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重庆市八院光子嫩肤多少钱飞度在线

2019年09月21日 18:12:08 | 作者:健康网 | 来源:新华社
Scientists have long been aware of the link between drinking andsmoking.科学家们长期以来一直在研究喝酒和抽烟之间的联系。In fact, eighty to ninety percent of alcoholics alsosmoke, which is about three times the rate in the generalpopulation.事实上,在那些喝酒的人当中,80%到90%都抽烟,这个比率是总人数的3倍。But a recent study suggests that what youredealing with isnt just behavioral–it also has to do with brainchemistry.但最近有研究称这不仅与人的行为有关,而且与大脑化学反应也有一定关系。The study suggests that alcohol increases the pleasurable effects of nicotine.这项研究表明酒精可以增强尼古丁令人愉快的效果。Participants drankan alcoholicbeverage and smoked either a regular cigarette or a nicotine free one.参与者喝一杯酒精饮料后再抽一烟或者抽一不含尼古丁的香烟。Those whosmoked nicotine-free cigarettes didnt report as much satisfaction, which indicates that the nicotineitself plays a critical role in the interaction.那些抽没有尼古丁香烟的人并没有感受到满足感,由此表明尼古丁在相互影响时自身起到关键性作用。And then theres all that lowering of inhibitions that happens when you drink. 如果喝酒的话就会降低抑制作用。It doesnt take muchalcohol to increase the pleasures of nicotine.只需少量的酒精就能增加尼抽烟的的快感。Once scientists get to the bottom of thepharmacological interaction that happens between alcohol and nicotine, they may have a betterunderstanding of how to treat both addictions more effectively.曾经有科学家弄清酒精和尼古丁之间药物影响的真相,这让他们更好的了解如何有效地治疗酗酒和吸烟上瘾的人。 201404/293871Yael:What would you say your attitude is toward celebrities, Don?雅艾尔:你说你对明星的态度如何,唐?DON:Do you mean whether I like them?唐:你的意思是我是否喜欢他们吗?Yael:I mean are you obsessed?雅艾尔:我的意思是你是痴迷吗?Do you spend hours on the Internet trying to find out what their favorite nail polish color is and whether they believe in hypnosis?你花几个小时在网上只是为了找出他们喜欢的指甲油颜色及他们是否相信催眠?DON:Im fond of The BeeGees, but I dont think they wear nail polish and I could care less what they think about hypnosis.唐:我喜欢BeeGees,但我不会去想他们抹指甲油,而且我对他们看待催眠不怎么关心 。Yael:Okay, do you believe in a just world, that life is fair?雅艾尔:好吧,你相信世界是公平的,生活是公平的吗?D:I cant pick up a newspaper without ing evidence that life is not only unfair, but often cruel.唐:我不能捡起一张报纸不去阅读就表明生活不仅是不公平的,而且往往残酷。Yael:Good. What I mean is that psychologists have found that people who believe in a just world are more likely to worship celebrities, whereas people more critical of society are less likely to obsess over a celebrity.雅艾尔:很好。我的意思是心理学家发现,那些相信公平世界的人更有可能崇拜名人,然而批判社会的人不太可能痴迷名人。People who strongly believe in a just world believe that life is fair, that good things happen to good people and bad things to bad people.那些坚信生活是公平的人认为善有善报,恶有恶报。People who believe in a just world are expressing acceptance of society and its institutions.人们相信公平世界的人表达出对于这个社会以及其所有制度的接受。Since the celebrity system is one of these institutions researchers suggest that it makes sense that those believing in a just world would be satisfied with how celebrities are made and thus more likely to admire and even obsess over them.因为明星也是这个社会体系的一种制度,研究人员表明很容易理解那些信仰公平世界的人对名人感到满意,因此更有可能钦佩甚至对他们痴迷。Vice versa, people who do not believe in a fair world might resist worshipping celebrities,反之,那些不相信公平世界的人可能会抵制崇拜明星,and in fact question or criticize the system that produces them and decides who gets to be a celebrity.事实上质疑或批评这一体系造就他们并且决定谁成为名人。DON:Dont get me started.唐:别从我开始。201309/255334Business商业报道South Koreas internet giant韩国互联网巨头Now or Naver机不可失At home, South Koreas biggest web portal has thrashed Yahoo and kept Google at bay.在国内市场,韩国最大的门户网站Naver已经击败了雅虎和谷歌。Now its owner plans to conquer the world with its messaging service而现在,这间公司的老板正准备以手中的即时通讯软件去征世界Cutesy characters cost extra可爱的卡通人物则需要额外收费DOWN jackets are typically stuffed with duck, not chicken, feathers. Why? Ask Naver.羽绒里通常以鸭绒作为原料,那为什么不用鸡的羽毛呢?去问Naver就行。So ran an ad in 2003 for a South Korean web portal of that name featuring an innovative, crowdsourced question-and-answer service.而这正是2003年韩国门户网站Naver所打出的广告,并且,这广告是以一项革新的聚众问答务为特点来推广自己。In spite of such features, Navers chances looked slim as it was launched into a crowded market dominated by Yahoo of America and Daum, another South Korean company.