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来源:大河分享    发布时间:2020年01月19日 15:02:32    编辑:admin         

Mark Zuckerberg, the co-founder and chief executive of Facebook, and his wife, Dr. Priscilla Chan, made a bold statement on Tuesday: In honor of the birth of their daughter, they said they would give 99 percent of their Facebook shares to charitable purposes. That amounts to about billion.Facebook联合创始人兼首席执行官马克·扎克伯格(Mark Zuckerberg)和妻子普莉希拉·陈(Priscilla Chan)在周二发表了一份大胆的声明,称为了纪念女儿的降生,他们将把所持Facebook股份的99%用于慈善事业。这些股票目前市值约450亿美元。While philanthropy by the rich is not a new concept, Silicon Valley’s newer billionaires appear eager to sp their wealth while they are still young. Yet Mr. Zuckerberg, 31, and his wife, 30, are entering largely uncharted waters with a charity effort of such scale. Other than noting that their initial focus would be on education, curing disease, connecting people and building communities, their announcement was vague on specifics.富人做慈善并不新鲜,但硅谷的新一代富豪,似乎迫切地想在还很年轻时就把自己的财富捐献出去。一笔如此巨额的捐献,意味着31岁的扎克伯格和30岁的妻子将进入一个在很大程度上仍属未知的领域。除了表示一开始会侧重于教育,疾病治疗,把大家连接起来,以及建立社区外,夫妇两人的声明细节模糊。It made us wonder how others would use that money, so we put the question to ers. If they had billion to spend, what charities or causes would they support? We received hundreds of responses from ers around the world. They ranged from ideas for stemming the effects of climate change to providing homes to the homeless to fostering mental health. Below is a selection.这让我们好奇,如果是别人会怎么用那笔钱。于是,我们把问题抛给了读者。如果有450亿美元,他们会持什么样的慈善机构或事业?他们想法多样,从遏制气候变化的影响到为无家可归的人提供住所,再到促进心理健康。以下是选登内容。Casimir Guzowski, 38, Reading, Pa.卡西米尔·古佐夫斯基(Casimir Guzowski),38岁,宾夕法尼亚州雷丁If I had the billion to donate to any cause, I would start a renewable energy business that paid for people in need to install solar or wind generation on their homes. This would allow them to heat and light their homes while generating green credits. The extra money from the energy production could be sold to the power companies, lowering the nation’s carbon footprint. The money from the sale of this surplus energy could be either used to pay back the initial investment to install the green technology so the program could continue on or allow the families in these homes to have a small amount of extra pocket cash to help them with whatever they need.如果有450亿可以捐给任何事业,我会创办一家可再生能源公司,出钱给需要的人家里安装太阳能或风能发电技术。这样既能给他们家里提供照明和供电,又能产生绿色积分。多余的电可以卖给电力公司,减少国家的碳足迹。出售多余的电带来的收入,要么用来偿还安装绿色技术的初始投资,以确保这个项目能继续下去,要么让那些家庭当做一小笔额外的零用钱,用在他们需要的任何事情上。Annemarie Latimer, 71, Columbia, N.J.安娜玛丽·拉蒂默(Annemarie Latimer),71岁,新泽西州哥伦比亚The Salvation Army, because they give most of their contributions to the people that need it.救世军,因为他们把大部分捐款都给了需要的人。Research for pancreatic cancer because it took my mother.胰腺癌研究,因为胰腺癌夺去了我母亲的生命。Addiction research because I work with addiction clients.嗜瘾研究,因为我的客户中有瘾君子。Any effort to get rid of Monsanto because they are destroying America.所有致力于关闭孟山都公司(Monsanto)的行动,因为他们正在毁灭美国。Domestic violence centers because I know and knew so many people who were affected by it.家庭暴力中心,因为我现在和过去都知道,家暴影响了很多人。Any public health agency who is nonprofit, whose C.E.O.s don’t get the most benefit.首席执行官不是最大获益人的任何非营利公共卫生机构。All the children in poor families, because I have seen children suffer when the parents spent their money foolishly on themselves.所有家庭贫困的孩子,因为我看到过家长愚蠢地把钱花在自己身上时,孩子多遭罪。Dental care for the people who need it and are unable to afford it.帮助那些需要获得口腔保健,但却无力承担费用的人。Emotional and physical care for all rape victims, because so many people stigmatize them.为强奸受害者提供情感和身体照顾,因为有太多人污蔑他们。All child prostitutes and adult prostitutes because no one wants to be in that position because it is abuse. This includes trafficked victims.