楼主:咨询爱问 时间:2019年09月19日 11:01:52 点击:0 回复:0
“The puppy’s name can bewhatever you want”, the father in the Bizarro comic tells his son, “but makesure it is something memorable. You’ll be using it as a security questionanswer for the rest of your life.”“这只小的名字你可以随便取,”漫画Bizarro中的父亲告诉儿子,“但要确保能记住。因为你一辈子都要把它作为安全问题的。”Unfortunately the name givento the dog — say, Poppy — may or may not have been encrypted when it was leakedamong details of 500m Yahoo accounts, which included the answers to securityquestions about first pets. The dog’s name was probably also used as a passwordat some point as people often use pets’ names — maybe with a couple of numbersat the end.不幸的是,在成为遭到泄露的雅虎(Yahoo) 5亿账户细节(其中包括有关你的第一只宠物的安全问题的)之一时,这只的名字(例如Poppy)可能已经加密,也可能没有加密。这只的名字也可能被用作了密码,因为人们常常喜欢把宠物的名字用作密码,可能后面会加上两个数字。“Poppy95” is not a securepassword but it is fairly typical and it illustrates an uncomfortable fact: ourcrummy password construction is predictable. And with large breaches of popularwebsites, hackers are getting to know us better than ever.“Poppy95”并非一个安全的密码,但它相当普遍,而且说明了一个令人不安的事实:我们随随便便的密码结构是可以预测的。而且,随着一些颇受欢迎的网站遭遇大规模数据泄露,黑客对我们的习惯了解得很。People often pick animals(“monkey”), keyboard patterns (“zxcvbn”), dad jokes (“letmein”), sports teams(“liverpool”) and angst (“whatever”). All proved popular with users of theadultery site, Ashley Madison, hacked last year. In case you are thinking onlyadulterers use weak passwords, many of these also showed up in a leak from theLast.fm music service which surfaced more recently.人们经常选择动物(monkey)、键盘模式(zxcvbn)、蹩脚笑话(letmein)、运动队(liverpool)和焦虑(whatever)作为密码。事实明,所有这些密码在去年遭到黑客攻击的Ashley Madison用户中颇受欢迎。如果你认为只有用户才使用这么不安全的密码的话,你就错了,其中很多还出现在最近才曝出的音乐务网站Last.fm数据泄露事件中。Both breaches — estimated atabout 30m-40m each — are dwarfed by the 164m LinkedIn and 360m MySpace accountsthat appeared in May.今年5月曝出的LinkedIn(1.64亿个账户)和MySpace(3.60亿个账户)泄密事件令上述两起泄密事件(据估计泄密账户分别达3000万至4000万左右)相形见绌。Passwords are valuable tohackers in a couple of indirect ways. First, most people — about 60 per cent bysome estimates — reuse passwords. This means the login details from one site canbe tried out on more valuable sites — financial accounts, for example, orpeople’s work. And, combined with details such as previous addresses obtainedfrom a retailer and a date of birth from the Yahoo hack or Facebook, they maybe used to obtain credit fraudulently.密码对黑客很有价值,这表现在两种间接的方式上。首先,多数人(根据一些估计约为60%)会重复使用密码。这意味着,一个网站的登录细节可能会在更有价值的网站上使用:例如金融账户或人们的工作。结合从零售商获取的以前的地址以及从雅虎或Facebook获取的生日日期,这些密码可能会被用来骗贷。Second, the data sets can beadded to “dictionaries” comprising actual dictionaries, tens of thousands ofbooks and all of Wikipedia, which can be used to crack passwords.其次,这些数据集合可以加入包括正规词典、数万册书和维基百科(Wikipedia)全部内容的“字典”,可以用来破解密码。If you are thinking: “I mayuse the same base password but I change it a bit for different websites”, well,I have a research paper for you. A group from the University of Illinois atUrbana-Champaign and elsewhere looked at the often simplistic changes peoplemake. Using passwords for the same users from different leaks, they were ableto guess almost a third of the transformed passwords within 100 or fewerattempts. Popular changes involved two to three appended characters. Keyboardsequence changes, capitalisation changes and “leet speak” — changing s to $,say — were also common.如果你在想:“我可能会使用同样的基础密码,但会在不同网站稍作改动”,好吧,这里有一份研究论文给你看。来自伊利诺伊大学香槟分校(University of Illinois atUrbana-Champaign#8206;)和其他机构的研究人员考察了人们常常会做出的过分简单的改动。利用来自不同网站泄密的同一用户的密码,他们能够在100次或更少次尝试后猜出近三分之一更改后的密码。常见的更改包括后面加2到3个字符。键盘顺序变化、大小写变动以及“黑客文”(例如,把S变成$)也很常见。Unfortunately, passwordstrength meters aren’t much help as they underestimate hackers’ understandingof users’ habits.不幸的是,密码强度检测工具帮助不大,因为它们低估了黑客对用户习惯的了解。