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重庆激光治疗青春痘哪家医院好??当当乐园

2019年10月21日 14:19:41 | 作者:康泰问答 | 来源:新华社
MILL VALLEY, Calif. — Seven-year-old Jordan Lisle, a second grader, joined his family at a packed after-hours school event last month aimed at inspiring a new interest: computer programming.加州米尔谷——上个月,7岁的小学二年级学生乔丹·莱尔(Jordan Lisle)和家人参加了一场人满为患的课外活动,活动旨在为学生培养一个新爱好:计算机编程。“I’m a little afraid he’s falling behind,” his mother, Wendy Lisle, said, explaining why they had signed up for the class at Strawberry Point Elementary School.“我有点担心他会落在别人后面,”他的母亲温迪·莱尔(Wendy Lisle)说,这是他们报名参加斯特罗伯里波因特小学(Strawberry Point Elementary School)这个辅导班的原因。The event was part of a national educational movement in computer coding instruction that is growing at Internet speeds. Since December, 20,000 teachers from kindergarten through 12th grade have introduced coding lessons, according to Code.org, a group backed by the tech industry that offers free curriculums. In addition, some 30 school districts have agreed to add coding classes in the fall, mainly in high schools but in lower grades, too. And policy makers in nine states have begun awarding the same credits for computer science classes that they do for basic math and science courses, rather than treating them as electives.一场全国性计算机编程教育运动正在不断扩大,此次活动就是其中的一部分。根据Code.org网站,自去年12月以来,从幼儿园到12年级,共有2万名老师开设了编程课。Code.org是一家由科技行业持的组织,提供免费的课程。除此之外,大约30个校区已经同意在秋季增设编程课,主要是高中,但也包括低年级。九个州的决策者已经开始给计算机科学课设定与数学和理科等基础课程相同的学分,不再将其作为选修课来对待。There are after-school events, too, like the one in Mill Valley, where 70 parents and 90 children, from kindergartners to fifth graders, huddled over computers solving animated puzzles to learn the basics of computer logic.相关的课外活动也在开展,比如在米尔谷的这次活动。活动中,从幼儿园到五年级的90个学生和70名家长围在计算机旁,通过动画智力游戏来学习计算机逻辑的基本知识。It is a stark change for computer science, which for decades was treated like a stepchild, equated with trade classes like wood shop. But smartphones and apps are ubiquitous now, and engineering careers are hot. To many parents — particularly ones here in the heart of the technology corridor — coding looks less like an extracurricular activity and more like a basic life skill, one that might someday lead to a great job or even instant riches.这是计算机科学教育的一个显著改变,几十年来,计算机科学一直受到冷遇,地位与木工课等职业技能课程相差无几。但如今,智能手机和应用程序无处不在,软件工程方面的就业机会炙手可热。对于许多家长来说——尤其是居住在科技走廊核心地带的家长——编程不像是一种课外活动,更像是一种基本的生存技能,说不定哪天可能让你得到一份不错的工作,甚至一夕暴富。The sp of coding instruction, while still nascent, is “unprecedented — there’s never been a move this fast in education,” said Elliot Soloway, a professor of education and computer science at the University of Michigan. He sees it as very positive, potentially inspiring students to develop a new passion, perhaps the way that teaching frog dissection may inspire future surgeons and biologists.编程教学的普及虽然刚刚开始,却呈现出“前所未有之势——教育领域从未有过如此迅速的行动”,密歇根大学(University of Michigan)教育和计算机科学教授埃利奥特·索洛韦(Elliot Soloway)说。他认为这是一个非常积极的现象,可能会激发学生们培养新的爱好,或许就像学习青蛙解剖可能会让更多孩子立志成为外科医生和生物学家那样。But the momentum for early coding comes with caveats, too. It is not clear that teaching basic computer science in grade school will beget future jobs or foster broader creativity and logical thinking, as some champions of the movement are projecting. And particularly for younger children, Dr. Soloway said, the activity is more like a game — better than simulated gunplay, but not likely to impart actual programming skills.不过,一些人也对让儿童过早接触编程的做法发出警告。目前还不清楚,在小学讲授计算机科学的基本知识是否会对未来的工作有帮助,也不清楚这能否培养学生总体上的创造力和逻辑思维。索洛韦说,尤其是对年幼的儿童来说,这种活动更像是视频游戏——比模拟战高级一些,但不太可能学会真正的编程技能。Some educators worry about the industry’s heavy role: Major tech companies and their founders, including Bill Gates and Facebook’s Mark Zuckerberg, have put up about million for Code.org. The organization pays to train high school teachers to offer more advanced curriculums, and, for younger students, it has developed a coding curriculum that marries basic instruction with games involving Angry Birds and hungry zombies.一些教育专家对这个行业的大举投入表示担忧:一些大型科技公司及其创始人,包括比尔·盖茨(Bill Gates)和Facebook的马克·扎克伯格(Mark Zuckberg),已经为Code.org投资了大约1000万美元(约合6255万人民币)。Code.org提供资金培训高中老师,让他们能够讲授更高级的课程,此外,对于年龄更小的学生,该组织还开发了一套专门的编程课程,把基本的教学内容融入到了《愤怒的小鸟》和《植物大战僵尸》等视频游戏中。The lessons do not involve traditional computer language. Rather, they use simple word commands — like “move forward” or “turn right” — that children can click on and move around to, say, direct an Angry Bird to capture a pig.这些课程不讲授传统的计算机语言,而是使用简单的文字指令——比如“前进”或“向右转”——孩子们可以通过点击和移动的操作,让一只小鸟抓住一只猪。