所有雏妓和成年娼妓,因为没人愿意陷在这种备受虐待的处境。这也包括人口买卖的受害人。All torture victims because they need so much counseling.所有酷刑受害者,因为他们需要太多心理辅导。Tax credits for single people because they are too heavily taxed, proportionately.为单身者提供税收抵免,因为从比例上说,他们承担的税负太重。Counseling for children of divorce because they are heavily impacted.辅导离婚家庭的孩子,因为他们受到了严重影响。Counseling for abused people, regardless of the type of abuse.辅导遭受虐待的人,无论他们遭受的是哪种虐待。All single mothers and fathers who have difficulty providing for their children.所有抚养孩子有困难的单亲父母。Daniel Mokrauer-Madden, 29, Bangalore, India 丹尼尔·莫克劳尔-麦登(Daniel Mokrauer-Madden),29岁,印度班加罗尔I would invest in education in communities around the world. Philanthropy has tended toward short-term measurable impact. This is an improvement over the past, but it also means that some sectors that see change over the longer term are seriously neglected. Investments in human capital are one of the most important ways to shift countries’ growth curves upward. This means formal and informal education, working with rural primary schools, setting up research facilities at universities, establishing training programs for adults and much more.我会投资于世界各地的社区教育。慈善事业往往倾向于可衡量的短期影响。这比起过去是一个进步,但也意味着一些要长时间才见成效的部门受到了严重忽视。人力资本投资是国家增长曲线上扬的重要途径之一。这意味着正规和非正规教育、乡村小学工作、在大学设立研究机构、建立成人培训系统,以及更多的其他方案。Rashaad Denzel, 24, New York 拉沙德·丹泽尔(Rashaad Denzel),24岁,纽约I would give away my billion to improve the mental wellness among Americans. Oftentimes when we think of one being “sick” we think of a common cold, stomach flu or some sort of terminal illness. Hardly ever do we recognize depression as a sickness. I would pump resources into brain research and increase the funding for mental health facilities.我会把我的450亿投放到提高美国人的心理健康上。当我们想到“生病”时,通常会联想到普通的感冒、肠胃炎或某种绝症。我们几乎没有认识到抑郁也是一种病。我会把资源投入到大脑的研究,加大精神健康机构的经费。Ahmed Al Bayati, 25, Miami, Fla. 艾哈迈德·巴亚提(Ahmed Al Bayati),25岁,佛罗里达州迈阿密I would use the money to improve the education system in impoverished areas as it is my believe that doing so would solve many of the challenges our society faces. There’s a lack of access to opportunity that has crippled poor communities. Good education is the ladder that people can use to climb their way out of poverty. I used it myself to escape war-torn Baghdad. Among the poor kids in the ed States is the next Steve Jobs, the next Barack Obama, and the scientist who will make a breakthrough in treating cancer. But none of that is possible if we don’t make it easier to join a good school than to join a gang.我会用这笔钱改善贫困地区教育系统,我认为这样做会解决社会面临的很多挑战。得不到机会令贫困社区举步维艰,而人们可以透过良好的教育来摆脱贫困。我就是用它来逃离了饱受战争蹂躏的巴格达。下一个史蒂夫·乔布斯、下一个贝拉克·奥巴马、在治疗癌症方面取得突破性进展的科学家,或许就在美国的穷孩子们当中。但是如果我们不把他们进入好学校变得比加入帮派容易,这些就都不可能实现。Mitchell Zimmerman, 73, Palo Alto, Calif. 米歇尔·齐默尔曼(Mitchell Zimmerman),73岁,加利福尼亚州帕洛阿尔托I would give billions to (1) basic research relating to global warming and (2) perhaps even more important, a massive educational and public relations campaign designed to force Americans to confront the reality and urgency of climate change.我想把数百亿美元花在:(1)关于全球变暖的基础研究;(2)或许更重要的是,开展一项大规模教育和公关运动,迫使美国人面对气候变化的现实性和紧迫性。Maksim Surguy, 29, Federal Way, Wash. 马克西姆·瑟盖(Maksim Surguy),29岁,华盛顿州费德勒尔韦I would spend a few billion to buy patent portfolios of companies in the following industries and make them available to anyone:我会花数十亿收购在以下行业的公司专利,让所以人都可以享用:Food (agriculture, water desalination, genetics)粮食(农业、海水淡化、遗传学)Energy (renewables, bio, solar)能源(可再生能源、生物质能、太阳能)Medicine (drugs, chemical compounds, methods)医药(药物、化合物、方法)Then I would invest a billion dollars into machine-learning development, specifically hardware that doesn’t exist yet, and create a marketplace of smart algorithms that can learn on their own. These algorithms will be used to further improve methods and processes to grow food, produce energy and help create new medicine. The rest of the money would be used to combat climate change and to automate mining resources on other planets instead of our own.