In an ideal world, websiteowners would strengthen their own security to protect users. But if theircustomers use weak passwords — or reuse strong ones on other, less secure sites— there’s only so much they can do.在理想世界中,网站所有者会增强网站安全以保护用户。但如果它们的客户使用不安全密码,或在另一个不那么安全的网站重复使用高强度的密码,它们能做的也就很有限了。There is some encouragement tobe had, though. University researchers from Pennsylvania tested whether peoplecould correctly identify the more secure password among pairs, where “security”is “guessability” using cracking tools. Participants did reasonably well —identifying the benefits of capitals, digits and symbols in the middle of apassword, and avoiding names.然而,还是有一些可喜的事情。宾夕法尼亚州的大学研究人员测试了人们能否准确识别一对密码中更安全的密码,在这里,安全是指利用破解密码工具的“可猜测性”。参与者的表现非常好,他们认识到密码中间加入大写字母、数字和符号会更安全,同时要避免使用名字。However, they alsooverestimated the usefulness of appending digits, incorrectly selecting“astley123” as more secure than “astleyabc”. The former is easier to crackbecause of the pervasiveness of the pattern of appending digits — hence theproblem with the variant of Poppy’s name.然而,他们也高估了后缀数字的用处,他们不正确地认为“astley123”比“astleyabc”更安全。前者更容易破解,因为后缀数字模式很普遍,这就是“Poppy”名字后面加上数字的问题。Participants also“underestimated the poor security properties of building a password aroundcommon keyboard patterns and common phrases”. They wrongly believed that“iloveyou88” is stronger than “ieatkale88” (which frankly seems like anexcellent name for a dog).参与者还“低估了根据常见的键盘模式和常见短语设置密码的糟糕安全性”。他们错误地认为“iloveyou88”比“ieatkale88”(坦率的来说,这似乎是一个不错的名字)更安全。The researchers concluded thatsuch misunderstandings, and poor password choices generally, stem from anunderestimation of the risk of potential attacks and a lack of knowledge abouthow dangerously common certain construction techniques are. Which is notsurprising, they note, as we don’t often see one another’s passwords.Unfortunately, hackers do.研究人员总结称,这些误解以及不安全的密码选择,一般来自于对潜在攻击风险的低估和对某些密码设置方法的普遍性和危险性缺乏认识。他们指出,这并不意外,因为我们不会经常看到别人的密码。不幸的是,黑客会经常看到。 /201610/473508Banks worldwide using the Swift global financial transaction system havebeen ordered to install an urgent software upgrade as cyber security expertswarned of a repeat of February’s raid on the Bangladesh central bank, one ofthe biggest bank robberies in history. 世界各地使用环球金融电信协会(SWIFT)付网络的被要求进行一次紧急软件升级。网络安全专家警告称,史上最大的抢劫案之一、2月份针对孟加拉国央行的攻击可能重演。 Swift, which has about 11,000 bank members, said yesterday that it hadordered clients using its Alliance Access interface software to install amandatory upgrade after attackers “successfully compromised the banks’ ownenvironments” in order to send messages. 拥有大约1.1万会员的SWIFT昨日表示,已指示使用其AllianceAccess接口软件的客户安装一个强制性升级,此前攻击者“成功危及自身运行环境”,以发送指令。 Meanwhile, FireEye a cyber security group hired for the probe in Dhaka,said that it had “observed activity in other financial services organisations that islikely by the same threat actor behind the cyber attack on Bangladesh Bank”. 同时,受聘调查孟加拉国央行被黑事件的网络安全公司FireEye表示,它已经“在其他金融务机构观察到了活动,很可能出自对孟加拉国央行发起网络攻击的同一个威胁源”。 The FireEye statement, which one person in the cyber security sectorsaid amounted to a warning of a criminal “campaign” targeting banks, followedan admission by Swift on Monday that it was aware of malicious softwaredesigned to prevent banks spotting fraudulent transactions. FireEye作出这一声明之前,SWIFT周一承认,它知道某种恶意软件旨在防止察觉欺诈交易。网络安全界的一名人士表示,FireEye的声明相当于警告,犯罪分子发起了一波针对的攻势。 Swift is a global messaging network used by banks and other financialfirms across the world to send payment instructions and has become a vital partof the global financial architecture. SWIFT是一个全球性的电文传递网络,被世界各地的和其他金融机构用来发送付指令,它已成为全球金融体系的重要组成部分。 “Central banks have been looking at cyber crime, first at their bankingsector and more recently with regard to their own websites,” said Nick Carver,publisher of Central Banking Publications. “But real-time gross settlementsystems and Swift are in a different league. Swift is the nervous system ofinternational payments. So central banks will be very concerned by thesefindings.” “各国央行一直在关注网络犯罪,最初把目光投向其国内的业,近来又开始关注自己的网站,”《央行杂志》(Central Banking Publications)出版人尼克#8226;卡佛(Nick Carver)表示。