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2017年12月12日 14:42:15来源:时空知识

世界末日:人类只有一年时间来应对超级火山喷发 -- 18::5 来源: 美国科学家通过对加州史前超级火山的研究,发现超级火山一旦要喷发时,人类可能只有一年的时间来逃命 If a super-eruption were to occur, the blast would launch enough ash into the atmosphere to disrupt weather years to follow, potentially causing famine, health crisis, and global civil unrest.如果一座超级火山即将喷发,那么爆炸将喷射出足够多的火山灰到大气之中,从而扰乱接下来多年的天气,有可能会造成饥荒、健康危机和全球动乱And leading up to the catastrophic event, the world would have just one year to prepare.而在迎来这一悲惨事件之前,人类仅仅只有一年的时间来准备应对Researchers have determined this based on a microscopic analysis of quartz crystals in pumice from the Bishop Tuff in Calinia, the site of a super-eruption 760,000 years ago.通过对加利福尼亚主教凝灰岩(76万年前此地曾发生过一场超级火山喷发)浮石中的石英晶体进行显微分析,研究者们确定了这一结论The ancient super-eruption in eastern Calinia med the Long Valley Caldera – a feature that is nearly miles long and miles wide.古代东加尼福利亚这场超级火山喷发形成了长谷火山口--约英里长,英里宽In the study, the researchers from Vanderbilt University and the University of Chicago analyzed dozens of small quartz crystals, remnants from the original underground magma, from the Bishop Tuff.在这项研究中,来自范德堡大学和芝加哥大学的研究者们分析了几十块小石英晶体,这些石英晶体采自主教凝灰岩,是地下岩浆喷射而出后的残余物质Quartz crystals have distinctive rims, they explain in a paper published to the journal Plos One, and are rich in titanium.研究者们在《Plos One期刊上发表了一篇论文,解释说这些石英晶体有不同的轮辋,并且富含钛Along with this, they are bright in cathodoluminescence, which allowed them to make high-resolution measurements of variation in the titanium, providing detailed insight on the transition from pre-eruptive crystallization to the decompression and crystallization at the time of the blast.除此之外,这些石英晶体还被置于阴极射线的照射下,从而使得研究者们可以得到钛物质变动的高精确测量,进而可以详细地观察到喷发前的晶体减压、在爆炸时结晶的转化过程This analysis helped to determine rim growth times and growth rates – revealing that these processes largely occurred in a span of less than a year.这项分析能够帮助确定轮辋的生长时间和生长率--而分析结果显示,这些过程大部分都发送在不到一年的时间里‘Maximum rim growth times span from approximately 1 minute to 35 years, with a median of approximately days,’ the authors wrote.作者们写道:“大部分轮辋的生长时间都在约1分钟到35年之间,其中中位数大约是天”‘More than 70 percent of rim growth times are less than 1 year, showing that quartz rims have mostly grown in the days to months prior to eruption...“超过70%轮辋的生长时间不足1年,这表明石英轮辋生长的时间大多截止到超级火山喷发前几个月…’Growth took place under conditions of high supersaturation suggesting that rim growth marks the onset of decompression and the transition from pre-eruptive to syn-eruptive conditions.’“轮辋生长只会发生在高度饱和的情况下,这表明轮辋的生长记录下了减压的开始时间,以及从爆发前到爆发时的情况变化”It takes tens of thousands of years the crust to generate enough eruptible magma, but once med, these unstable magma bodies only last centuries to a few millennia.地壳聚集足够喷发的岩浆需要数万年的时间,但是一旦准备完毕,这些不稳定的岩浆体就只会在地壳内存在几百年到几千年的时间As the decompression occurs, the magma body would likely be expanding as well, having detectable effects at the surface.一旦减压作用发生,岩浆体就有可能膨胀,并在地表产生明显的影响。