然后,我将投资十亿美元到研发机器学习上,尤其是研发还不存在的硬件,并创造一个可以自我学习的智能算法市场。这些算法将被用于进一步改善粮食种植、能源生产的方法和过程,并帮助创造新药物。剩下的钱将用于应对气候变化,及在其他行星上自动开采矿产资源。Wulin, 40, Calgary, Alberta, Canada 吴林(Wulin,音),40岁,加拿大艾伯塔省卡尔加里I would use the money to solve the dilemma all humans have: aging and space colonization. If we can extend our human life expectancy to experience more human activities while humans live in the space. As Stephen Hawking said: “The human race shouldn’t have all its eggs in one basket ...”我会用这笔钱解决所有人类都有的难题:衰老和太空殖民。如果我们能够延长人类的寿命去体验更多,并在太空生活,那该有多好。正如斯蒂芬·霍金所说:“人类不应该把所有的鸡蛋放在一个篮子里......”Marti Elkins, 62, Flat Rock, N.C. 马蒂·埃尔金斯(Marti Elkins),62岁,北卡罗来纳州弗拉特罗克I would build more subsidized housing for seniors who are still trying to pay off their adult children’s student loans living on a fixed income. I would build tiny houses for the homeless. I would provide expensive medicine for veterans who can’t afford it and the V.A. won’t pay for. We owe them everything for our freedom. I would invest in state-of-the-art mental health facilities to treat those poor souls who are on the street and no one helps and everyone ignores unless they kill people. I would provide educational scholarships to underprivileged students. Keep your donations mostly in the ed States. People tend to forget how much poverty exists here. This will eventually make our country stronger again. Make free medical and dental clinics available because in spite of Obamacare, lots of people still can’t afford either and just accept the tax penalty. Give money to our National Park Service. They are one of our greatest treasures; do away with expensive entrance fees so everyone can enjoy them. They belong to all of us.我会为一些年长的人建造更多补贴住房,因为他们只有固定收入,但还在努力清还成年子女的学生贷款。我会为无家可归者建微型住所。我会为一些退伍军人提供昂贵药品,因为他们买不起,而退伍军人事务部又不会买给他们。我们一切的自由,都有赖于他们。我会投资最先进的心理健康机构,治疗那些在街头流浪没有人帮助的可怜人。他们被所有人忽略,除非杀了人。我会为贫困学生提供教育奖学金。主要在美国捐款吧。人们往往会忘记这里有多贫穷。最终这将使我们的国家再次强大起来。建设免费医疗和牙科诊所,因为尽管有奥巴马医改,很多人还是负担不起,而只能接受税务惩罚。把钱给我们的国家公园(National Park Service)。国家公园是我们最珍贵的东西之一;废除昂贵的入场费,让每个人都能享用它们。它们是属于我们大家的。Randy Rehwoldt, 66, Grand Junction, Colo. 兰迪·瑞沃特(Randy Rehwoldt),66岁,科罗拉多州大章克申I would use existing organizations with proven track records. I would do it this way to avoid the problem Mark had with his first experience in his giving. I think the Salvation Army is one good organization to use, for they have proven themselves.我会选择有可靠业务记录的现有组织。我会这样做来避免马克第一次捐款时的经历。我觉得救世军是一个很好的选择,因为他们已经明了自己。Ron Bannon, 58, Newark, N.J. 罗恩·班农(Ron Bannon),58岁,新泽西州纽瓦克Randomly to individuals on earth. The amount would equal the average local yearly wage. No strings attached.随机送给地球上任何一个人。相当于当地年平均工资,不会有任何附加条件。Angelo Paraiso-Arroyo, 17, Berkeley, Calif. 安杰洛·帕拉伊索-阿罗约(Angelo Paraiso-Arroyo),17岁,加利福尼亚州伯克利If I had billion, I would give it to struggling small businesses. They are middle-class Americans and are necessary in order to have a strong economy. If they flourish, we all prosper. Plus, who needs billion? Who needs a million dollars? Money comes and goes but the future is forever. Forty-five billion dollars is a gift, and like all gifts, it is always the thought that counts.如果我有450亿美元,我会给陷入困境的小型企业。他们构成了美国的中产阶级,对于强大的经济体来说,这也是必须的。如果他们蓬勃发展,大家也就都能富足。而且,又有谁需要450亿美元呢?谁需要一百万美元呢?财来财去,未来才是永远的。450亿美元是一份礼物,跟所有礼物一样,心意才是最重要的。