“但是,实时全额结算系统和SWIFT处在一个不同的层面。SWIFT是国际付的神经系统。因此,这些发现将让各国央行非常担忧。” In an audacious weekend raid that sent tremors through the world’s banks, thehackers sent 35 fake orders from Bangladesh Bank via Swift to the central bank’s account atthe Federal Reserve in New York. 在一个周末发起的震撼全球业的大胆攻击中,黑客假冒孟加拉国央行,通过SWIFT向这家央行在纽约联储(New York Fed)开设的账户发送了35个假指令。 The transfers totalled 1m, although the thieves made off with onlym. They were sent in four batches to accounts in the Philippines after oneSri Lanka order was questioned by a suspicious correspondent bank and the NewYork Fed decided for undisclosed reasons not to process the other 30 orders. 转账总额为9.51亿美元,窃贼得手8100万美元。它们分四笔被发往菲律宾的账户,但是发往斯里兰卡的一笔款项引起一家警惕性较高的代理行提出质疑,之后纽约联储决定不处理另外30个指令,但没有透露原因。 On Monday the threat research blog of BAE Systems said that it believedthat it had identified custom malware, malicious software, linked to theBangladesh heist. 周一,BAE系统公司(BAESystems)在其威胁研究客上表示,它相信自己已经识别出了与孟加拉国央行被黑事件相关的恶意软件。 It appeared to be part of an attack “toolkit”and wouldbe used to cover the attackers’tracks as they sent forged payment instructions. 它似乎是一个攻击“工具包”的一部分,被用于掩盖攻击者的作案痕迹,使他们能够发送假冒的付款指令而不被发现。 BAE researcher Sergei Shevchenko said the malware registered itself as aservice and operated in an environment running Swift’s AllianceAccess software suite, allowing transactions to be deleted and records changed. BAE研究员谢尔盖#8226;舍甫琴科(SergeiShevchenko)表示,该恶意软件把自己登记为一个务,在运行SWIFT的Alliance Access软件包的环境中活动,使交易可被删除,记录可被变更。 /201604/439943places   词语 English American  公寓 flat apartment  诊所 surgery doctor‘s office  电梯 lift elevator  走廊 passage hall, hallway  邮筒 pillar box mailbox  电影院 cinema movies  单间公寓 bed-sitter studio  立交桥 flyover overpass  高速公路 motorway parkway  人行横道 zebra crossing pedestrian crossing  商店 shop store  地铁 tube, underground subway  厕所 lavatory toilet (bathroom)  庭院 garden yard   Useful Objects  电筒 torch flashlight  垃圾箱 dustbin garbage can, trash can  包裹 parcel package  购物袋 carrier bag shopping bag  炉 cooker stove   Food  罐头 tin can  糖果 sweets candy  甜点心 biscuit (sweet) cookie  油炸土豆条 chips French fries  油炸土豆片 crisps potato chips  蔬菜水果店 greengrocer‘s fruit and vegetable store   Personal Items  (发式)刘海 fringe bangs  长裤 trousers pants  紧身裤 tights pantyhose  雨衣 mac (mackintosh) raincoat  裤子背带 braces suspenders  高领绒衣 poloneck turtleneck  背心 waistcoat vest  汗衫 vest undershirt   People  研究生 postgraduate student graduate student  家伙,小伙子 chap, fellow guy  巡警 constable patrolman  警察(俚) bobby cop, policeman  售货员 shop assistant salesperson (-girl, -man)   Car Parts  挡风玻璃 windscreen windshield  轮胎 tyre tire  挡泥板 wing fender  指示灯 indicator light left/ right-turn light  侧视镜 wing mirror side-view mirror  牌照号码 registration number license number  牌照 number plate license plate  油箱 petrol tank gas tank  消声器 silencer muffler /200803/29059Tencent, China’s largest internet company by market value, reported lower than expected profits in the third quarter, although net income rose 43 per cent to Rmb10.6bn (.54bn), driven mainly by increases in advertising and revenues from social networks.中国市值最大的互联网公司腾讯(Tencent)报告第三季度利润低于预期,尽管净利润增长43%,至106亿元人民币(合15.4亿美元),主要受到广告业务增长与社交网络收入的推动。While the figure slightly undershot the Rmb10.7bn estimated by a Bloomberg analyst poll, overall revenues exceeded predictions at Rmb40bn for the quarter, a 52 per cent increase year-on-year, compared with estimates of Rmb39bn.尽管这一数据略低于接受彭(Bloomberg)调查的分析师估计的107亿元人民币,但该季总收入超过预期,达到400亿元人民币,同比增长52%,之前估计为390亿元人民币。Tencent also reported that growth eased in online advertising revenues, in line with guidance earlier this year predicting a slowdown in spending on ads, as China’s slowing economic growth made brands more cautious.