尽管有着自己的一些特色,但在一个早已被美国的雅虎和另一间韩国公司Daum所垄断了的市场里,Naver似乎没有什么商机。Last year Naver indexed its 100-millionth question: a user asking for the title of a particular song, that begins with a giggle.去年,Naver录得它的第1亿个提问:一位用户在询问一首以傻笑开头的歌。An answer took just 14 minutes to arrive: Blow, by Kesha, an American singer.仅仅14分钟,他便得到了:一位美国歌手Kesha所唱的歌曲Blow。Every day around 18m people visit its homepage.每天大约有1千8百万人浏览它的主页。It has almost 80% of the South Korean search market, making the country one of just three where Google is not top.在国内搜索市场中,Naver拥有约80%的使用量,而这让韩国成为了谷歌公司无法称霸的三个国家之一。Google accounts for just 4% of searches; Yahoo, now trailing behind as the tenth most-visited portal, stopped producing specialist content for the South Korean market in 2012.在韩国,谷歌仅占有4%的搜索使用量;目前已经在常用门户网站排行中落到了第十位置的雅虎,在2012年便停止了为韩国市场提供专门的栏目。When Naver was set up, there were not many web pages written in Korean.Naver创立之时,韩国还没有太多网站。So the Qamp;A service was a masterstroke—the users who answered others questions provided lots of free content.所以这套问答务推出是一个非常绝妙的举动—用户们可以在这儿提问并得到免费的回答。Naver handed out grades, from commoner to superman, to encourage them to keep writing.Naver还给用户们进行了从平民到超人的评级,以鼓励他们的持续贡献。Everyone wanted to be God in cyberspace, says Lim Wonki, the author of The Secret of Navers Success, published in 2007.2007年出版的《Naver的成功秘诀》作者Lim Wonki曾表示:每个人都想做虚拟世界的上帝。Some Western web portals are suffering declining ad revenues, but Navers are still rising.部分西方门户网站正处于广告收益下滑的处境当中,但Naver却仍在增长。Jay Park of Samsung Securities, a stockbroker, says the portals online-advertising sales, which provide three-quarters of Navers revenues, grew by 7.7% last year.三星券股票经纪杰?帕克说,去年占该网站总收入四分之三的在线广告业务收入增长了7.7%。He expects it to keep growing at this sort of rate.他期望该网站能保持这样的增长比率。As the money rolls in, it no longer has to rely on free material from users, and can buy up lots of exclusive content, from encyclopedias to s, which it blocks rival search engines from accessing.随着现金的增加,Naver不再需要去以来用户们的免费资源,从而可以收购从百科到视频各种类别的专属项目,接着便可以屏蔽其竞争对手的搜索引擎。Unsurprisingly, this annoys them.不出所料地,这一行为引起了其竞争对手们愤慨。In 2012 Kim In-sung, who built up Empas, a search engine, published a critical book, Navers Two Faces.2012年,Empas搜索引擎创始人金贤成出版了1本名为《Naver的两副面孔》的书来抨击Naver。He says it is heaven for users but a black hole for content providers.他表示,虽然对用户们来说是天堂,但对于内容提供者来说则是黑洞。News organisations grumble that Naver pays them a pittance for licensing their stories.多家新闻组织抱怨Naver仅给予他们微薄的报酬便使用了他们的报道。Naver started out as an in-house venture by the IT division of Samsung, the countrys largest industrial conglomerate.最初,Naver是作为韩国最大的企业联合集团三星IT部门中的一个内部分。But Samsung had sold the last of its shares in the company by 2004 and Naver is now the sixth-largest of the companies in the local KOSPI share index.但三星早已在2004年以前就将全部Naver的股权卖出,与此同时Naver已经是韩国本地股市KOSPI中规模排行第六的公司。Mr Kim says it has begun to exhibit some of the least attractive traits of the chaebol, in particular by buying up smaller potential rivals and by using its market power to stop other portals getting access to content.金先生说目前Naver已经开始展现出了一些财阀特有的且不受人欢迎的行为,尤其是在收购小型潜在对手以及利用自身的市场力量去妨碍其他门户网站取得资讯方面表现得极为明显。In 2013 the countrys Fair Trade Commission threatened the firm with a big fine, for allegedly unfair business practices.2013年,国家公平交易委员会因而警告该公司,声称他们将会对不公平交易行为开出巨额罚单。Naver persuaded it to drop this in return for it spending 100 billion won on helping smaller internet firms and on educating consumers about their rights.为了平复此事,最终Naver拿出1000亿韩元来进行对小型互联网公司的赞助,以及对消费者权益进行推广,从而说了委员会取消罚款计划。Naver responds to all this by arguing that users still have a choice of portals:Naver对以上种种指控,则回应用户依然能够选择自己要使用的门户:when a nude of a Korean singer went online last November, visits to Google spiked because Naver had blocked it.去年十一月,当一个韩国歌手的裸体视频被发到网上,由于Naver屏蔽了该视频,谷歌的浏览量随之急剧攀升。Naver also says it is itself suffering unfair conditions in the mobile market, because 90% of South Korean smartphones run on Googles Android operating system, which offers Google as the default search engine.