Dange Cris Bejoc, 21, Cebu City, Philippines 丹吉·克里斯·贝周克(Dange Cris Bejoc),21岁,菲律宾宿雾市Mainly, I will build two foundations for those who are handicapped and for the homeless abandoned children. First reason is I want to help those who are disabled to see life differently and for them to see their true value despite of being incomplete. Give them training, education to mold their skills and talents. Second reason, for the homeless abandoned children so that they will feel that they are at home, protected by those people who love and respect them.主要来说,我会为残疾人士和遭遗弃的无家可归的儿童建立两个基金会。第一是因为,我想帮助那些残疾人士看到不同的人生,让他们看到自己的真正价值,尽管身体不健全。我想为他们提供培训和教育,培养他们的技能和才华。第二是因为,我想帮助遭遗弃的无家可归的儿童,让他们觉得自己是在家里,有爱护与尊重他们的人保护。Noah Weiss, 13, Los Angeles 诺亚·韦斯(Noah Weiss),13岁,洛杉矶I would give billion to Alzheimer’s research, because my great-grandma suffers from it, and other organizations around the globe.我的曾祖母得了阿尔茨海默氏症,所以我会把450亿美元捐给有关它的研究,还有世界各地的其他组织。Kate Krauss, 52, Philadelphia 凯特·克劳斯(Kate Krauss),52岁,费城I would announce a billion prize for a scalable cure for AIDS we are close, but the funding is not there. I would offer billion in grants to support an eclectic group of AIDS activists, who have been very successful over the years in supporting medical research. The rest of the money should go to other diseases and priorities.我会颁发十亿美元奖金给可大规模运用的艾滋病疗法我们目前接近成功,但却没有资金。我也会捐赠十亿美元,持各种艾滋病活动人士。他们多年来一直非常成功地在持医学研究。其余的钱则该用在其他疾病和优先项目上。 /201512/414446。

As immigration activists gathered in Lower Manhattan on Friday afternoon, chanting in Spanish to denounce the Supreme Court deadlock that effectively shut down President Obama’s program of deportation relief, a group of eight advocates stood quietly in the back. 周五下午,移民活动人士聚集在曼哈顿下城,用西班牙语高喊口号,谴责最高法院的僵持局面。此时此刻,一个由八名倡导人士组成的团体安静地站在后面。最高法院此次票数持平的结果,实际上禁止了美国总统奥巴马的驱逐出境救助项目。They held hand-painted signs of protest. “We’re all immigrants,” one sign said in Chinese. “We want to see comprehensive immigration reform,” another said in Korean. Not so pithy, but present.他们举着手写的抗议牌。“我们都是移民,”其中一个牌子上用中文写道。“我们想看到全面的移民改革,”另一个用韩文写道。不算简洁有力,但至少可以被看到。Asian immigrants and their advocates say they are used to being a minority within a minority at rallies such as these, and Friday’s gathering, organized by the immigration rights group Make the Road New York was no different. The small band from the MinKwon Center for Community Action, a predominately Korean advocacy group that also serves the Chinese community in Flushing, Queens, was but a fraction of the 100 protesters. 亚洲移民及其持者表示,他们习惯于在此类集会活动中充当少数群体中的少数群体,在移民维权组织“纽约开路”(Make the Road New York)周五组织的这场活动上也是如此。在现场上百名抗议者中,来自韩裔主导的倡导组织社区行动民权中心(MinKwon Center for Community Action)的这几位只是一小部分。该组织也务于皇后区法拉盛的华人群体。“We have to take baby steps when it comes to voicing our own opinions,” said James Jeong, 21, who moved to Flushing from South Korea when he was 3. “For Asians, it’s very stigmatized to speak out at these rallies.”“在发出自己的声音方面,我们必须一步步慢慢来,”现年21岁的詹姆斯·郑(James Jeong)说。他在3岁的时候从韩国来到法拉盛。“对亚洲人来说,在这些集会活动上大声讲话是比较丢人的事。”He added: “I feel like our biggest enemies are not the system itself, but our own communities that ostracize our own members — you kind of do your own thing, stay under the shadows.”他还表示,“我感觉我们最大的敌人不是这个制度本身,而是我们的社区排斥自己的成员——有点各扫门前雪,不愿多出头的意思。”Under the glaring noon sun in Foley Square on Friday, undocumented Hispanic families with small children in baby carriages joined union members with megaphones and longtime leaders from advocacy groups; many came in defiance of their lack of legal status.周五的时候,在富利广场刺眼的正午阳光下,无件的西语裔家庭推着躺在婴儿车里的孩子,加入到携带扩音器的工会成员和倡导组织的长期领导者当中;有很多人不顾自己没有合法身份的情况前来参加。In New York City, more than 220,000 immigrants would have been eligible for temporary protection from deportation under the president’s executive actions, which included a protection for parents with children who are American citizens or permanent residents. According to the Mayor’s Office of Immigrant Affairs, about 11 percent of those eligible were born in Korea or China.