腾讯还报告,互联网广告收入增速放缓,这与今年早些时候发布的指引相符,当时腾讯预测,随着中国经济增长放缓促使各品牌更为谨慎,广告出将放缓。Brands “are keeping more of the budget for the year until they see a clearer picture around the macro economics, said Martin Lau, the company’s president, in May.今年5月,腾讯总裁刘炽平(Martin Lau)表示,各品牌“在看到更为明朗的宏观经济前景之前将会保留更大一部分年度预算”。Online ad revenues grew 51 per cent to Rmb7.4bn, compared with 60 per cent in the second quarter and 73 per cent in the first.今年第三季度,腾讯互联网广告收入增长51%,至74亿元人民币,相比之下第二季度和第一季度分别增长60%和73%。Among the bright spots, however, were performance-based advertising revenues, where customers pay according to measurable results. They were up 83 per cent to Rmb4.4bn compared with 80 per cent growth the previous quarter. The company attributed this mainly to smartphone messaging app WeChat, the most popular internet app in China with 846m monthly active user accounts, according to Tencent.然而,效果广告收入是亮点之一,在这种广告模式下,客户根据可衡量效果付费。该业务增长83%,至44亿元人民币,较上一季度增长80%。该公司将这主要归因于智能手机即时信息应用微信(WeChat),据腾讯称,微信是中国最受欢迎的互联网应用,月度活跃用户账户数量为8.46亿。Another high growth area was revenues from social networks, up 58 per cent to Rmb9.8bn, compared with 57 per cent last quarter.另一个高增长领域是社交网络收入,增长58%,至98亿元人民币,而上一季度增长57%。Hong Kong-listed Tencent’s share price is up 30 per cent this year, and its market capitalisation has surpassed that of its closest rival, New York-listed Alibaba. Tencent is worth 9bn, compared with 7bn for Alibaba.在香港上市的腾讯股价今年累计上涨30%,市值已超过其在纽约上市的实力最接近的竞争对手阿里巴巴(Alibaba)。腾讯市值为2390亿美元,阿里巴巴为2170亿美元。 /201611/478970As state after state has legalized marijuana in one way or another, big names in corporate America have stayed away entirely. Marijuana, after all, is still illegal, according to the federal government.尽管以这种或那种方式实现大麻合法化的州一个接一个地出现,美国的大牌企业依旧对大麻敬而远之。毕竟,根据联邦政府的规定,它依旧是非法的。But Microsoft is breaking the corporate taboo on pot this week by announcing a partnership to begin offering software that tracks marijuana plants from “seed to sale,” as the pot industry puts it.但微软(Microsoft)正在打破企业界对“叶子”的禁忌。该公司于本周宣布了一个合作项目,将开始提供相关的大麻监控软件,用这个行业的话说, 进行“从种子到销售”的全程追踪。The software — a new product in Microsoft’s cloud computing business — is meant to help states that have legalized the medical or recreational use of marijuana keep tabs on sales and commerce, ensuring that they remain in the daylight of legality.这款软件是微软云计算业务部门的新产品,旨在帮助已经实现医用或用大麻合法化的州严密追踪大麻的销售与贸易,确保相关运作处于法律的阳光之下。But until now, even that boring part of the pot world was too controversial for mainstream companies. It is apparent now, though, that the legalization train is not slowing down: This fall, at least five states, including the biggest of them all — California — will vote on whether to legalize marijuana for recreational use.但直到现在,即便是“叶子”世界中这一最平淡的部分,对主流企业而言也太具争议性。不过,大麻合法化的列车目前显然并未减速:今年秋天,至少有五个州——它们中最大的是加州——将投票决定是否让用大麻合法化。So far, only a handful of smaller banks are willing to offer accounts to companies that grow or sell marijuana, and Microsoft will not be touching that part of the business. But the company’s entry into the government compliance side of the business suggests the beginning of a legitimate infrastructure for an industry that has been growing fast and attracting lots of attention, both good and bad.迄今为止,只有少数小愿意为种植或销售大麻的企业开立户头,而微软不会涉及那些业务。但该公司从政府合规领域切入大麻业,意味着一个增长迅猛、吸引了大量正面和负面关注的行业,开始进行有助于引导其走上合法合规之路的基础建设。“We do think there will be significant growth,” said Kimberly Nelson, the executive director of state and local government solutions at Microsoft. “As the industry is regulated, there will be more transactions, and we believe there will be more sophisticated requirements and tools down the road.”“我们确信会有大幅增长,”微软的州及地方政务解决方案部门的执行董事金伯利·纳尔逊(Kimberly Nelson)说。“在这一行业受到监管的同时,交易量会变大;我们认为在此过程中会出现更为复杂的要求和工具。”