与此同时,Naver还声称在移动终端市场里,自己才是遭受到不平等竞争的一方:韩国90%的智能手机使用的都是由谷歌公司开发的安卓系统,这意味着谷歌能够以默认搜索引擎这一方式来攻占移动搜索市场。Despite this, Google has only 15% of the mobile search market.但尽管如此,谷歌现在仅占有15%的移动搜索市场份额。Go abroad, go mobile走向国际,走向移动A bigger threat is KakaoTalk, a mobile platform and messaging app that, like Naver, offers games, e-books, photo storage and other services, launched in 2010 by a founder of Naver who left the firm. South Koreans now spend more time on it than they do on Naver.还有个更大的威胁是来自一款移动平台和即时通讯软件KakaoTalk。就像Naver一样,KakaoTalk也提供了游戏、电子阅读、照片储存以及一些其他务。这是一款由Naver其中一位创始人离职后在2010年所推出的产品。目前,韩国人在KakaoTalk的使用时长上,已经压倒了Naver。KakaoTalks domestic success spurred Naver to go abroad and go mobile.KakaoTalk在国内市场的成功,促使着Naver要走向国际,以及走向移动。When a tsunami hit Japan in 2011, Navers employees there huddled at the office and, in one-and-a-half months, created Line, a free mobile messaging and call service that is now being promoted as the Facebook of Asia.2011年日本受到海啸袭击之时,Naver的员工们在办公室里齐心协力,前后花了一个半月的时间最终开发出了一款免费移动通信软件,也就是如今被人推为亚洲Facebook的Line。Within 18 months it hit the 100m-user mark, which took Facebook and Twitter around four years; in November 2013 it surpassed 300m downloads, making it a serious rival for WhatsApp, an American messaging service Facebook is paying billion for.Facebook与Twitter花了四年时间才累积到了100万名用户,而Line在18个月内就完成了这项指标;在2013年11月里,Line获得了超过300万次的下载,而这则令其成为了WhatsApp的强劲对手。If, as Mr Park predicts, Naver owes half of its revenue to Line in five years, it will have become one of Koreas few global players among internet firms.正如帕克先生所预言的,如果Naver能在五年内令Line的收入攀升至集团总收入的一半,那么它将成为少数能在国际市场上分一杯羹的韩国互联网公司。However, Navers shares fell sharply on February 20th, after Facebook announced its takeover of WhatsApp—on the assumption that the social networks backing would make WhatsApp impossible to beat.然而在Facebook宣布了其对WhatsApp的并购之后,2月20日当天Naver的股价严重下挫。Navers shares recovered this week on rumours, which it denied, that a big Japanese tech firm, Softbank, was offering to buy a stake in Line.这正是基于外界的猜测:有了社交网络的持后,WhatsApp将成为一个无法击败巨人。由于传闻称日本科技巨头软银将入股Line,本周Naver的股价有所回升,但Naver方面否认了这一消息。Navers early attempts to get into big foreign markets went badly.Naver早前拓展海外市场的尝试均以失败告终。Plans aired in for a Naver California and a Naver Korean-American never took off.年,公司计划的两个项目Naver之攻陷加州和Naver之美韩联合从未得到执行。Another big rival to Line, WeChat, is the most popular messaging app in China and, like KakaoTalk, is backed by Tencent, Asias biggest internet firm.Line的另一位强劲对手则是微信,这款软件与KakaoTalk一样有着全亚洲最大的互联网公司—腾讯的持,而且目前微信早已成为了中国市场中最热门的即时通讯软件。So Naver is concentrating on two smaller countries where Line aly has a foothold, Thailand and Taiwan, and on places where smartphone use is low but set to boom, such as India and Mexico.因此Naver在重心转移到了自己先前进行市场开发过的两个较小的国家和地区—泰国和台湾,以及一些智能手机普及率低但即将有爆炸性增长的国家和地区如印度和墨西哥。In the past year it has spent around 250 billion won on marketing its messaging app in these and other countries.过去几年中,Naver已经在上述的和其他的一些国家地区花费了约2500亿韩元来推广自己的即时通讯软件。But Navers real strength abroad, says Mr Park, is its decade of experience in the portal business, doing everything from games to shopping to online newspapers.但帕克先生表示,在海外市场中,Naver真正的优势在于其长年累月的门户网站业务经验—他的无所不能包含了从游戏到网络购物到线上报纸新闻的所有务。Line can do all these too, whereas WhatsApp is, until Facebook gets its hands on it, mainly a messaging service.Line也能够做到上述一切。相比之下,在Facebook接管之前WhatsApp仅仅只是一个即时通讯应用。Facebook still relies heavily on advertising, but Line makes 70% of its money from games and electronic stickers—oversize and elaborate emoticons, with names such as Cony the Rabbit and Brown the Bear, which users can insert into picture messages.现在Facebook的收入仍十分依赖于广告业务,但Line已经从游戏和电子贴图业务中赚取了70%的利润。该软件的电子贴图是特大号的精美表情符号,且不同的表情符号有各自的人物和名字,例如可妮兔和布朗熊。用户可以通过图片信息的方式发送电子贴图。Coca-Cola and Barcelona football club have paid Line to design special stickers for them.可口可乐公司与巴萨足球俱乐部已经向Line公司付款并要求其制作专属自己的贴图。It is unclear if smartphone users in Europe and America will warm to such cutesy characters, but Naver hopes to draw those wary of Facebooks open network to Line Band, a closed social-networking service.