在奥巴马总统采取的行政措施下,纽约有超过22万移民本可以获得短暂的保护,免于被驱逐出境。其中一项保护措施针对的是子女为美国公民或永久居民的移民。据纽约市长移民事务办公室(Mayor’s Office of Immigrant Affairs)统计,适用于这项保护的人约有11%出生在韩国或中国。“That brings up the question, why aren’t they all here?” Mr. Jeong said.“这就带来一个问题,为什么他们不是都在这里抗议?”郑先生发问。For Korean parents, being undocumented was a mark of shame, Mr. Jeong and the fellow MinKwon members explained.郑先生和社区行动民权中心的其他成员解释,对韩国父母来说,没有身份是一个耻辱的标记。“I grew up in that environment where you don’t tell other people your status, or something bad will happen to you,” Sangmin Na, 26, said.“我就在那种环境里长大。你不会告诉别人你的身份,否则就会有不好的事发生,”现年26岁的罗尚民(Sangmin Na,音)说。Mr. Na, a graduate of Hunter College, was a beneficiary of the 2012 program Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals, which protected certain undocumented children who were brought to the ed States by their parents; it remained unaffected by the Supreme Court’s decision this week. Mr. Jeong was also covered by the deferred action program, enabling him to graduate from City College of New York and land an engineering job that starts next week.罗先生毕业于亨特学院(Hunter College),是2012年推出的“童年入境暂缓遣返程序”(Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals)的受益者。该项目保护幼年时期由父母带来美国的某些没有件的移民;它不受最高法院本周裁决的影响。郑先生也受惠于这个项目,由此得以从纽约城市大学(City College of New York)毕业,找到了一份工程类工作,下周即将入职。They came to the rally to show solidarity.为了显示团结一心,他们前来参加这场集会。“It’s not just Latino struggles, it’s everybody’s struggles,” said Jung Rae Jang, 26, a community organizing fellow at MinKwon who came from South Korea at 15. One of the designated speakers at the rally, he urged his fellow immigrants to keep fighting for reform and to encourage others to vote.“这不只是拉丁裔的斗争,是所有人的斗争,”民权中心的社区活动组织者张正来(Jung Rae Jang,音)说。他今年26岁,在15岁的时候从韩国来到美国。作为这场集会活动的指定发言人之一,他呼吁同为移民的人士继续为促成改革而斗争,呼吁他们鼓励其他人为之投票。Mr. Jang said that he would like to organize more events in collaboration with the Hispanic community, but “language barriers are a problem,” he said.张先生表示,他很愿意与西语裔社区合作组织更多的活动,只是“语言障碍是一个问题,”他说。But he also said that Asians did not seem to have been as affected by deportations as the Hispanic community, adding, “so it’s hard to relate in that aspect.”但他也承认,亚裔受驱逐政策的影响似乎没有西语裔那么大,“因此难以在那方面建立关联。”Ester Rim, an intern at MinKwon, could, however, relate to the disappointment in the Supreme Court. Born in Brazil to Korean parents, she moved with her family to Queens when she was 4. Her parents, she said, would have been eligible to apply for administrative relief because her sister had become a permanent resident.不过,民权中心的实习生埃斯特尔·林(Ester Rim)能体会最高法院的裁决带来的失望之情。她出生于巴西,父母是韩裔,在4岁的时候随他们移居到皇后区。她说父母原本有资格申请行政宽大,因为她的已经成了美国永久居民。Ms. Rim, attending Macaulay Honors College at the City University of New York on a scholarship, did not even tell her parents about the possibility that they could have qualified. “I can’t even imagine how much heartbreak they would’ve gone through,” she said.林女士得到了纽约城市大学的麦考利荣誉学院(Macaulay Honors College)的奖学金,正在那里就读。她甚至都没跟父母提及他们原本可能会有这种资格。“我无法想象他们会多么伤心,”她说。On Friday, the activists who came to the rally proclaimed that they would continue to work for immigration reform. “A people united will never be defeated,” they shouted in Spanish, followed by the chant “Sí se puede” — Yes we can.周五当天,来到集会现场的活动人士宣布,他们将继续为促成移民改革而努力。“团结起来的人永远不会被击败,”他们用西班牙语大喊,场下紧接着发出“Sí se puede”的呼声——是的,我们可以。At the end, there was a spontaneous eruption of “Olé, olé, olé, olé!”最后,现场同时爆发出“Olé, olé, olé, olé!”的欢呼声。Mr. Jang said at the last rally he tried to coin a Korean cheer, a clunky chant that translated to: “Immigration Reform! Pass It!”张先生在上次集会上表示,他试图发出一种复杂的韩式欢呼,翻译过来就是:“移民改革!通过!”“I couldn’t really say it,” Mr. Na said of the Korean words.“我没能真的喊出来,”罗先生这样评价韩语口号。“We just say ‘Olé,’ ” Namhee Kim, 20, said, laughing. “It’s the soccer cheer.”“我们干脆喊了‘Olé’,”20岁的金南熙(Namhee Kim,音)笑着说。“这是足球场上的欢呼声。” /201606/451782。