  • 打屁股考核员工引热议 -- :: 来源: 长治漳泽农商员工因在培训当中的表现不佳而被当众大屁股的视频出现在网络上,引起网民愤怒 A has surfaced online showing staff at a Chinese bank being publicly spanked poor permance during a training session, sparking outrage.中国一家的员工因在培训当中的表现不佳而被当众打屁股的视频出现在网络上,引起网民愤怒The , first posted by the People’s Daily, shows a trainer asking eight employees why they did not "exceed themselves" at training.该视频最初由人民日报刊登,视频显示了培训者问8名员工,为什么他们没有在培训当中“超越自己”He then spanks them with what looks like a stick. Reports say he later also cut and shaved their hair.然后培训者用貌似一根棍子的东西打他们的屁股报道说其后他还剪了他们的头发The incident took place at a training session more than 0 employees at Changzhi Zhangze Rural Commercial Bank in northern China on Saturday.该事件发生在周六,长治漳泽农村商业0多名员工的内部培训上The trainer, Jiang Yang, has issued an apology, saying the spanking was "a training model I have tried years" and had not been instigated by executives at the bank.培训者姜洋已道歉,称打屁股是“我使用了多年的培训模式”,从未被该的管理者调查过The , which first surfaced on Monday, appears to have been taken by someone in the audience on a smartphone.该视频于周日被传出,看上去像是观众用手机拍摄的Mr Jiang is seen reprimanding eight bank employees on stage, asking them why they received the lowest scores in a training exercise.视频中,姜洋训斥台上的8名员工,质问他们为什么在培训中获得低分The employees give answers including "failing to make a personal breakthrough", "I did not co-operate with colleagues" and "I lacked courage.”这些员工的回答包括“个人突破失败”,“我没有和同事配合”以及“我缺乏勇气”等Mr Jiang then says "get your butts y" and proceeds to spank them with what appears to be a thick piece of wood.然后姜洋说“屁股准备好了”,接着用厚木板打他们的屁股It shows at least four rounds of spanking, with one woman recoiling each time, apparently in pain.视频显示他打了四轮,每一轮中一位女员工都因疼痛而退缩At one point, that women places her hands over her behind, but is told to "take your hand off".到了有一刻,这个女员工双手盖着屁股,但被警告说“把手拿开”The spanking was followed by a "hair cutting punishment", a statement (in Chinese) by the Changzhi local government said.打完屁股后,接着是“剪头发惩罚”,长治当地政府的一份(中文)声明说Chinese media reports said the men had their heads shaved, while the women had their hair cut.中国媒体报道说男员工的头发被剃光,女员工则被剪短发According to the statement, the Shanxi Rural Credit Co-operatives Union, which regulates the bank, has set up a group to investigate the incident.据声明说,管理该的山西农村信用社联合社调动了一组人员调查该事件The bank’s chairman and deputy governor had been suspended "failing to strictly check the content of the course", the regulator said, while the bank would help the employees seek compensation from the training company.该董事长和副行长因“没有严格检查课程内容”而被免职,将帮助员工向培训公司寻求赔偿,该事件监管者称Mr Jiang has issued a apology, and said the spanking had "nothing to do" with the leaders at the bank. Such rumours "had severely harmed his clients and the leaders" at the bank, he added.姜洋发布了一个道歉视频,称打屁股的行为和领导“毫无关系”这些流言“严重伤害了他在的客户和领导”,他说道People online have been expressing outrage over the treatment of staff.网民表达了员工受到如此待遇的愤慨"Since when does beating employees become a way of raising permance?" one user asked on Sina Weibo, a Twitter-like microblog used in China.“什么时候殴打员工成为提升业绩的方法的?”新浪微一位用户说Another user said he was dissatisfied because he felt Mr Jiang had focused on apologising to the banking executives.另外一位用户说他感到不满,因为他认为姜洋的道歉是被管理层逼迫的"In his apology, he kept emphasising that he had hurt the leadership at Changzhi Zhangze Rural Commercial Bank! He spanked the employees, but apologised to the leadership? What sort of logic is this?"“在他的道歉视频中,他强调说他伤害了长治漳泽农商的领导层!他打了员工,却对领导层道歉?这是什么逻辑?”。