目前还无法确定欧美的智能手机用户们是否会接受如此可爱的卡通人物,但Naver方面希望能将对Facebook的开放性心存疑虑的使用者吸引过来,让他们到自己旗下更具私密性的社交网络平台Line Band上互动。Though Mr Park expects Lines valuation to converge with that of Facebook in the long term, for now it is tiny by comparison—about 9% the size.虽然帕克先生期望Line的估值能从长远角度看追上Facebook,但两者对比起来Line的规模还是非常小-大约是后者的9%。Nevertheless, in 2010 Navers founder, Lee Hae-jin, chided employees for slacking and reminded them of their companys master plan: a first decade struggling; a second decade, marching to number one.尽管如此,Naver的创始人李海珍在2010年鞭策着员工们,提醒着他们公司有着宏大的目标:头十年里努力奋斗;在第二个十年内,走向世界之巅。 /201403/278075

The Americas美洲Paraguays new president巴拉圭的新总统Cartes plays his cards卡特高明的手段Trickle-down economics in one of South Americas poorest countries南美最穷一国的滴流经济学IN OCTOBER claims surfaced that Victor Bogado, a Paraguayan senator, had arranged two lucrative public jobs for his childrens nanny.十月宣言浮出水面, 巴拉圭的参议院议长柏佳都,为其孩子的保姆安排了两项有利可图的公共工作。A few weeks later 23 of his peers—a majority—voted against stripping him of the immunity from criminal proceedings that Paraguayan legislators enjoy.几周后,23位同僚,大多数反对剥夺巴拉圭立法者所享有的豁免刑事程序。Instead of going unnoticed in a country where political clientelism has long been the norm, the story sparked outrage.按理说国家出现政治上的庇护很正常可被忽略,反而故事引起了更多的愤怒。Restaurants, petrol stations and beauty salons in the capital, Asuncion, put up signs naming the 23 shameless rats, and barring them as customers.首都亚松森的餐馆,汽车加油站以及美容沙龙,公然张贴了广告名为23只不知羞耻的老鼠,禁止他们进店消费。Two weeks later a senate committee overruled the vote for immunity.两周后,参议院委员会豁免视此种行为属于无效选票。The case of the golden nanny is part of a wider citizen revolt against political corruption.金牌保姆的事件只是更多市民参与反对政治腐败的一部分。In October the Supreme Court ruled that Daniel Vargas, a radio host, had the right to know the names and salaries of municipal employees.十月份,最高法院判定电视台节目主持人丹尼尔·巴尔加斯,有权知道市政雇员的名字和他们的薪酬。Six years earlier listeners had asked him to investigate; he went to court after being stonewalled.早在6年前听众让其去调查,他在受阻后上了法庭。Without public pressure the Supreme Court would never have dared to move against Congress, says his lawyer, Benjamín Fernandez.若没有了公共压力,最高法院将绝不敢反对议会,他的律师本杰明·费尔南德兹说道。Rather than obliging citizens to seek the information piecemeal, Paraguays new president, Horacio Cartes, told public bodies to publish it, though many are dragging their feet.而不是为了使有责任心的公众获取的是零碎的信息,巴拉圭的新任总统奥拉西奥·卡尔特,告诉公众去惩治此事,尽管许多人不愿意合作。Mr Cartes, a tobacco magnate, is a political neophyte who only joined the Colorado party in order to run for office in Aprils general election.卡尔特先生,烟草巨头,也是一名政治新秀,仅为科罗拉多党成员参加了四月普选。The Colorados held power for 60 years, 35 as a notoriously corrupt dictatorship, before losing in 2008 to Fernando Lugo, a former bishop whose left-Liberal alliance promised to redistribute land and cut poverty.科罗拉多党执政60年来,臭名昭著的腐败独裁者多达35名,于2008年失败于巴拉圭领导人费尔南多·卢戈,前任大主教,左倾自由主义联盟承诺重新分配土地以及治理贫穷。In power Mr Lugo turned out to be weak and politically inept.手握重权的卢戈不过是一名懦弱的笨拙的当政者。After an unfairly abrupt, though constitutional, impeachment his Liberal vice-president, Federico Franco, replaced him in 2012. Lacking a strong internal candidate, the Colorados plumped for Mr Cartes.尽管是合乎宪法的,他遭到了有失偏颇的突如其来的弹劾,副总统费德里科·弗朗哥于2012年取代了他。由于缺乏强大的内部候选人,科罗拉多政党选中了卡尔特先生。Many assumed the new president would be his partys puppet.许多人设想新任总统将会是其政党的傀儡。Does his support for the anti-corruption fight show that the Colorados got more than they bargained for?他反腐政策表明了科罗拉多意味着他们会获得比他们要求的更多。On taking office in August, Mr Cartes named technically able outsiders to his cabinet and passed a fiscal-responsibility law limiting budget growth to 4% above inflation and the deficit to no more than 1.5% of GDP.自从8月入职以来,卡特尔先生技巧性的给其内阁以外的人,并通过了一项财政法律限制其预算增长到4%通货膨胀以及财政赤字不高于国民生产总值的1.5%。Since most spending goes on wages, that will squeeze patronage.因为大多数花销都用于付薪酬,那将会丧失庇护。A new law will allow the executive to auction infrastructure concessions without having to get approval from Congress, where the Colorado old guard holds sway.