Beijing is scrambling to respond to reports that hundreds of students at a high school built on the site of a former pesticide factory have become ill, in a rare case of public acknowledgment of the dangers of brownfield sites in China. 据中国媒体报道,数百名初中生因学校建在一座化工厂的旧址而患病,中国政府目前正对此事作出紧急回应,罕见地公开承认了国内棕地(brownfield site)的危险。 The Changzhou Foreign Language School moved to a new campus in the industrial city in eastern China last autumn. By December, students were complaining of rashes, nosebleeds and strange smells, according to a series of reports in Chinese media, culminating with a report by state-owned broadcaster CCTV this weekend. Some students had been diagnosed with cancer, the reports said. 常州是中国东部的一座工业城市,常州外国语学校(Changzhou Foreign Language School)于去年秋季迁入位于该市的新校区。根据中国媒体的连续报道,去年12月,学生们就抱怨出现皮炎、鼻子出血等身体不适症状,空气中也有异味,连国有的中央电视台(CCTV)也在上周末对此作出报道。新闻中表示,部分学生已被诊断出患有癌症。 On Monday, the environment ministry said it was “attaching great importance” to the case, which comes as the department is preparing an action plan for soil pollution across the country. Two years ago it declassified a report that showed the extent of soil pollution after initially labelling it a “state secret”. 本周一,中国环保部表示对此事已予以“高度重视”,该部正准备对全国土壤污染制定行动计划。两年前环保部曾解密了一份有关土壤污染程度的报告,该报告最初被标注为“国家机密”。 China is littered with brownfield sites, many of them only superficially rehabilitated before being redeveloped for residential and other uses. Experts involved in the national action plan have estimated that clean-up costs could mount to RMB7tn (.1tn), roughly equivalent to one-third of national foreign exchange reserves. 中国各地散布着棕地,其中许多只在表层进行了修复,然后就重新开发成住宅或做其他用途。据参与环保部全国行动计划的专家估计,清理费用可达7万亿元人民币(合1.1万亿美元),约等于中国外汇储备的三分之一。 The World Bank has proposed that developers of abandoned sites pay to rehabilitate them in order to get greater value in subsequent sales. However, there are few safeguards to ensure corners are not cut, and many brownfield sites’ commercial value is insufficient to cover the cost of a clean-up. 世界(World Bank)曾提议开发商可以为废弃地址付修复费,从而在随后的销售中获得更大价值。但是没有多少保障措施来确保开发商不会走捷径,而且许多棕地的商业价值并不足以覆盖清理费用。 Chinese reports on the Changzhou school said the previous tenant, a chemicals and pesticides factory, had buried chemical waste on the site before it relocated in 2010. 据相关中文报道,常州外国语学校新校址之前的承租者是一家化工厂,这家工厂于2010年迁走,此前曾将化工废物掩埋在地下。 “The tragedy that has occurred in Changzhou shows just how dangerously lax China’s hazardous chemical management is,” said Ada Kong, Greenpeace campaign manager in East Asia for toxic chemicals. 绿色和平(Greenpeace)东亚分部有毒化学品项目经理江卓珊(Ada Kong)表示:“常州发生的悲剧说明了中国的危险化学品管理是多么松懈。” China had hoped to tackle air and water pollution first but policymakers are becoming aware that the problems of water and soil pollution are intertwined. Last week, the water resources ministry said more than 80 per cent of shallow groundwater wells it had surveyed were polluted. 中国起初也曾希望解决空气和水污染问题,但政策制定者们逐渐意识到,水和土壤污染问题错综复杂。上周中国水利部表示据调查,国内80%以上的浅层地下水受到污染。 Both soil and water pollution are exacerbated by China’s practice of continually relocating factories, whether because of complaints about pollution or urban sprawl. 随着工厂的不断搬迁——可能因为污染投诉,也可能因为城市扩张——中国的土壤和水污染正在加剧。 The Nature Conservancy, a US-based environment group, estimated on Monday that preventing or ameliorating pollution in water catchments that together make up only 6 per cent of China’s land area would improve drinking water quality for 73 per cent of its people. 美国环保组织大自然保护协会(Nature Conservancy)在周一表示,只要对仅占中国国土面积6%的集水区的污染加以预防或改善,就能提高73%的国民的饮水质量。 /201604/438537。