  • 希拉里计划向奥巴马寻求竞选帮助 -- 1:: 来源: 目前,希拉里·克林顿计划依靠现任总统奥巴马,望其能在他受欢迎的竞选州为自己赢得持 Hillary Clinton plans to rely on President Barack Obama to campaign her in states where he’s likely to do well, a White House official told CNN Saturday.周六一名白宫官员告诉CNN,希拉里·克林顿计划依靠现任总统奥巴马,望其能在他受欢迎的竞选州为自己赢得持Obama, who endorsed Clinton president on Thursday, plans to do most of the campaigning on his own. He will travel to white suburbs in the Rust Belt and the Midwest and will campaign in African-American commies in North Carolina, Virginia and other swing states the presumptive Democratic nominee.上周四,奥巴马公开宣布持希拉里成为美国总统,并计划亲自参加大部分的竞选活动他将会去往美国铁锈地带(美国重工业衰退地区)和中西部的白人郊区与此同时,他还会前往北卡莱罗纳州、弗吉尼亚州以及其他“摇摆州”的非裔美国人社区进行竞选活动,寻求他们对民主党提名人的持The New York Times first reported Obama’s campaign plans.纽约时报最先报道了奥巴马的竞选协助计划Obama and Clinton are planning to appear together Wednesday in Green Bay, Wisconsin, another city where Obama was popular during his and elections. The rally will mark the first campaign event in which the two have appeared together since Clinton emerged as the presumptive Democratic nominee.周三,奥巴马和希拉里将计划共同出现在威斯康星州的格林贝,年和年的总统大选,奥巴马在这里受到了极大的欢迎林格贝集会标志着克林顿成为民主党提名人后,他们俩首次共同参加竞选活动Obama is expected to visit Ohio, Wisconsin, Minnesota and Pennsylvania and other battleground states he carried during his elections, including Colorado, Florida and Michigan?.奥巴马预计会访问俄亥俄州、威斯康星州、宾西法尼亚州以及他竞选期间去过的战场州,包括科罗拉多州、佛罗里达州和密歇根州The President plans to target Independents in states such as New Hampshire and Iowa and hopes to help drive turnout among young people, Hispanics and Asian-Americans in battlegrounds like Florida, Nevada and Colorado, the White House said.?白宫表示,奥巴马总统计划将目标锁定于新罕布什尔和爱荷华等州的独立派,希望能争取战场州,如佛罗里达、内华达和科罗拉多等州的年轻人、西班牙裔以及亚裔美国人的持Obama’s October calendar has been largely cleared, allowing him time to campaign wherever he is needed, according to the official.据官员所述奥巴马十月份大部分的日程已经取消,使其有充足的时间去往他需要参加竞选活动的地方Another White House source said earlier this month that Obama is eager to get on the campaign trail and "get people fired up."另一条来自白宫的消息称,本月初奥巴马就希望加入竞选活动,“取得人民的持”He’s "y to go," the source said, adding Obama would "explode onto the scene" once the Democratic race is wrapped up.这条消息称,奥巴马“早就准备好了”,一旦民主党总统候选人敲定,他就会“火爆登场”"It’s driving him crazy" remaining on the sidelines, the source said.消息还称,将他置身事外“会逼疯他的”。
  • 十种让你脑力爆棚的食物 -- ::3 来源: 好好吃东西对人的身心健康都有好处大脑和你的心肺,肌肉一样需要营养但是吃什么对保持大脑灰质活力特别重要呢?Eating well is good your mental as well as your physical health. The brain requires nutrients just like your heart, lungs or muscles do. But which foods are particularly important to keep our grey matter happy?好好吃东西对人的身心健康都有好处大脑和你的心肺,肌肉一样需要营养但是吃什么对保持大脑灰质活力特别重要呢?1. Opt wholegrains1.多吃谷物Like everything else in your body, the brain cannot work without energy. The ability to concentrate and focus comes from the adequate, steady supply of energy - in the m of glucose in our blood to the brain. Achieve this by choosing wholegrains with a low-GI, which release glucose slowly into the bloodstream, keeping you mentally alert throughout the day. Opt rsquo;brownrsquo; cereals, wheatbran, granary b and brown pasta.和身体其他部位一样,大脑运作也离不开能量专注度和集中力都有赖于充足不断的能量供给;;能量以葡萄糖的形式进入大脑要保大脑的能力供给,就要选择血糖生成指数低的全谷物食物,它能使葡萄糖慢慢释放进入血液中,保持你一整天清醒的头脑选择;棕色;谷物,麦麸,谷物面包和黑米面食. Eat oily fish.吃多脂鱼Essential fatty acids (EFAs) cannot be made by the body and must be obtained through diet. The most effective omega-3 fats occur naturally in oily fish as EPA and DHA. Good sources include linseed (flaxseed) oil, soya bean oil, pumpkin seeds, walnut oil and soya beans. They are good healthy brain function, the heart, joints and general wellbeing. Oily fish contains EPA and DHA in a y-made m, which enables the body to use it easily. The main sources of oily fish include salmon, trout, mackerel, herring, sardines, pilchards and kippers. Low DHA levels have been linked to a higher risk of developing Alzheimerrsquo;s disease and memory loss.