新法将允许行政人员拍卖基础性设施让步,而无须得到由科罗拉多一股老保守派统治的议会的批准。Some waterways should be auctioned in months, says Jose Molinas, a former World Bank official who is now minister of planning.一些水道应该在近几个月内拍卖,Jose Molinas,前任世界的官员现任规划部部长。Landlocked Paraguay relies on rivers to get its vast soya and beef exports to market. Intercity roads will follow.被陆地包围的巴拉圭依靠河运来出口大量的豆类与牛肉。城市间的道路的处理也随之而来。A law providing for disputes between government and concession-holders to be settled by international arbitration is planned for 2014.一项解决政府以及让步性之间的争端将有国际仲裁部于2014年开启。The economy is predicted to have grown by 13.6% in 2013.2013年经济被预测已经增长了13.6%,But that is mainly because of a bumper soya harvest after drought saw GDP shrink by 1.2% in 2012.但是这主要是因为2012年国民生产总值减少了1.2%在豆制品丰收后。Paraguay is one of South Americas most unequal countries.巴拉圭是南美最不公平的国家之一,A third of its people are poor and 18% extremely so, while 6% of farms occupy 85% of farmland.大约三分之一的人们贫穷,18%极端贫穷,仅有6%的农场就占据了85%的耕地。Though Mr Lugo failed to reform landholding, partly because of opposition in Congress, he did introduce modest handouts for the poorest.尽管卢戈进行私人性质耕地的改革失败,部分原因是因为议会的反对,他确实为最穷苦的人给予了最简单的救济品。Mr Franco brought in an income tax, albeit at just 10% for the highest earners.弗朗哥先生引进了收入税,尽管对收入最高的富人只征收10%的税收。Mr Cartes, too, promises to cut poverty and create a fairer society.卡特尔先生,也承诺消减贫困,创造一个相对公平的社会。But his plans rely less on redistribution than on wooing foreign capital.但是他的计划过度依靠借助外资而不是资源的重新分配重组。He has ceaselessly plugged the opportunities offered by the coming infrastructure auctions, Paraguays abundant land, cheap labour, light-touch regulation—and, of course, low taxes.他执着于接洽即将到来的基础设施的拍卖,如巴拉圭的富饶的耕地,廉价劳动力,温和管理模式,当然,还有低税收。He vetoed a levy on the export of soyabeans, the economys mainstay.他决定对豆类的出口进行征税,社会经济的主要来源。A rise in land taxes is the only one planned.耕地税的增长是唯一按照计划进行的,He sometimes strikes an off-key note, as when he told Uruguayan businessmen that Paraguay aimed to be easy, like a beautiful woman.有时候他的做派不是很合理,比如当他告诉乌拉圭商人巴拉圭头脑简单,就像一个徒有其表的美女。But he has swiftly restored ties with Mercosur, a regional bloc from which Paraguay was suspended after the ousting of Mr Lugo.但是他很快恢复了与南方共同市场,自卢戈被驱逐后,受人怀疑的巴拉圭所在的区域集团。Mr Cartes has secured its mission, partly by persuading Congress to ratify Venezuelas admission to the group.卡特尔先生保了巴拉圭重新获得认可,部分原因是因为说了议会来修正委内瑞拉的入市资格。Its in Paraguays interests to be back inside Mercosur, he says. I dont want to waste my presidency on fights.他说道:这返回南共市是巴拉圭的利益,我不想把时间浪费在争夺总统之位上面。In Brazil strident calls for land reform faded when growth boosted jobs and salaries in cities.在巴西疯狂叫嚣耕地改革的呼声已经褪去,当时城市工作岗位以及薪水均已经增长。But even if Mr Cartess brand of trickle-down economics shows promise, many obstacles remain.但是即使卡特尔模式的滴流经济学表态承诺实施,但是仍然困难重重。Paraguay lacks the skilled workers to build all the promised infrastructure.巴拉圭缺乏技术工人来建造所有的承诺过的基础设施。And the Colorado old guard will surely regroup. They are giving me time, says Mr Cartes.科罗拉多老保守派势力势必会重组。If I deliver results itll be fine. He is counting on people power and openness to maintain momentum.他们给予了我时间卡特尔先生说道,如果我传达了结果,事态将会好些。People get used to things getting better. If you give them improvements they wont want to go back.他依靠人民大众的力量,公开保持这种势头。人们已经习惯了越来越好,如果你改善了他们的生活,他们将不想倒退回去。 201401/271645

Business商业报道EU telecoms regulation欧盟电信规制Kroes control克洛伊持大局The digital commissioner proposes a single market to speed up Europe数字委员会提出单一市场来加速欧洲电信网络EUROPE wasnt always a digital laggard.欧洲也不总是一个数字界落后者,Its telecoms operators were far quicker than Americas to build 3G mobile-telecoms networks.就拿建立3G手机电信网络来说,欧洲的电信营业商比美国的要快很多,Nokia once made the worlds coolest mobile phones.且诺基亚也曾生产过世界最酷的手机。But the old continent has fallen behind. Only a quarter of the European Unions people have access to new 4G networks, according to the European Commission.只是古老的欧洲大陆还是落后了。据欧委会信息,欧盟内仅有四分之一国民能使用4G网络。In America a single company, Verizon, reaches nine out of ten.而美国的威瑞森电信,其电信网络的覆盖率达到十分之九。South Koreas broadband speeds leave Europe standing.