Severe flooding across large parts of the country has raised fresh concerns about food safety.近期,国内大部分地区遭遇严重洪水,导致人们对食品安全产生新的担忧。Since the rainy season began in early June, millions of domestic animals have been washed away in flooding, authorities said.有关部门称,自6月初进入雨季以来,洪水冲走了数百万头家畜。For instance, in Hubei, more than 80,000 pigs and over 3.6m chickens and ducks died, while in Jiangxi, about 5.2m chickens and ducks were lost. Many are worried that the meat might find its way to markets around the country.比如,湖北省有8万多头猪和超过360万只鸡鸭死亡,江西省有大约520万只鸡鸭失踪。许多人担心这些肉可能会流入全国各地的市场。China#39;s food safety credentials took a hit when high-profile food scandals shook consumer confidence, particularly in 2008 when melamine-tainted baby formula caused at least six infant deaths and made a further 300,000 ill.当备受关注的食品丑闻动摇了消费者的信心时,中国食品安全的信任也受到重创。特别是在2008年,当三聚氰胺婴幼儿配方奶粉造成至少六个婴儿死亡,进而致300000名儿童患病。In recent years, public anger has mounted over reports that illicit pork has found its way on to Chinese dinner tables. Illegal vendors reportedly salvage dead animals from rivers or lakes, before processing and selling the meat. Last year, police in southern China#39;s Guangdong Province dealt with a case in which suspects sold more than 3,500 kg of tainted pork each day, according to the provincial public security bureau.近年来,公众的愤怒又被非法猪肉登上中国餐桌而点燃。据报道,在加工和销售肉类之前,非法的供应商从河流或湖泊中打捞死去的动物。据中国南部的广东省的公安部门报道,去年在警方处理的一个案件中,犯罪嫌疑人每天要出售超过3500公斤的受污染的猪肉。;There are floods everywhere, and I#39;m worried that I might accidently eat meat from drowned pigs or chickens,; said Mao Xiaoli, a resident in Xinjian county, Jiangxi.江西省新建县居民毛晓丽称:;到处都是洪水,担心自己可能会不小心吃到淹死的猪或鸡的肉。;Zhu Liangqiang, head of Anhui Provincial Center for Animal Disease Control and Prevention, said that it was essential for the government to prevent any illegal meat from entering the market by strict supervision of transportation, processing and sourcing of animals.安徽省动物疫病预防与控制中心主任朱良强表示,政府有必要对动物运输、加工和采购源进行严格监管,防止任何非法肉类进入市场。 /201608/458966。

BEIJING — The emotional disintegration of a 17-month-old boy named John as he sought and failed to find comfort from caregivers in a British boarding nursery, captured in a 1969 documentary film, deeply distressed the Chinese women at a seminar last week on early childhood separation.北京——一个名叫约翰(John)的17个月大的男孩想从一家英国寄宿托儿所寻求安抚未果,因此情绪崩溃。这个故事被1969年的一部纪录片记录下来。上周,在一个关于幼儿早期分离的研讨会上,这个故事令与会的中国妇女感到非常难过。It showed in hard-to-watch detail the damage that can be inflicted when young children lose their primary caregivers. John’s anguish was extreme. He cried for days, refused food and withdrew.该片以惨不忍睹的细节展现出失去主要照顾者可能对幼儿造成的伤害。约翰非常痛苦。他大哭了好几天,拒绝进食和与人沟通。One woman at the seminar, which was offered at a Beijing university and attended mostly by mothers and professional caregivers, took off her glasses and hid her face in her hands for a long time.研讨会上的一个女人摘下眼镜,用手捂住脸很长时间。这次研讨会在北京的一所大学召开,与会者大多是母亲或职业看护人。Another stared straight ahead, tearing up.另一个人眼睛直直地盯着前方,满含泪水。A third asked, somewhat frantically, whether John had healed later. The answer — that he had not, entirely — from the teacher, Alf Gerlach, a psychoanalyst at the Sigmund Freud Institute in Frankfurt, was met with quiet consternation.还有一位略带急躁地询问约翰后来是否康复。讲师阿尔夫#8226;格拉克(Alf Gerlach)的回答是,他没有完全康复。格拉克是法兰克福弗洛伊德研究所(Sigmund Freud Institute)的精神分析学家。他的回答带来一片愕然。Millions of Chinese who attended boarding nurseries and preschools after the Communist revolution in 1949, when large-scale systems of institutional care were established to free parents to pursue revolution or to labor, experienced John’s plight to some degree.1949年共产主义革命后,中国建立了大规模机构式护理系统,来解放父母,让他们有时间参与革命或劳动。成百上千万中国幼儿被送往寄宿托儿所或幼儿园,他们也都在某种程度上经历了约翰的痛苦。The generation most deeply affected may be those born in the early decades after 1949, as the boarding system sp unquestioned — those in their 50s and 60s who run the country today.