as Mrs. Clinton’s campaign manager, Robby Mook, argued on A’s “This Week” that the emails were leaked “by the Russians for the purpose of helping Donald Trump” citing “experts” but offering no other evidence. Mr. Mook also suggested that the Russians might have good reason to support Mr. Trump: The Republican nominee indicated in an interview with The New York Times last week that he might not back NATO nations if they came under attack from Russia — unless he was first convinced that the countries had made sufficient contributions to the Atlantic alliance.问题在周日早上爆发,当时克林顿的竞选经理罗比·莫克(Robby Mook)在A的《本周》(This Week)节目上说,邮件是“俄罗斯人为了帮助唐纳德·特朗普”而泄露的,他说自己表达的是“专家”的看法,但没有给出其他据。莫克还提出,俄罗斯人持特朗普是有原因的:这位共和党候选人上周在接受《纽约时报》采访时说,如果北约国家遭到俄罗斯的攻击,他可能不会给予援——除非这些国家先让他确信,它们会向这个大西洋联盟投入足够多的资金。It was a remarkable moment: Even at the height of the Cold War, it was hard to find a presidential campaign willing to charge that its rival was essentially secretly doing the bidding of a key American adversary. But the accusation is emerging as a theme of Mrs. Clinton’s campaign, as part of an attempt to portray Mr. Trump not only as an isolationist, but also as one who would go soft on confronting Russia as it threatens nations that have shown too much independence from Moscow or, in the case of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, joined NATO.那一刻是非同寻常的:即使在冷战的严峻时期,也很难看到一个总统竞选团队对其对手做出这样的指控,称他实际上在秘密地为美国的重要敌对国竞逐总统职位。然而这项指控现在成了克林顿的一个竞选主题,它的目标是把特朗普描绘成一个孤立主义者,不仅如此,他还会软化美国针对俄罗斯的立场,与此同时后者正在威胁那些渐渐远离莫斯科的国家,或者像立陶宛、拉脱维亚和爱沙尼亚这样加入了北约的国家。Mr. Trump has also said he would like to “get along with Russia” if he is elected, and complimented Mr. Putin, saying he is more of a leader than President Obama. Mr. Putin has in turn praised Mr. Trump. But Trump campaign officials on Sunday strongly rejected any connections between their candidate and efforts to undermine the Democrats.特朗普还说,如果当选,他会“和俄罗斯好好相处”,并赞扬了普京,称他是比奥巴马总统更好的领导人。普京反过来也夸了特朗普。但特朗普竞选团队在周日强烈否认他们的候选人和破坏民主党的行动有任何关联。“Are there any ties between Mr. Trump, you or your campaign and Putin and his regime?” George Stephanopoulos, of “This Week,” asked Paul Manafort, Mr. Trump’s campaign chairman.“特朗普、你本人或者你们的竞选团队与普京及其政权有什么关系吗?”《本周》栏目的主持人乔治·斯特凡诺普洛斯(George Stephanopoulos)向特朗普的竞选经理保罗·马纳福特(Paul Manafort)发问。“No, there are not,” Mr. Manafort shot back. “That’s absurd. And, you know, there’s no basis to it.”“没有,根本没有,”马纳福特予以反驳。“这种说法很荒唐。你要知道,它没什么依据。”One of Mr. Trump’s sons, Donald Trump Jr., was more definitive, charging the Clinton camp with a smear campaign. “I can’t think of bigger lies,” he said on CNN. The younger Mr. Trump mockingly suggested that Mr. Mook’s “house cat at home once said this is what happened with the Russians.’’特朗普之子小唐纳德·特朗普(Donald Trump Jr.)对此更加坚定,指责克林顿阵营对他们进行抹黑。“我想不出比这更大的谎言,”他在接受CNN采访时回应。小特朗普还语带嘲讽地表示,莫克“家的猫说俄罗斯人是这么干的。”It may take months, or years, to figure out the motives of those who stole the emails, and more important, whether they were being commanded by Russian authorities, and specifically by Mr. Putin. But the theft from the national committee would be among the most important state-sponsored hacks yet of an American organization.