Microsoft’s baby step into the business came through an announcement on Thursday that it was teaming up with a Los Angeles startup, Kind, that built the software the tech giant will begin marketing. Kind — one of many small companies trying to take the marijuana business mainstream — offers a range of products, including ATM-style kiosks that facilitate marijuana sales, working through some of the state-chartered banks that are comfortable with such customers.微软在周四宣布了试水大麻业的消息。这家科技巨擘称其正与洛杉矶初创企业Kind合作,即将着手推广后者开发的这款软件。许多小企业都在尝试把大麻生意带上更加主流的道路,Kind便是其中之一。它推出了一系列产品,其中包括让大麻销售变得更加便利的ATM式贩售机,其运行以一些愿意跟这类客户打交道的州立为依托。Microsoft will not be getting anywhere near these kiosks or the actual plants. Rather, it will be working with Kind’s “government solutions” division, offering software only to state and local governments that are trying to build compliance systems.微软不会与这些贩售机或实体的大麻植物产生交集。而是要跟Kind的“政务解决方案”部门合作,为正在竭力打造合规体系的州及地方政府提供软件。But for the young and eager legalized weed industry, Microsoft’s willingness to attach its name to any part of the business is a big step forward.但对年轻而情绪高涨的合法大麻业而言,不论微软愿意让自己的名号与这一产业的哪个部分发生关联,都是往前迈了一大步。“Nobody has really come out of the closet, if you will,” said Matthew A. Karnes, the founder of Green Wave Advisors, which provides data and analysis of the marijuana business. “It’s very telling that a company of this caliber is taking the risk of coming out and engaging with a company that is focused on the cannabis business.”“可以这么说吧,还没有人真的从柜中走出来,”提供大麻业务相关数据和分析的绿浪咨询公司(Green Wave Advisors)创始人马修·A·卡恩斯(Matthew A. Karnes)说。“一家如此级别的企业正冒着风险走出来,跟一家致力于大麻业务的企业建立联系,这很能说明问题。”David Dinenberg, founder and chief executive of Kind, said it had taken a long time — and a lot of courting of big-name companies — to persuade the first one to get on board.Kind创始人及首席执行官大卫·迪南伯格(David Dinenberg)说,在花费了很长时间,并向许多大牌企业抛出橄榄枝之后,Kind终于说了第一家大企业入伙。“Every business that works in the cannabis space, we all clamor for legitimacy,” said Dinenberg, a former real estate developer in Philadelphia who moved to California to start Kind. “I would like to think that this is the first of many dominoes to fall.”“我们大麻行业内的每一家企业,全都急迫地想要获得合法性,”迪南伯格说。“我觉得这是第一张倒下的多米诺骨牌”。迪南伯格曾是费城的房地产开发商,后来搬到加利福尼亚,创办了Kind。It’s hard to know if other corporate giants have provided their services in more quiet ways to cannabis purveyors. New York state, for instance, has said it is working with Oracle to track medicinal marijuana patients. But there appears to be little precedent for a big company advertising its work in the space. It is still possible — though considered unlikely — that the federal government could decide to crack down on the legalization movement in the states.现在很难知道其他大企业是否正以不那么引人注目的方式为大麻供应商提供务。例如,纽约州曾经表示,正与甲骨文(Oracle)合作,追踪使用医用大麻的病人。但目前似乎基本没有哪家大公司公开宣称自己涉足了这个行业的哪项业务。还存在一种可能性——尽管被认为不大靠谱:联邦政府可能决定打压各州的大麻合法化运动。Stores that sell pot have been particularly hobbled by the unwillingness of banks to deal with the money flowing through the industry. Many dispensaries have been forced to rely on cash for all transactions, or looked to startups like Kind, with its kiosks that take payments inside dispensaries.不愿处理流经大麻业的资金,使得出售大麻的店铺尤为举步维艰。许多药房不得不以现金结算所有交易,或者仰仗Kind这类初创企业。使用Kind的贩售机,可以在药房内付款。Governments, too, have generally been relying on smaller startups to help develop technology that can track marijuana plants and sales. A Florida software company, BioTrackTHC, is helping Washington state, New Mexico and Illinois monitor the marijuana trade inside their states.政府部门也基本在依靠小型初创企业帮助开发可以追踪大麻植物和销售情况的技术。佛罗里达州的软件公司BioTrackTHC正帮助华盛顿州、新墨西哥州和伊利诺伊州监控州内的大麻贸易。Kind has no state contracts. But it has aly applied, with Microsoft, to provide its software to Puerto Rico, which legalized marijuana for medical purposes earlier this year.Kind手上没有政府合约。但它已经和微软一起申请,要为波多黎各提供软件。波多黎各于今年早些时候实现了医用大麻合法化。