受影响最深的应该是在1949年之后的前几十年出生的人——那时寄宿系统在没有受到任何质疑的情况下推广开来——而今他们五六十岁,正掌管着这个国家。But the women at the seminar, who ranged from young adults to middle age, all had stories of losing primary caregivers, or of being forced to separate from their own children because of rules barring parents from staying with their hospitalized children.但是,研讨会上的女性,不管是刚刚成年,还是人到中年,都有失去主要照顾者,或者因为不允许父母与住院的孩子呆在一起的医院规定而被迫同孩子分开的经历。Boarding school is less common now for those under 6 but is still considered a respectable option. Even Chinese millennials may have been sent as toddlers. It is widesp among children 6 and older.六岁以下儿童的寄宿托儿所如今已经不是那么普遍,但仍被视为不错的选择。在中国,就连千禧一代小时候也有可能被送进这种托儿所。这种情况在六岁及以上的儿童中非常普遍。Hoping to understand more about the development of the system in China, I visited the Beijing municipal archives on Archive Road.我希望更多了解这种系统在中国的发展状况,于是拜访了北京市档案馆。There, documents showed that, at top institutions in the city after the revolution, the caregiver-to-child ratios — John’s problem had been a lack of attention — were initially high. Mostly, the children of the elite were sent away. The children of ordinary citizens were cared for at home.这里的档案表明,革命之后,在北京最好的若干托儿所里,照顾者与幼儿的人数比(约翰的问题在于缺乏关照)最初是非常高的。大多数情况下,精英阶层的孩子们会被送进托儿所。普通市民的孩子们则在家里接受照顾。A 1958 State Council document recorded a 1-to-2 ratio in 1956 at a nursery run by the Ministry of Agriculture. But colder times began with the 1958 “double-anti” campaign against “waste and conservatism.”根据一份1958年的国务院档案的记载,1956年,在一个农业部管理的托儿所里,一个看护者只需照顾两个幼儿。但是随着1958年“反浪费反保守”的“双反”运动来临,冷酷的时代开始了。Spending on food and board was cut everywhere, the document showed. The caregiver ratio at the ministry nursery went to 1-to-5.5 that year. The authorities promised to get it to 1-to-5.9, in line with “rectification.”文件表明,在所有地方,用于食物和住宿的经费都被缩减。那一年,在这个农业部的托儿所里,相关比例变成了一个看护者照顾5.5个幼儿。为了“整风”,官方承诺将这个比例变成1:5.9。Conditions in less privileged preschools grew grim as the authorities pushed to institutionalize large numbers of children to free parents to meet higher production as during the Great Leap Forward of 1958 to 1961.在1958年到1961年的“大跃进”期间,官方开始推动将大量儿童送进幼儿园的做法,以便把父母解放出来,完成更高的生产定额,因此,在条件相对没那么好的幼儿园里,形势变得更加严峻。Another document, dated 1960, noted: “The problem now is that the development of boarding nurseries isn’t keeping up with the development of the needs of production.” Facilities were built quickly but were “small and cramped.” 另一份1960年的文件中写着“主要问题是托儿组织的发展还跟不上生产发展的需要”。设施建设很快,但“非常窄小”。Only 26 percent were “good.” In Beijing, 400,000 children needed preschool places immediately, the document said. With the able-bodied working in fields or factories, the caregivers were often old or sick. At one preschool, the document said, six children drowned in one summer and three got food poisoning, with one dying.“良好”率仅为26%。文件说,在北京,有40万儿童迫切需要幼儿园。身强力壮的人都在农田或工厂工作,看护人通常都是老弱者。文件显示,在一个幼儿园里,一个夏天内有六个孩子溺水,三人食物中毒,其中一人死亡。Conditions have improved drastically since then, but loyalty to the system remains. An article published one week before school began on Sept. 1, by Shilehui, a website for preschool educators, addressed the issue.比起那时,幼儿园的条件得到很大改善,但是人们仍然执着于这一体系。在9月1日学校开学一周前,一个名为“师乐汇”的幼儿园教育者网站上发表的一篇文章就此做出解答。Hardly any parent likes to send a young child to be boarded, it said. But in the interests of “objectivity,” it listed three advantages: Boarding helps children become more independent and less finicky and make more friends.文章称,很少有父母愿意送孩子去寄宿。但是出于“客观”考虑,文章列出了寄宿制度的三个优点:能帮助孩子更加独立、不娇气、交到更多朋友。Little John’s experience shows it also can have negative emotional outcomes. And the reactions of the women attending the course suggest that many Chinese parents know it.小约翰的经历表明,这种制度可能在感情方面带来负面后果。而参加这个课程的女性的反应表明,很多中国父母明白这一点。 /201610/469791。