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江津区妇女医院激光祛斑手术多少钱川北医学院附属医院光子脱毛手术多少钱重庆去眼袋医院 Science and Technology The rise of the dinosaurs Pardon!科技 恐龙的崛起 恕我直言!A geological burp may have led to the dinosaurs domination地质上的甲烷释放可能是恐龙称霸地球的原因THE s, famously, went out with a bang.众所周知,恐龙在地球上是突然消失的。Some 65.5m years ago, at the end of the Cretaceous period, the Earth collided with an asteroid and the biggest terrestrial beasts in history were no more.大约在6500万年前的白垩纪末期,地球与小行星相撞导致最大的陆地兽类全部灭绝。That left things clear for the rise of the mammals.此次灭绝事件为哺乳动物的崛起提供了契机。But how did the dinosaurs rise to power in the first place?但首要的是恐龙是如何崛起的呢?Some light on this question has just been shed by a paper published in Science by Micha Ruhl of Utrecht University, in the Netherlands, and his colleagues.荷兰乌得勒大学迈克尔·鲁尔及其同事在最近一期《科学》杂志上撰文对此问题进行了阐述。Dinosaurs first appear in the fossil record during the Triassic period, some 230m years ago.恐龙最早出现在三叠纪时期(距今约2.3亿年)的化石记录中。They do not take over, though, until the end of the Triassic, 201m years ago.但直至三叠纪末期(距今2.01亿年)恐龙才取得地球霸主地位。That date marks one of five recognised mass extinctions in history (the end of the Cretaceous was another).历史公认的5次物种大灭绝事件之一就是以三叠纪末期为标志的(另一次发生在白垩纪末期)。In it, half the worlds known species disappeared.在此期间,世界上的半数已知物种都灭绝了。Until now, the end of the Triassic has been blamed on massive volcanic eruptions that went on for 600,000 years.直到现在,人们都一直将三叠纪的终结归因于持续了60万年的大规模火山喷发。Dr Ruhl, however, reckons that was not the cause—or, at least, not directly.然而鲁尔士却认为火山喷发不是导致三叠纪终结的原因或者至少不是直接原因。By analysing the isotopic composition of hydrocarbon molecules from plant waxes of the period, he found what looks like a spike in the amount of recently non-biological carbon (which has a distinctive ratio of light isotopes to heavy ones), lasting between 10,000 and 20,000 years.通过分析该时期植物腊的碳氢分子同位素组成,他发现有种类似最近非生物碳(轻、重同位素有着独特的比例)的碳元素在数量上激增,这种现象持续了1万到2万年。He thinks the liberation of methane stored at the bottom of the ocean in structures called clathrates is the most likely culprit.他认为出现这种现象的最可能诱因是甲烷气体的释放,这些甲烷气体释放前存储在海底称作;笼形包合物;的结构中。The alternative, that the carbon came from the volcanoes, is unlikely because the spike is much shorter than the period of volcanic activity.另一种说法是这种碳元素来自于火山,但这不可能,因为碳数量激增期比火山活动期要短得多。Methane is a greenhouse gas far stronger than carbon dioxide, so the consequence would have been a rapid warming of the climate—a phenomenon that the rocks suggest did actually happen.甲烷是一种比二氧化碳浓烈得多的温室气体,它的释放会导致地球气候迅速升温——岩石层研究也表明这种现象确实发生过。This is not the first time a methane burp has been blamed for an extinction.人类已经不是第一次将物种灭绝归因于甲烷气体的脉冲式释放。Though the Cretaceous asteroid cleared the stage, mammals did not really get going until 10m years later, in the Eocene epoch.尽管白垩纪时期的小行星灭绝了居统治地位的恐龙,但哺乳动物却一直到1000万年后的始新世才真正兴起繁盛起来。The preceding Palaeocene epoch was also brought to an end, the rocks suggest, by a sudden release of methane.岩石层研究表明甲烷的突然释放导致了之前的古新世时期结束。The burp could, of course, have been provoked by the eruptions, so the volcanoes are not off the hook completely.当然甲烷的脉冲式释放可能是火山喷发所致,因此火山始终难辞其咎。But, for those of a nervous disposition, the tying of an ancient greenhouse warming to an ancient mass extinction might suggest lessons for the future.但是对于这些性情冲动的火山,古代的温室变暖和古代大量物种灭绝之间的联系或许对未来有诸多的借鉴意义。 /201211/210739INDIANA, like many manufacturing states in the Midwest, has long felt the pain of seeing jobs go overseas. In his seven years as Republican governor, Mitch Danielss response has been to offer a strong diet of pro-business legislation. In the past few years Indiana has cut its corporate tax rate by nearly 25%, established one of the highest Ramp;D tax credits in the country and started work on a billion infrastructure-improvement plan.和许多中西部制造业州一样,印第安纳长期的痛处在于,眼睁睁得看着工作流向海外。七年州长,共和党人米奇;丹尼尔斯的回应姿态是大力贯彻对企业有利的立法。该州在过去的岁月里对公司减税接近25%,建立了企业Ramp;D税收抵免站点,这样的站点在美国还有很多;还开启了计划100亿美元的基础实施整修工作。Until recently, though, Mr Daniels had resisted calls to make Indiana what is known as a ;right-to-work; (RTW) state. RTW legislation allows employees to decide whether to financially support a union. Without such laws unions can insist that all workers pay dues to help fund the cost of negotiating a contract with an employer, whether or not they wish to formally join the union. Now, however, Mr Daniels says he believes the state needs to sign up as well. The new legislation was passed by the state Senate on February 1st and was signed by Mr Daniels that very day, making Indiana the 23rd RTW state in America;and the first such state in the nationrsquo;s old manufacturing belt.然而就是在最近,丹尼尔斯还在拒绝让印州成为RTW州(众所周知的;工作权利法案;)。RTW立法规定员工有权决定是否出钱持工会。如果没有RTW这样的法律,工会就可以坚持让所有的员工都应缴纳会费,帮助为和雇主就工作合同谈判所需的费用筹钱,不管这些员工是否愿意正式加入工会。但现在,丹尼尔斯说,他认为印州也需要签署RTW法案。新法2月1号在州参议院获得通过,当天有丹尼尔斯签署,这样一来,印州,成为了美国通过RTW法案的第23个州。这也是美国传统工业带第一个通过此法的州。Proponents argue that it is wrong to force anyone to contribute money to a union. Unions counter they face a ;free rider; problem whereby non-affiliated workers receive the benefits of union negotiations without contributing financially. The governor, meanwhile, says the new laws will simply make the state more attractive to business.保障工作权利的倡导者认为强制他人给工会捐钱的做法是不可取的。工会反驳道,他们面临着;无本获利;的难题,在这样的背景下,非直属工会的员工,就可以从工会谈判获取利益,而不掏一分钱。同时州长丹尼尔斯说新法只会让印州吸引更多的企业。Evidence from the Indiana Economic Development Corporation suggests that many employers do indeed want these laws. This group says that somewhere between a quarter to a half of companies in the state planning to relocate insist upon going to RTW states.来自印第安纳经济发展公司的据表明很多雇主确实需要这样的法律。该公司说,在印州1/4到1/2计划搬迁的公司中,某公司坚持要将其公司所在地搬到通过了RTW的州中。Few companies, though, are willing to go on the record to say exactly why they prefer to locate in RTW states though the reason is pretty obvious;in a nutshell, they make for weaker unions. It is a sensitive subject and companies fear picketing and other similar reprisals. However, Remy International, an electrical-engineering company based in Pendleton, Indiana, has stated that it plans to build another factory in America some time next year: but that in the absence of RTW legislation it will not build it in Indiana.然而至于准确说出为什么他们更愿意搬迁到通过了RTW的州,虽然理由显而易见---简言之,他们这样做,是为了弱化工会---没有公司愿意始作俑者。这是一个敏感话题,公司也不敢越雷池,害怕遭到类似的报复。然而,位于该州彭德尔顿的电工程公司雷米国际(Remy International)已经声明,该公司计划在明年某个时间国内在建一座工厂:但为了逃避RTW法案,该公司不会将新厂建在印州。In an interview with Stateline, a news service that looks at trends in state policy, a vice-president of Remy, Jay Pittas, argued that RTW legislation makes it easier to negotiate flexible work rules, and means that unions are more likely to agree to a merit-based system of employment rather than a one based on seniority. The company, however, now declines to comment further on the subject.在一次由观察州政策动态的新闻务机构Stateline进行的采访中,雷米副总裁jay Pittas说,RTW法案让员工更加容易的把灵活的工作制度 摆到谈判桌上来,RTW立法的存在就意味着工会更有可能会认同以绩效工资为基准的体系,而不会去认同员工资历体系。公司现在并不愿意对这个话题多说上些什么。201202/170667重庆开后眼角