韩国的宽带速度也远超欧洲。Apple and Samsung make todays palmfuls of desire.苹果,三星促使了今天人们对于网速的渴求。Neelie Kroes, the commissioner overseeing Europes digital agenda, thinks crisper connectivity would be a boon not just for the EUs telecoms industry and its consumers but for the unions entire economy, from transport to health care.欧洲的数字议程由欧委会委员尼莉叶·克洛伊监管着,她认为较弱的连接不仅对欧盟电信行业和其使用者有好处,整个欧盟的经济,从运输到医疗都能受益。On September 11th Ms Kroes published a plan, in the shape of a draft regulation, to bring Europe up to speed.9月11日,克洛伊女士以草案形式拟出一项提议来加速欧洲电信网络,The regulation is subject to approval by both the European Parliament and the Council of Ministers.并得到了欧洲议会和部长理事会的认可。Ms Kroes proposes a single market in an industry that still runs on national lines.克洛伊女士提议以务国内线路为主,在通信行业内实行单一市场。Plenty of operators serve several EU countries.在欧洲,大量的电信运行商同时为几个欧盟国家务,But none operates in more than half of the 28 states, each of which has its own regulator and rules.但是对于欧盟里,拥有自己规章制度的28个国家,没有哪一个运行商的客户国超过一半。The prices that network owners may charge competitors to rent copper wires vary by a factor of three.网络持有者对竞争者们网线收费价格的变动受三个因素的影响,Spectrum prices for 4G vary by a factor of 50.4G的光谱价格的变动因素增加到4倍,Retail prices differ widely too.零售价格也大不相同。Europeans pay extra to make calls to other EU countries or to use their phones abroad.欧洲人打垮国电话或者在国外使用手机都会被收取额外费用。Many travellers turn off data roaming to avoid being stung.许多游客会选择关闭漫游以避免额外收费。The commissioner wants to make it easier for telecoms operators to enter new markets.克洛伊希望能让电信运营商进入新的市场变得简单一点,A license in one country should be good in all.一个国家的许可也能够在他国通用。Future allocations of spectrum should be standardised,to make a pan-European business easier to plan.将来光谱的配给应标准化,以使泛欧洲商业能简单计划,Regulators should also facilitate sharing and trading of spectrum.而监管者也需帮助光谱的分享和交易。But the idea is not to favour entry regardless of all else.但是这个构想不是偏好某一项而不顾其他。To encourage investment in fast fibre-optic broadband,Ms Kroes recommends stabilising the prices that incumbent operators can charge entrants for renting older, slower copper wires.为了鼓励在以光导纤维为主体的快速宽带的投资,克洛伊女士建议增加现有运行商对新入网者在租用更老,更慢网线的费用。If fees are too low, entrants will undercut the whizzy new networks.如果费用过低,新入网者就会减少使用新网络的人。For consumers, the most eye-catching proposal is to scrap roaming fees, as Ms Kroes has long wanted to do.对使用者而言,提议中最吸引眼球的就是免掉漫游费,这也是克洛伊女士一直希望看到的。Operators will be encouraged to allow them to roam like at home—paying nothing extra for data or calls when they are abroad.运营商受到鼓励,允许那些游客像在国内一样使用网络,不会因为漫游或者跨国电话而被多收费。Companies with such deals will escape another rule, obliging them to let customers use another provider when they travel.而采取了本项提议的公司也免除了另外一项制度,即使用者在旅游时不必更换运营商。Calls from home to other EU countries will be charged at domestic rates.跨国电话也将按国内标准收费。Ms Kroes also says she will protect net neutrality.克洛伊女士还表示,她会保护网络中立,By this she means banning operators from blocking services, as some mobile firms do to internet voice calls, for example.也就是说,禁止运营商妨碍务,就像有些手机公司对网络语音通话所做的。But she will allow operators to charge more for better service, such as higher speed.但是对于更好地务,运营商可以收取更高费用,例如,更快的网速。This is also a thorny subject in America:这也是美国电讯通信的一大痛:lawyers for Verizon and the Federal Communications Commission, a regulator, had a preliminary skirmish in court this week.本周,威瑞森电信的律师代表跟监管机构,联邦通信委员会在法庭发生小争执。Consumers will doubtless be delighted at not having to fork out for checking e-mail or consulting online maps whenever they cross a border.毫无疑问,使用者会很开心,无论什么时候出国查收e-mail或者翻阅网络地图,也不用付费了。Mobile operators are grumbling at that. Incumbent broadband firms should like the copper-price idea.移动运营商却是对此有些牢骚,而现有的宽带公司应该是喜欢铜线方案的。Ms Kroes is right that Europes telecoms markets are too fragmented.对于欧洲电讯通信行业的碎片性,克洛伊女士的观点很正确,But pan-European licensing may not help much.但是泛欧洲许可并不能起很大作用。Most operators and analysts think that mergers inside borders are a likelier route.大部分运营商和分析家认为,更有可能实行国内合并这一方案。Several deals have been agreed or mooted in recent months, notably in Germany where, if regulators allow Telefónica of Spain to buy Dutch-owned e-Plus, the number of mobile operators will be reduced from four to three.