人体无法产生必需的脂肪酸,这些必需脂肪酸必需通过食物摄取最有效的Omega;-3(不饱和)脂肪酸以EPA(一种多元不饱和脂肪酸)和DHA(俗称脑黄金)的形式自然存在于多脂鱼中获取它们的好途径还有亚麻(亚麻籽)油,大豆油,南瓜籽,核桃油以及大豆它们对大脑功能,心脏,关节以及整个身体健康都有好处多脂鱼中富含的EPA和DHA的存在形式是现成的,人体可以直接吸收使用多脂鱼主要有鲑鱼,鳟鱼,鲭鱼,鲱鱼以及熏鱼罐头低DHA水平会导致患阿兹海默症和失忆症的风险提高3. Binge on blueberries3.多吃蓝莓Evidence accumulated at Tufts University in the ed States suggests that the consumption of blueberries may be effective in improving or delaying short term memory loss. Widely available, so therersquo;s no excuse.美国塔夫茨大学找到的据显示吃蓝莓可以有效改善或者推后短期记忆丧失蓝莓在哪儿都买得到,没有理由不多吃一点. Eat more tomatoes.多吃西红柿There is good evidence to suggest that lycopene, a powerful antioxidant found in tomatoes, could help protect against the kind of free radical damage to cells which occurs in the development of dementia, particularly Alzheimerrsquo;s.有可靠据显示茄红素;;一种西红柿中存在的强抗氧化剂,能帮助抵抗自由基对细胞的伤害,这种伤害通常发生在痴呆的患病过程中,特别是阿兹海默症5. Add vitality with vitamins5.多摄入维生素Certain B vitamins - B6, B and folic acid - are known to reduce levels of homocysteine in the blood. Elevated levels of homocysteine are associated with increased risk of stroke, cognitive impairment and Alzheimerrsquo;s disease. A study of a group of elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment found that after two years of intervention with high doses of B6, B and folic acid there was significantly less brain shrinkage compared to a subset given placebo treatment.一些维生素B;;B6,,B和叶酸能降低血液中的高半胱氨酸水平高半胱氨酸水平升高会导致患中风,认知障碍以及阿兹海默症的风险升高在一项研究中,两年的治疗过程中,患有轻度认知障碍的老年病人里,摄入高剂量B6,B及叶酸的一组比另一组使用无效对照剂治疗的病人脑萎缩率小得多6. Get a blackcurrant boost6.多吃黑加仑Vitamin C has long been thought to have the power to increase mental agility. One of the best sources of this vital vitamin are blackcurrants.维生素C长久以来被认为能大大促进思维敏捷程度而这种强效维生素的最好来源之一就是黑加仑7. Pick up pumpkin seeds7.记住留下南瓜籽Just a handful of pumpkin seeds a day is all you need to get your recommended daily amount of zinc, vital enhancing memory and thinking skills.仅仅一把南瓜籽就可以满足你一天所需的锌元素,锌元素能增强以及思考能力8. Bet on broccoli8.多吃花椰菜A great source of vitamin K, which is known to enhance cognitive function and improve brainpower.花椰菜富含维他命K,能够增强认知功能并提升脑力9. Sprinkle on sage9.食物中撒上鼠尾草Sage has long had a reputation improving memory and although most studies focus on sage as an essential oil, it could be worth adding fresh sage to your diet too.很久以来,鼠尾草一直被认为能增强记忆,虽然大部分研究的关注点都是鼠尾草精油,但是将新鲜鼠尾草加入到食物中也是非常健康的. Go nuts.多吃坚果A study published in the American Journal of Epidemiology suggests that a good intake of vitamin E might help to prevent cognitive decline, particularly in the elderly. Nuts are a great source of vitamin E along with leafy green vegetables, asparagus, olives, seeds, eggs, brown rice and wholegrains.一项刊登在美国流行病学杂志上的研究表明摄入维生素E能够帮助防止认知衰退,特别是对于老年人来说坚果就富含维生素E,同样富含维生素E的还有绿叶蔬菜,芦笋,橄榄,瓜子,鸡蛋,黑米以及谷物。