忠县注射丰下巴费用Business Opening a business in Brazil Why make it simple?商业 在巴西做生意 何等简单Setting up shop has just got easier. But not much开店变得简单。却没有很多BRAZIL is not an easy place to start a business.巴西并不是开店的好地方。The World Bank ranks it 120th out of 183 countries-worse than Burkina Faso or Nigeria.世界将其在183个国家中列为第120位——比布基纳法索及尼日利亚还糟糕。Take one small example. Until recently, you needed at least two partners to form a limited-liability company.试举一例,至今,仍需三人才能成立一家有限责任公司。Sole traders had to find a ;1% sócio;-an employee, friend or family member willing to lend his name to the articles of association, or a shell company set up solely to hold a tiny share.一人投资者必须寻求一名;1% 合作伙伴;——雇员、朋友或家庭成员同意将他们的姓名列入公司章程或令其占有极少股份而成立的空壳公司中。Things may have just got a little easier. A new law, which supposedly came into effect on January 9th, allows a lone business-owner to set up an Empresa Individual de Responsabilidade Limitada (Eireli for short): a single-holder limited-liability firm.要求可能放宽了些。据说一部新法将于1月生效,其中允许一人设立有限责任公司(简称Eireli)。The main requirement is capital of 62,200 reais (,250).主要的规定是资产额为62,200雷亚尔(35,250美元)。This is a big deal. Alas, it may not happen as planned.此举意义重大,唉,或许会事与愿违。In December the federal body that oversees state business registries told them to turn away firms trying to register Eirelis, as well as foreigners without permanent right of residence.12月监管公司注册的联邦机构回避关于试图注册一人有限责任公司,以及不具有永久居留身份的外国人所提出的申请。No reason was given.对此并未公布相关的理由。Later, lawyers were briefed that the laws aim was to let Brazilian sole traders protect their personal goods against lawsuits or bankruptcy—not to make life easier for big business or foreigners.随后,律师被简要告知律师事务所意在保护巴西个体经营者免受诉讼或破产之灾——并不是保障大公司或外国投资者。Since the restrictions have no basis in the law, challenges are inevitable.由于这些限制在法律上没有渊源,因此不可避免地存在质疑。Husam Abboud of Establish Brazil, a company-formation specialist, is thinking of Brazilian-style direct action: simply trying to register an Eireli for a firm or a foreigner, and seeing what happens.来自Establish Brazil的Husam Abboud ,是一位公司设立的专家,其指出巴西风格的直接效果:只是试图为公司或外国人注册一人有限公司,之后坐观成败。;We wont be trying just once, but many times,; he says cheerfully. ;In Brazil, it always depends whos on the desk on the day.;;我们并非仅尝试一次,而是多次,; 他语带兴奋地称;在巴西,总是彼时处在台上的人左右决定。;A few speedy locals have aly set up Eirelis.一些敏锐的本国人已开始设立Eirelis。;It was quick and easy, because I didnt have to hunt for a partner,; says Taise Litholdo, an architect.;这样简单快捷,而无需寻找合伙人,;建筑师 Taise Litholdo说到。Sebastiao Lino da Silva, an accountant in Sao Paulo, is helping a medical-research firm, which recently lost a partner, to convert into an Eireli.圣保罗的会计师Sebastiao Lino da Silva正协助一家失去合伙人的医药研发公司转为一人有限公司。The remaining owner would otherwise have to find a new partner or close.该公司目前的所有人希望寻找新的合伙人或以类似的模式延续公司。Joao Marcelo Pacheco of Pinheiro Neto Advogados, one of Brazils largest law firms, says that some wealthy clients will use Eirelis to make their lives simpler.来自巴西最大律所之一Joao Marcelo Pacheco的Pinheiro Neto Advogados称,某些重要客户打算运用Eirelis以令生意更顺遂。All this amounts to a tweak, not a revolution.所有这些构成扭转,而非改革。By January 18th only 14 Eirelis had been registered with Sao Paulos board of trade, Brazils biggest.直至1月18日仅有14家Eirelis成功在巴西最大的圣保罗商业局得以注册。;The truth is Eirelis are not really suitable for most small businesses,; says Mr Abboud. Few hot-dog vendors and hairdressers have enough spare cash to satisfy the capital requirement, he points out.Abboud称;事实上Eirelis并非适用所有小型企业;,并指出一些卖热的商人和美发师手头上就有满足资本限额的闲钱。