Twenty-five states have now legalized marijuana in some form or another, with Pennsylvania and Ohio the most recent. The biggest business opportunity, though, will come from states that allow recreational use of the drug, as Colorado, Oregon and Washington aly do.目前共有25个州以这样或那样的形式实现了大麻合法化,最新加入该阵营的是宾夕法尼亚州和俄亥俄州。不过,最大的商业机会将来自像科罗拉多州、俄勒冈州和华盛顿州一样让用大麻合法化的州。This fall, five states — including, most significantly, California — will vote on whether to join that club.今年秋天,将有五个州——包括最引人瞩目的加利福尼亚州——就是否加入这一俱乐部进行投票。Karnes, the analyst, said he expected legal marijuana sales to jump to .5 billion this year, from .8 billion last year. He says that number could climb to billion by the year 2020 if California voters approve the recreational measure this year, as is widely expected.分析师卡恩斯预计,合法的大麻销售收入会从去年的48亿美元猛增至今年的65亿美元。他说,如果加州选民今年如外界普遍预期的那样投票通过用大麻合法化议案,到2020年,这一数字可能会上升至250亿美元。The opening up of the market in California is aly leading to a scramble for the big money that is likely to follow, and Microsoft will now be well placed to get in on the action.加州市场的开放正在引发对可能出现的大笔利润的争夺,而微软已经为加入战团占据了有利地位。 /201606/449940

A handful of the most powerful US tech companies have promised to bring more control and openness to the development of artificial intelligence, in an attempt to stem growing worries about a technology seen as destroying jobs, increasing income inequality and even threatening the future of humanity.几家最具影响力的美国高科技企业已经承诺,要令人工智能(AI)技术的开发更加可控和透明,试图借此遏制人们对该技术日益增加的担忧。人们担心,人工智能技术会导致工作岗位流失,加剧收入不平等,甚至威胁到人类的未来。The plans by the companies, including Google, Microsoft and Facebook, amounted to what one member of the group said was the first time an industry had ever banded together to shape the impact of a technology that had such a broad effect on the future of humanity.实施这一计划的公司包括谷歌(Google)、微软(Microsoft)和Facebook。该组织一名成员表示,这一计划等于是一个行业首次联合起来,约束一种广泛影响人类未来的技术。AI is on the cusp of transforming society and the consequences of this have to be studied in the open, said Yann LeCun, head of AI at Facebook and one of the pioneers of deep learning, the technique that has propelled recent breakthroughs in the field. Facebook人工智能主管扬#8226;莱库(Yann LeCun)表示:人工智能即将改变整个社会,必须公开研究这种改变的后果。It will transform the way we connect with each other, the way we get information, medicine, transport, the way cities are organised.这种技术将改变我们彼此联络的方式,改变我们获取信息、获得药品、开展交通运输的方式,改变城市的组织结构。The companies, which also include Amazon and IBM, announced a non-profit, called the Partnership on Artificial Intelligence to Benefit People and Society, to carry out the work. 这些企业还包括了亚马逊(Amazon)和IBM。它们宣布成立一个名为人工智能造福人类和社会合作组织(Partnership on Artificial Intelligence to Benefit People and Society)的非盈利机构,以开展这项工作。It will conduct research into ethical questions about how AI affects society at large, and develop ways to make the new technology more transparent and understandable.该组织将对有关人工智能具体如何影响社会的伦理问题开展研究,并找到提高这种新技术透明度、降低其理解难度的办法。However, the biggest impetus behind the initiative has been the growing public and government worries about how such a powerful new technology will affect many aspects of life. 该倡议背后的最大动机,源于公众和政府对这种威力巨大的技术将如何影响生活方方面面越来越担心。Eric Horvitz, an AI researcher at Microsoft, said the technology was at an inflection point, and that challenges were becoming clear.微软人工智能研究人员埃里克#8226;霍维茨(Eric Horvitz)表示,该技术是个转折点,相关挑战正浮出水面。These include the hidden biases in algorithms that make implicit assumptions after being trained with specific sets of data; questions about the safety and trustworthiness of systems that often take decisions for reasons even their own programmers cannot understand; and ethical judgments that are embedded in systems to influence how they interact with humans in given situations.这些挑战包括:程序中的隐形偏见,即用特定数据集训练后,程序会带上隐含假定前提;一些系统往往会以其开发人员也不能理解的逻辑做出决策,这些系统的安全性和可信任程度问题;如何设计人工智能系统中嵌入的伦理判断,这些伦理判断会在特定场合影响系统与人类的互动。