可能要花数月乃至数年才能搞清楚窃取邮件者的动机,以及更重要的问题:他们是否受到俄罗斯当局的指使,尤其是普京本人。不过,民主党全国委员会邮件泄露事件会是美国机构遭遇的由别国持的最严重的黑客袭击之一。Evidence so far suggests that the attack was the work of at least two separate agencies, each apparently working without the knowledge that the other was inside the Democrats’ computers. It is unclear how WikiLeaks obtained the email trove. But the presumption is that the intelligence agencies turned it over, either directly or through an intermediary. Moreover, the timing of the release, between the end of the Republican convention and the beginning of the Democratic one, seems too well planned to be coincidental.迄今为止获得的据显示,这起网络攻击是至少两家不同的情报机构所为,二者似乎在不知道对方也侵入了民主党计算机系统的情况下各自行动。目前还不清楚维基解密是如何获得这些邮件的。不过,外界的推测是这两家情报机构直接或者通过中间人将邮件提供给了维基解密。而且,这些邮件公布的时机是在共和党大会结束之后、民主党大会举行之前,这样的精心策划看来不可能是巧合。Mr. Trump himself leapt on the news after the WikiLeaks release on Saturday. In a Twitter message he wrote: “Leaked emails of DNC show plans to destroy Bernie Sanders. Mock his heritage and much more. On-line from Wikileakes, really vicious. RIGGED.”维基解密周六公布邮件之后,特朗普本人马上对这个消息做出反应。他在Twitter上写道:“从民主党全国委员会泄露的邮件明存在试图摧毁伯尼·桑德斯的计划。嘲笑他的犹太人身份,以及其他种种。来自维基解密的在线爆料,好歹毒。黑箱!”The experts cited by Mr. Mook include CrowdStrike, a cybersecurity firm that was brought into the Democratic National Committee when officials there suspected they had been hacked.莫克援引的专业机构包括网络安全公司CrowdStrike。民主党全国委员会的官员怀疑自身被黑客攻击之后,聘请了这家公司进行调查。In mid-June the company announced that the intruders appeared to include a group it had previously identified by the name “Cozy Bear” or “APT 29” and been inside the committee’s servers for a year. A second group, “Fancy Bear,” also called “APT 28,” came into the system in April. It appears to be operated by the G.R.U., the Russian military intelligence service, according to federal investigators and private cybersecurity firms. The first group is particularly well known to the F.B.I.’s counterintelligence unit, the C.I.A. and other intelligence agencies. It was identified by federal investigators as the likely culprit behind years of intrusions into the State Department and White House unclassified computer system.到了6月中旬,该公司宣布侵入者似乎包括一个它之前称为“安逸熊”(Cozy Bear)或“APT 29”的团体,并表示他们侵入委员会的务器已经有一年。另一个被称为“奢华熊”(Fancy Bear)或“APT 28”的团体在今年4月侵入了该系统。联邦调查人员和私人网络安全公司透露,它似乎由俄军总参谋部情报总局(GRU)指挥。对美国的联邦调查局(FBI)反间谍部门、中央情报局(CIA)和其他一些情报机构而言,第一家组织尤其熟悉。联邦调查人员认为,它有可能是美国国务院和白宫非保密级别的计算机系统遭多年侵入的罪魁祸首。Russian intelligence agencies went to great lengths to cover their tracks, investigators found, including meticulously deleting logs, and changing the time stamps of the stolen files.调查人员发现,俄罗斯情报机构不遗余力地掩盖其踪迹,包括仔细删除运行日志,修改盗窃文件的访问时间。Officials at several other firms that have examined the code for the malware used against the Democratic National Committee and the metadata of the stolen documents found evidence that the documents had been accessed by multiple computers, some with Russian language settings. Moscow has outsourced politically motivated hacking to outside groups in the past. A crippling attack on Estonia in 2007, for example, was attributed to the pro-Kremlin Nashi youth organization. Intelligence officials and security researchers believe this outsourcing is done, in part, to preserve a measure of plausible deniability.