近几个月来,一些观点已经获得同意或者提出了,尤其是在德国,如果德国的监管机构允许西班牙电信购买荷兰持有的e,那么移动运营商的数目会有4减少到3。In more concentrated markets Europes operators would probably be more profitable.在更加集中的市场,欧洲的运营商很可能获利,That, they argue, would give them the incentive to build the infrastructure Europes politicians demand.有人分析说,这是因为在这样的市场氛围里,运营商会更加有动力去建立基础的欧洲政治家们的需求。The snag is that this might mean higher prices, too: Americans may have faster networks, but they pay a lot more.但问题是,这也意味着更高价格。美国人能拥有更快的网络,但是他们付的也更多,On that, Europes regulators are likely to be much less keen.欧洲监管机构不太可能喜欢这种方式。 /201309/256725

Disillusioned office workers幻灭的上班族Chinas losers中国失败者Amid sping prosperity, a generation of self-styled also-rans emerges繁荣之中产生的“失败”一代Man wearing suit on escalator自动扶梯上的穿西装者ZHU GUANG, a 25-year-old product tester, projects casual cool in his red Adidas jacket and canvas shoes. He sports the shadowy wisps of a moustache and goatee, as if he has the ambition to grow a beard but not the ability. On paper he is one of the millions of up-and-coming winners of the Chinese economy: a university graduate, the only child of factory workers in Shanghai, working for Lenovo, one of Chinas leading computer-makers.25岁的朱广是个产品测试员,红色的阿迪达斯夹克和帆布鞋显出他的随性。他的嘴唇和下巴上都留着稀疏的几缕胡子,似乎是想长一圈络腮胡子却没得逞。按理说,他是中国经济中千百万个有前途的成功者之一:他是大学毕业生,上海工人家庭的独子,并在中国最大的电脑制造商联想公司上班。But Mr Zhu considers himself a loser, not a winner. He earns 4,000 yuan a month after tax and says he feels like a faceless drone at work. He eats at the office canteen and goes home at night to a rented, 20-square-metre room in a shared flat, where he plays online games. He does not have a girlfriend or any prospect of finding one. “Lack of confidence”, he explains when asked why not. Like millions of others, he mockingly calls himself, in evocative modern street slang, a diaosi, the term for a loser that literally translates as “male pubic hair”. Figuratively it is a declaration of powerlessness in an economy where it is getting harder for the regular guy to succeed. Calling himself by this derisive nickname is a way of crying out, “like Gandhi”, says Mr Zhu, only partly in jest. “It is a quiet form of protest.”然而朱认为自己是个失败者。他的税后工资只是每月4,000元,并说自己工作时就像个没人注意的机器。通常,他在公司食堂吃饭,晚上就回到自己在合租公寓里租的20平米大的小房间玩网络游戏。他没有女友,也并不想找一个。“没信心啊”,当被问到为什么不找时,他这样回答。和千百万人一样,他戏称自己是“屌丝”,一个表示失败者的街头俚语,本义是“男性的yin毛”。它形象地表达出了这个经济体中那些越来越难获得成功的普通人的无力感。以这个称谓自嘲是一种发出呼声的方式,“就像甘地”,朱并只是在开玩笑,“这是一种无声的反抗。”Calling yourself a diaosi has also become a proud statement of solidarity with the masses against the perceived corruption of the wealthy. The word itself entered the language only recently, appealing to office grunts across the country, especially in the IT industry. A mostly male species, diaosi are often daydreamers with poor social skills and an obsession with online gaming. They are slightly different from Japans marriage-shunning “herbivore” young men in that fewer of them have chosen their station in life. Society has chosen it for them, especially with property prices climbing well beyond their reach. Several recent studies show that, while incomes across Chinese society continue to rise, social mobility has worsened. Yi Chen of Nanjing Audit University and Frank A. Cowell of the London School of Economics found that, since 2000, people at the bottom of society were more likely than in the 1990s to stay where they were. “China has become more rigid,” they conclude.自称屌丝已经成了宣称自己是和社会中的大多数一样厌恶富裕群体腐败行为的方式。这个词语最近才出现,最初来自于办公室的闲聊,尤其是IT这个多数工作者都是男性的行业。屌丝通常指那些缺乏社交能力、沉迷网络游戏还老做白日梦的人。他们和日本那些不愿结婚的“食草族”略有不同,极少数食草男已经选择了生活方式。但社会已经为屌丝们作出了选择,尤其是高速上涨的房价让他们根本无法触及。近期的几次调查显示,尽管中国社会的平均工资持续上涨,但社会流动性却进一步恶化了。南京审计学院的易辰(音)和伦敦政治经济学院的弗兰克·A·康维尔(Frank A. Cowell)发现,同上世纪90年代相比,2000年以后的社会底层群体停留在这个地位上的可能性更大。“中国社会已经变得更加僵化了。”他们总结到。