The Microsoft researcher said the group had looked back through the history of science, to the introduction of sweeping new technologies such as electricity and human flight, and not found any precedents for the industry-wide effort.这位微软研究人员表示,该组织回顾了科学史,考察了电气技术和航空技术等当时全新技术的引入,没有发现这种全行业努力的先例。He also denied that there was an explicit attempt in the notion of self-regulation to repel government intrusion in the field. 他还否认该领域存在名为自律、实为抵制政府侵犯的明确企图。Instead, he said the industry research should be welcomed by governments, which often find it hard to understand the impact of such technologies.相反,他表示政府会欢迎这一全行业开展的研究,因为政府往往很难理解此类技术的影响。 /201610/469320

CAIRO — When it comes to home delivery and services, Cairo has most other places beat.开罗――在快递到家和务上门方面,没有多少城市能胜过开罗。Suffering from a hangover and perhaps some regrets? Costa Coffee will send around a single shot of espresso (.70), and the neighborhood pharmacy will dispatch one morning-after pill ().为宿醉苦恼?或许为昨晚的事后悔?Costa咖啡可以送来一杯意式浓缩咖啡(2.70美元),附近的药店也能送来一片事后避药(2美元)。Want a Brazilian bikini wax? It can be done in the privacy of your home for . 想来个巴西式比基尼脱毛?可以在家中私密环境下完成,价格6美元。Need a birth or death certificate? Just put in a call to the government, which will dispatch it within 72 hours.需要出生或死亡明?只需给政府打电话,72小时内就会得到解决。For city dwellers in Egypt, almost anything can be delivered, and for nearly nothing.对于埃及的城市居民来说,几乎一切都可以快递,而且近乎免费。Home deliveries started with fast food, but have come to include an array of other goods and services. 快递到家务始于快餐业,但是渐渐发展到一系列其他货品与务。Upscale restaurants will deliver a salad or a single slice of cake; stationers will send pens to the office; liquor stores will supply alcohol if a party runs dry; bakeries will send fresh b and pastries straight from the oven — most of it carried on the backs of battered old motorcycles.高级餐厅可以只送一份沙拉或一小块蛋糕;文具店可以把钢笔送到办公室;如果派对上的酒喝完了,可以要酒类商店送来;蛋糕房可以送来刚出炉的新鲜面包和甜点——多数商品都是用破旧托车送来的Driving the trend is a middle class willing to spend money to avoid hassles, plus large numbers of poorer people willing to zoom around on motorcycles for less than a day. 推动这种趋势的是中产阶级愿意花钱避免麻烦的愿望,此外还有众多比较穷的人愿意骑着托车到处穿梭,换来每天不到10美元的报酬。Given Cairo’s bad traffic and long, hot summers, the capital’s dwellers need little encouragement to pick up the phone. (Deliveries spike especially in July and August, when daytime temperatures rarely drop below 90 degrees.)鉴于开罗糟糕的交通状况,以及夏日的漫长酷热,首都的居民不用太多想就会打电话叫快递(快递在7月和8月会达到高峰,那段时间白日的温度很少低于90华氏度)。The customers pay very little for the convenience — delivery charges are typically less than a dollar.客户不用付多少钱就可以得到这种便利——快递费一般不到1美元。It is too hot for anyone to walk, and no one wants to drive through a traffic jam and then have to look for a parking spot, said Shady Ahmed, who delivers for Costa Coffee in Zamalek, an affluent Cairo neighborhood. 天气太热了,大家都不愿意走路,也没人愿意开车遇到拥堵,然后还要找停车位,在扎马利克为Costa咖啡送货的沙迪#8226;艾哈迈德(Shady Ahmed)说,扎马利克是开罗一个繁华的地带。Why would anyone waste money on a cab coming and going when we can deliver to them for less?既然我们可以廉价送货上门,为什么还要浪费钱打车呢?Even the government’s creaky bureaucracy has seized on the trend. 就连破败的政府官僚体制也赶上了这股潮流。In January, the civil registry created a call center for people to renew their national IDs and then get birth, death and marriage certificates delivered to their homes, a service they can also find online.1月,民政注册处开放了一个电话中心,提供上门务,帮人们更新身份号,之后又提供了快递出生、死亡和结婚的务,这些务也可以上网办理。We did this to make life easier, said Ehab el-Attar, the registry’s head. 我们这样做都是为了提供方便,注册处的长官埃哈卜#8226;艾尔-阿塔尔(Ehab el-Attar)说。Not everyone can use the internet, and this way they don’t waste time coming here and make traffic worse. 不是所有人都能用互联网,这样他们就不用浪费时间跑到这里,让交通进一步恶化。I don’t think this particular service is a proof of laziness. 我不觉得这项务明人们懒惰。But, he added with a laugh, there is definitely plenty of laziness around.不过他笑着补充说,现在确实有不少懒人。The home delivery culture is sping into the service sector as well. 上门文化也发展到了务行业。