That is an argument for scrapping the capital requirement.放弃资本限额引起一番争论。The Socialist Peoples Party, an opposition group, has asked the Supreme Court to rule it unconstitutional for discriminating against micro-traders.反对党——巴西社会人民党已请求最高法院规范歧视微型贸易者的违宪行为。Even if foreigners are allowed to set up Eirelis, breaking into Brazil will remain tough.即使外国投资者被允许设立Eirelis,他们融入巴西仍成问题。The biggest hurdle—finding a permanent resident willing to hold power of attorney for foreign owners—will remain.最大的阻碍——寻找一位永久居留者愿意作为外国所有人的代理人——始终存在。Establish Brazil and its rivals will do this for foreign clients, but only until a local manager has been appointed, or an expatriate has arrived on a permanent business visa.Establish Brazil及其对手将以同样方式对待其外国客户,但仅需指定一位本地管理人或一位取得永久居留的移民。The snag is that acting for a foreign firm leaves agents vulnerable to Brazils capricious tax authorities and labour courts, which tend to ignore limited liability and pursue individual owners.代理外国公司的中介因容易被巴西反复无常的税收机构及劳动法庭追查而受到牵绊,他们更倾向个人所有者而非有限责任。;They want to be able to freeze someones bank account if problems arise,; explains Stephen OSullivan of Mattos Filho Advogados, another big Sao Paulo law firm. ;And if theyre the only people in the country, theyll go after the local managers, or even the lawyers.;;发生问题时他们希望冻结某人的账户,;另一家律所Mattos Filho Advogados的Stephen OSullivan称;若这个国家仅剩下他们,则他们将追寻本地管理人,甚至本地律师。;Unsurprisingly, Mattos Filho is willing to fulfil this role only for old and valued clients.不出意外,Mattos Filho 期待在务已有的尊贵客户的同时能够为更多的公司扮演同样的角色。Eirelis may eventually make it easier to set up shop in Brazil. But only a little.在巴西做生意可能因Eirelis 而变得简单。但仅仅是一点点。 /201211/210684酉阳土家族苗族自治县脱小腿毛多少钱 Twice in 10 years, Pablo Picassos celebrated 1932 painting of his sleeping mistress, Marie-Therese Walter, made international headlines.10年以来,帕勃洛·毕加索1932年创作的名画再次引来国际媒体争相以大标题报导,画中人物是毕加索的情人玛丽·德蕾莎·沃尔持,呈现了她睡着的状态。Alas, the artists breathtaking skill and candid insight into human nature were not the cause.然而,引起轰动的并不是艺术家非凡的绘画才能及其对人性率真的洞察力。First, on a chilly Manhattan night in November 1997, ;Le Reve;-;The Dream; -broke all records for a single-owner sale.第一次轰动是于1997年寒冷的曼哈顿夜晚,《读书》打破个人拍卖记录。Then, on a hot Las Vegas evening in September 2006, a new owner poked a hole in the painting with an errant elbow while showing the prize to unexpectedly shocked friends.第二次轰动是于2006年9月酷热的夜晚,名画的新主人在为震惊的朋友展示价格时,胳膊肘不小心把画戳了一个洞。Now, for the first time since the rip, ;Le Reve; is returning to public view.目前,自画面破裂以来,《读书》第一次返回大众的视野。The puncture left a several-inch tear across Marie-Thereses voluptuous left forearm.修复后的破洞看上去像是玛丽·德蕾莎丰满的前臂上留下的一滴几英尺的眼泪。No cynicism is needed to assume that one goal of the exhibition is to publicly demonstrate that repairs to ;Le Reve; have not had serious effect on its market value.没有必要去抨击这次展览,其目的之一是向外界公开展出修复后的《读书》,明其市场价值没有受到任何影响。Many Old Masters paintings would reveal, if they could be taken down and examined from the back, any number of damage repairs made over centuries.如果可能的话,把许多艺术大师的之前的画作拿下来鉴定,一定会发现数百年来的多次修复。Not all masterpieces are pristine.没有作品是完美无缺的。Yet, like torn canvas and buckled brush strokes, reputations can also need fixing.然而,就像破旧的画布和错位的笔痕,好的名声也可以被修复。This exhibition will show that despite minor damages, ;Le Reve; is still an exquisite Modern sex painting and a brilliant, justifiably famous masterpiece.这次展览向外界明,除了微小的损坏,《读书》仍然是一幅绝妙的无可非议的,展现出现代女性美的名作。201205/182320重庆冰点e光脱毛多少钱哪家医院好

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