  • 薯条为什么要叫“French fries”(法国马铃薯)? -- :7:6 来源:chinadaily 薯条,是最常见的快餐食品之一,从美国及欧洲等地渐渐流行开来,可谓风靡世界各地 很多人都知道薯条的英文是“Chips”,美国人称之为“French Fries”,直译过来就是“法国油炸马铃薯”,那为什么叫薯条为“法国油炸马铃薯”,薯条和法国有何渊源呢? 对此,然我们来看看美国朋友的解释吧 一位网友是这么解释的: In fact, that is not their real name anyway. The popular food item was once called ;Frenched Fries; since the potatoes were frenched -- meaning to be cut into large rectangular strips or spears. Frenched cuts are larger cuts than julienned cuts, otherwise they are pretty similar. Americans tend to slur or reduce the sound at the end of some words. Hence Frenched Fries become French Fries, much like Iced Tea became Ice Tea. 其实呢,;French Fries;原为;Frenched Fries;,其中的英语单词;Frenched;意为“切成条的”,而;Frenched;的条状比;julienned;的丝状要大些,这就是为什么叫薯“条”了 当然关于“Frenched Fries”名称的由来还有其他的观点 比如,以制作法式菜肴著名的托马斯;杰弗逊主张,薯条之所以被叫做French Fries(法式炸薯条)是因为其中的french是指法式深油炸,指的是它的烹饪方式 还比如,有观点说是因为在第一次世界大战的时候,美国士兵在比利时吃到了这种薯条,觉得特别美味,而当时在比利时军队中的通用语言是法语,他们就以为是“法国的薯条”了,便想当然的称其为“French Fries” 虽然“French Fries”的确切来源不得而知,但可以确定的,“French Fries”是真的跟法国没有半点关系 年伊拉克战争期间,法国反对战争,一些愤怒的“挺战 ”美国人要消灭一切与法国有关的名称,甚至建议把“法式薯条”( French fry )改称“自由薯条”( Freedom fry ),一时落下笑柄。
  • 不可思议!艾滋病药救回埃拉病患 -- :30:57 来源: 不可思议!艾滋病药救回埃拉病患 Ebola crisis: Liberia doctor treats patients with HIV drugs - most survive A doctor who was used anti-HIV medication to treat Ebola out of desperation after being inundated with patients, has reported positive results.Dr Gobee Logan gave the drug lamivudine to Ebola patients in a clinic in Tubmanburg, and survived.This gives patients treated with lamivudine a 7% mortality rate, whereas overall mortality rates those infected are 70%."My stomach was hurting; I was feeling weak; I was vomiting," Ebola patient Elizabeth Kundu, 3, told CNN. "They gave me medicine, and I'm feeling fine. We take it, and we can eat – we're feeling fine in our bodies."Those patients who survived after taking lamivudine, took the medication during the first five days of infection. The two who died started treatment five and eight days after onset of the illness."I'm sure that when [patients] present early, this medicine can help," Logan said. "I've proven it right in my center."Logan said that he was aware that the medical establishment would remain sceptical until research had been undertaken involving a much larger group of patients, half of whom would be given lamivudine, and the other half a placebo."Our people are dying and you're taking about studies?" he said. "It's a matter of doing all that I can do as a doctor to save some people's lives."He said that he decided to try using lamivudine after ing in a medical journal that HIV and Ebola replicates in the body in similar ways.Initially Logan tried the drug on a colleague who had become infected, and within two days he showed signs of improvement and survived.Researchers at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases told CNN that they would be willing to carry out follow-up tests. The World Health Organisation said that experimental use of two trial Ebola vaccines developed by GlaxoSmithKline and NewLink has begun.据美国有线电视新闻网9月7日报道,埃拉疫情持续肆虐,病人之多已远超医院负荷,感染人数仍在不断攀升,援助和疫苗也迟迟不见踪影,绝望之中,利比里亚一医生“兵行险着”,启用抗HIV药物进行治疗,不料竟获奇效在杜伯曼堡的一家隔离中心,医生洛根让诊所内的埃拉感染者用了治疗艾滋病的药物拉米夫定,结果人中人生还,死亡率从原来的70%下降至了7%病人伊丽莎白说:“原本胃痛得厉害,感觉很虚弱,不停地吐吃过药以后觉得有所好转,现在已经可以进食了”据了解,生还病人在感染后的5天内用了拉米夫定,而不治的两人在用药物时已感染了5到8天洛根表示,如果病人及早就医,药物就能更好地发挥作用,“至少我的病人已经明了拉米夫定是有效的”但他同时表示,医疗机构对此疗法可能仍抱怀疑态度,只有在对大批病人进行随机对照试验后,才会转变看法他说:“我们的病人都快死了,还讨论研究?我是个医生,要做的就是尽力多救几个人”洛根的灵感来源于医学杂志上的一篇文章,文章称,埃拉病毒在人体内的复制过程和HIV病毒颇为相似,他由此产生了“用抗HIV药物治疗”的大胆想法起初,他在染病同事身上“试药”,两天不到,该同事就显示出了好转的迹象美国国家过敏和传染病研究所的研究人员表示“愿意开展跟进测试”疫苗方面,虽进展缓慢但总算也传来了好消息,制药商NewLink Genetics和葛兰素史克的两种试验性埃拉疫苗已进入临床试验阶段(译者 ADDID 编辑 丹妮)。
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