Now an ailing runner can have her knees X-rayed in bed for about , and while she is at it, get a haircut and a pedicure.现在,如果跑步受伤,可以在家里,躺在床上给膝盖做X光检查,只需55美元,与此同时,还可以理发和美甲。While businesses have jumped at the opportunities, some of their workers grumble about the customers’ attitudes. 商家抓住机会的同时,有些员工也在抱怨客户的态度。They’ll just sit there with coffee mugs and barely look at you. 他们就是端着咖啡坐在那儿,几乎不看你一眼。You just want to tell them, ‘You are not rich, this is just cheap,’ said Nagat Hosny, a body waxer who does home visits.你忍不住想告诉他们,‘不是你太有钱,是务太便宜’,提供上门务的身体脱毛师纳加#8226;胡斯尼(Nagat Hosny)说。Mostafa Mahmoud travels the city taking blood from people at home — he is a phlebotomist, not a vampire — and delivers it to Al Borg, one of the capital’s leading medical labs.穆斯塔法#8226;马哈茂德(Mostafa Mahmoud)在整个城市四处上门采集血液——他是抽血者,不是吸血者——然后把这些血液提供给开罗最大的医疗实验室之一Al Borg。It is often exasperating when you go and find that the person is absolutely fine and just chilling at home, he said. 有时候你上门去,发现那人完全没问题,悠闲自得地待在家里,这经常让人恼怒,他说。Some even have the audacity to scold you if you are 10 minutes late.有些人因为你晚了10分钟,就敢教训你。With an increasing number of goods and services finding their way to the doorsteps of customers, it was inevitable that some high-tech solutions would also come along.愈来愈多的货物和务被直接送上门,一些高科技的解决办法也就不可避免地随之而来。Waleed Rashed is the founder of a company that plans to introduce a delivery app called Voo in October. 瓦利德#8226;拉希德(Waleed Rashed)是一家公司的创始人,该公司计划在10月推出一款名叫Voo的快递手机应用。Voo (the name is meant to suggest the sound of speed) aims to do almost any chore for anyone.Voo(这个名字让人联想起飞速移动的声音)旨在为所有人提供几乎所有的跑腿务。There is no incentive to go outside, Mr. Rashed said. 人们不愿出门,拉希德说。Just one hour outside is enough to ruin anyone’s day.出门一小时就能毁掉一整天。Voo might, for example, pick up keys you left at a friend’s house and return them to you within an hour for an average of , he said.比如说,Voo可以在一个小时内帮你拿回留在朋友家里的钥匙,再交还给你,平均只需5美元,他说。Ingez, an Egyptian company whose name translates as hurry up, has also latched onto the delivery craze. 埃及公司因格兹(Ingez——意思是赶快)也跟上了这股快递热潮。It offers services such as driving sundry goods — a single cellphone cover, say — from one end of Cairo to another for as little as .50, or taking flowers to someone in the hospital on behalf of a busy relative.它可以把各种货物(比如说,一个手机壳)从开罗的一头送到另一头,只需要2.5美元,或者帮一个忙碌的亲戚给医院里的病人送花。Sometimes we find it funny, said Ahmed Farouk, the company’s manager of operations. 有时候,我们觉得这很有趣,公司的运营经理艾哈迈德#8226;法鲁克(Ahmed Farouk)说。I personally wouldn’t request a delivery for a small order myself, but people generally are never shy about it.我自己从来不会为了小额商品叫快递,但是大多数人毫无顾忌。Ammar Ali Hassan, a prominent Egyptian novelist and political sociologist, attributes such attitudes to the return of many relatively affluent Egyptians who were guest workers in Saudi Arabia and other countries on the Persian Gulf.埃及著名的小说家和政治社会学家阿马尔#8226;阿里#8226;哈桑(Ammar Ali Hassan)觉得,这种态度是因为许多相对富裕的埃及人正在回国。他们曾在沙特阿拉伯和波斯湾其他国家打工。Many were influenced by the Gulf, Mr. Hassan said. 很多人受到海湾地区的影响,哈桑说。They think, ‘Oh I am a big deal and can act like a member of the upper class now. 他们想,‘现在我是大人物,可以像上层阶级一样了。I am too big for queues.’ ’我太了不起,不能排队。Home delivery has become so habitual here that Egyptians abroad tend to feel deprived.接受上门务成了一种习惯,一些海外的埃及人甚至觉得失去了什么。Salma Adel, a young Egyptian physician who moved to Ireland more than a year ago, said delivery was one of the things she missed most.一年多前移居爱尔兰的年轻埃及医生萨尔玛#8226;阿德尔(Salma Adel)说,快递是她最怀念的一件事。It has to be up there with family, she said. 最好是和家人在一起,她说。It’s not like it’s just fast food. It’s all food.不仅仅是快餐,而是所有的餐饮都能送达。There’s something beautiful about being able to conjure up a beautiful meal out of thin air when you’re sat at home and can’t be bothered to cook, she added.坐在家里,不用费力做饭,凭空就有好饭好菜变出来,真是太美了,她说。 /201609/463845

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