An online sketch show, “Diaosi Man”, shown on Sohu.com, an internet portal, mercilessly mocks the tribe. Since its debut in 2012, the shows episodes have been streamed more than 1.5 billion times. In one recent episode a man tries to impress his beautiful dinner date with how busy he is at his job. He then receives a phone call from work, apologetically takes his leave to go to the office and finally pops up again as a waiter when his date asks for the bill. In the same episode a frustrated new driver curses repeatedly at a Lamborghini in the next lane and screams, “Are you bullying me because I dont know any traffic cops?” In the next scene he is in a neck brace and his nose is broken.门户网站搜狐的网络剧集《屌丝男士》无情地嘲讽着这一群体。自2012首播以来,这部剧集已经被浏览了15亿次。最近一集中,某男想向跟他约会吃饭的美女炫耀他的工作有多忙。然后,他接到了一个工作电话并抱歉地返回了办公室,结果在美女结账时却又现身了——原来他是个务员。同一集中,一个沮丧的新手驾驶员在向隔壁车道的兰基尼不停地叫骂,并大叫道:“你欺负我就因为我不认识交警吗?”到了下一个场景里,他已经带上了脖套,鼻子也受伤了。Mr Zhu says what makes him a diaosi is that he is the son of factory workers. He is not fu er dai—second-generation rich—or guan er dai—the son of powerful government officials. He and his diaosi colleagues feel that, with connections or cash, they might have attended a better university and found a better job.朱说自己变成屌丝是因为自己只是工人的儿子。他不是富二代或者官二代,爹妈不是富人也不是大官。他和屌丝同事们都觉得,如果有关系或者有钱的话,他们就能上更好的大学,并找到更好的工作。With after-tax income of nearly ,000 a year, Mr Zhu would look to many people in China comfortably on his way to the middle class. He is among the lower wage-earners at Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park in Shanghai, but even many higher earners call themselves diaosi, or refer to themselves as “IT labourers”. Though their salaries are above average even in Shanghai—which had Chinas third-highest annual urban disposable income per person in 2012 at 40,000 yuan—the cost of appearing successful is stratospheric. A fancy flat and a cool car are well beyond their reach. They are wage slaves who cannot hope to be gao fu shuai—tall, rich and handsome—and marry a woman who is bai fu mei—fair-skinned, rich and beautiful.有着8,000美金税后年薪的朱和许多人一样想成为中产阶级。他的工资在上海张江高科技园区并不算高,但很多收入更高的人也自称“屌丝”或者“码农”。虽然他们的工资甚至超过了上海平均工资,2012年上海的城市人均可配年收入达到了40,000元。想要看起来成功的代价非常高。他们永远买不起那些豪车洋房。他们只是工资的奴隶,成不了高富帅也娶不上白富美。This might seem quite normal for a rapidly developing economy. But Zhang Yi, a sociologist at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, a government think-tank in Beijing, says this diaosi feeling of relative deprivation is a troubling consequence of Chinas growing wealth gap. In an interview devoted to the subject for the website of Phoenix Television, a Hong Kong satellite network, Mr Zhang concluded that people at the bottom feel utterly alienated. They feel less hopeful than they did before of ever moving up in life, he said.对快速发展的经济体来说,这个现象似乎相当正常。然而中国社会科学院的张翼却认为,屌丝之所以会感到相对贫困化是中国日益增长的贫富差距的结果,令人感到担忧。在香港卫星电视台凤凰卫视网站一次关于这个话题的采访中,张翼总结说,底层人群怀着极强的疏离感。他说,相比以前,现如今的这些人认为改善个人境遇更加无望。In spite of this, however, they do still represent a marketing opportunity. There are, after all, many more of them than there are millionaires, even though it can be difficult to define the target market. At Dianping, a website offering restaurant reviews and consumer deals, Schubert You targets very low-wage workers in smaller cities (earning about 0 to 0 a month) with coupons and group discounts. Mr You does not consider the IT workers of Shanghai and Beijing to be true diaosi.尽管如此,屌丝群体依然是一个巨大的市场。虽然这个群体很难定位,但他们的数量比起百万富翁要多得多。来自大众点评网的Schubert You用优惠券和团购折扣来打动小城市的低收入工作者。You并不认为北京和上海的IT工作者真的就是屌丝。But surveys show they believe they are. Last year Analysys International, a research company in Beijing, asked a broad cross-section of office workers if they saw themselves as diaosi. More than 90% of programmers and journalists and about 80% of food and service industry and marketing workers said they did. Those surveyed who least identified with being losers were civil servants, working for the government or the Communist Party.不过调查显示这部分人自己倒是很确信。去年,位于北京的研究公司易观国际调查了不同层次的上班族,询问他们是否认为自己是屌丝。90%以上的程序员和记者,大约80%的食品、务行业以及销售人员都给出了肯定的。受访者中自认为是失败者的比率最低的人群是公务员,那些为政府或是其党派工作的人。 201405/297471

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