还有其他几家公司对用来对付民主党全国委员会的恶意软件的代码和被盗文件的元数据进行了分析。这些公司的工作人员找到了这些文件被多台计算机访问的据,其中有些带有俄罗斯语言设置。莫斯科过去曾将带有政治动机的黑客任务外包给外部机构。比如,2007年给爱沙尼亚造成严重损失的攻击,就被认为是由持克里姆林宫的青年团体“纳什”(Nashi)所为。情报官员和安全研究人员认为,这次之所以进行外包,部分原因是为了能让自己保留进行貌似合理的否认的可能性。Intrusions for intelligence collection are hardly unusual, and the ed States often does the same, stealing emails and other secrets from intelligence services and even political parties. But the release to WikiLeaks adds another strange element, because it suggests that the intelligence findings are being “weaponized” — used to influence the election in some way. The story has another level of intrigue involving Mr. Manafort, Mr. Trump’s campaign chairman. Working through his lobbying firm, Mr. Manafort was one of several American advisers to Viktor F. Yanukovych, the Russian-backed leader of Ukraine until he was forced out of office two years ago. Mr. Yanukovych was a key Putin ally who is now in exile in Russia.为了搜集情报而侵入计算机的现象并不少见,美国也经常这么做,从情报机构甚至政党窃取电子邮件和其他机密。但将其透露给维基解密让事情变得更加奇怪,因为这表明发现的情报正被“武器化”——在某种程度上被用来影响选举。事情涉及特朗普的竞选经理马纳福特这一点又增添了一份神秘。马纳福特是得到俄罗斯持的乌克兰前领导人维克托·F·亚努科维奇(Viktor F. Yanukovych)的几名美国顾问之一,通过他所在的游说公司开展工作。两年前被迫下台的亚努科维奇是普京的主要盟友,目前流亡俄罗斯。In April, asked on Fox News about his relationship with Mr. Yanukovych, Mr. Manafort said he was simply trying to help the Ukrainians build a democracy that could align more closely with the ed States and its allies.今年4月被Fox新闻频道(Fox News)问及与亚努科维奇的关系时,马纳福特表示他只是在努力帮助乌克兰民众建立一个能与美国及其盟友更紧密地团结在一起的民主国家。 /201607/456736

NASA#39;S deep space probe Juno has sent back its first image of the planet Jupiter since arriving at the interstellar gas giant.美国国家航空航天局深空探测船朱诺进入环绕星轨道后向地球传送了第一张木星的照片。The U.S. space agency released a picture Tuesday showing Jupiter surrounded by three of its four largest moons — Io, Europa and Ganymeade.美国航天局星期二公布的第一张照片显示了木星四颗最大卫星中的三颗卫星,分别是埃欧、欧罗巴和蓋尼米德。Juno entered orbit around Jupiter last week after a five-year, 2.8 billion kilometer journey. Ground controllers deliberately kept the probe#39;s camera — dubbed the JunoCam — and other instruments shut down as a precaution as Juno passed through Jupiter#39;s extreme radiation environment.朱诺在经历了5年、28亿公里的旅程后上星期进入木星轨道。地面控制人员当时特意将朱诺上的摄像机和其它设备一并关闭,防止这些设备在朱诺穿过木星辐射带时受到损伤。The probe will spend the next 20 months studying the fifth — and biggest — planet in our solar system, to help scientists determine the foundations of our solar system, and to search for signs of a solid surface beneath its cloud-covered atmosphere.朱诺探测船会在接下来的20个月里研究这颗离太阳距离排行第五、体积最大的行星,帮助科学家探索太阳系的起源,寻找木星大气层底下是否存在固体表面的据。The JunoCam is expected to send its first high-resolution images of Jupiter late next month, when the probe makes its next closest pass across the planet.朱诺摄像机预期下个月底将在离木星最近的时候拍摄传送第一批高清图片。 /201607/454547


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