The movement comes with no shortage of “we’re changing the world” marketing fervor from Silicon Valley. “This is strategically significant for the economy of the ed States,” said John Pearce, a technology entrepreneur. He and another entrepreneur, Jeff Leane, have started a nonprofit, MV Gate, to bring youth and family coding courses developed by Code.org to Mill Valley, an affluent suburb across the Golden Gate Bridge from San Francisco.这项活动并不缺少硅谷的那种“我们正在改变世界”的营销狂热。科技创业者约翰·皮尔斯(John Pearce)说,这对美国的经济具有战略意义。他和另外一名创业者杰夫·利恩(Jeff Leane)创办了非盈利组织MV Gate,把Code.org开发的适用于小学生和家庭的编程课程带给米尔谷。米尔谷是一个富裕的郊区,与旧金山之间隔着金门大桥。Parents love the idea of giving children something to do with computers that they see as productive, Mr. Pearce said. “We have any number of parents who say, ‘I can’t take my kid playing one more hour of games,’ ” he said. But if the children are exploring coding, the parents tell him, “ ‘I can live with that all night long.’ ”皮尔斯说,家长们乐于看到孩子们在电脑上做他们认为有意义的事。“无数家长对我们说,‘我不能让我家孩子再玩电脑游戏了’,”他说。但如果孩子们在研究编程,家长们告诉他,“‘编一晚上我也没意见。’”The concept has caught on with James Meezan, a second grader. He attended one of the first “Hour of Code” events sponsored by MV Gate in December with his mother, Karen Meezan, the local PTA president and a former tech-industry executive who now runs a real estate company. She is among the enthusiastic supporters of the coding courses, along with several local principals.这个想法吸引了二年级学生詹姆斯·米赞(James Meezan)。他和妈妈参加了12月份由MV Gate持的“代码时刻”(Hour of Code)活动。他的妈妈凯伦·米赞是当地家长教师联谊会(PTA)主席、前科技行业高管,目前经营着一家房地产公司。她和几名当地校长都非常持编程课程。Her son, she said, does well in school but had not quite found his special interest and was “not the fastest runner on the playground.” But he loves programming and spends at least an hour a week at CodeKids, after-school programs organized by MV Gate and held at three of Mill Valley’s five elementary schools.她说,她的儿子在学校表现很好,但是没有找到自己特别的兴趣,也“不是操场上跑的最快的那个”。但他喜欢编程,每周至少花一小时参加MV Gate组织的课后项目CodeKids。该项目已经在米尔谷的五所小学开展。James, 8, explained that programming is “getting the computer to do something by itself.” It is fun, he said, and, besides, if he gets good, he might be able to do stuff like get a computer to turn on when it has suddenly died. His mother said he had found his niche; when it comes to programming, “he is the fastest runner.”八岁的詹姆斯解释说,编程就是“让计算机自己做事”。他说这很有趣,此外,如果他做的好,说不定能够让计算机突然死机的时候自动重启。他的妈妈说,他发现了自己的兴趣点;在编程上,“他是跑的最快的那一个”。Well into the session, the youngsters were digging in, moving basic command blocks to get the Angry Bird to its prey, and then playing with slightly more complex commands like “repeat” and learning about “if-then” statements, an elemental coding concept.活动过程中,现场的孩子都全情投入,移动着基本的指令模块,让愤怒的小鸟抵达目标,然后使用稍微复杂一些的命令,比如“重复”,并学习“if-then”语句——一个基本的编程概念。The use of these word-command blocks to simplify coding logic stems largely from the work of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Lab, which introduced a visual programming language called Scratch in 2007. It claims a following of millions of users, but mostly outside the schools.使用这些文字命令块来简化编程的逻辑,这很大程度上源于麻省理工学院媒体实验室(Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Lab)的研究成果。这个实验室2007年引入了视觉编程语言Scratch。该机构声称,这种编程语言已经有数百万用户,但大多数都是学校以外的用户。Then, in 2013, came Code.org, which borrowed basic Scratch ideas and aimed to sp the concept among schools and policy makers. Computer programming should be taught in every school, said Hadi Partovi, the founder of Code.org and a former executive at Microsoft. He called it as essential as “learning about gravity or molecules, electricity or photosynthesis.”后来,2013年出现了Code.org,它借鉴了Scratch的基本想法,旨在向学校和决策者传播这个概念。Code.org创始人、前微软高管哈迪·帕尔托维(Hadi Partovi)说,每个学校都应该教授编程。他说编程非常必要,就像“学习重力或分子,电学和光合作用”一样。Among the 20,000 teachers who Code.org says have signed on is Alana Aaron, a fifth-grade math and science teacher in the Washington Heights neighborhood of Manhattan. She heard about the idea late last year at a professional development meeting and, with her principal’s permission, swapped a two-month earth sciences lesson she was going to teach on land masses for the Code.org curriculum.Code.org称,已有2万名老师注册该项目。曼哈顿华盛顿高地社区五年级的数学和自然科学老师阿兰娜·亚伦(Alana Aaron)是其中之一。她去年在一个职业发展会议上听说了这个项目,在获得了校长同意之后,她放弃了原本打算教授的长达两个月的关于陆地的地球科学课程,将其换成了Code.org的课程。“Computer science is big right now — in our country, the world,” she said. “If my kids aren’t exposed to things like that, they could miss out on potential opportunities and careers.”“计算机科学现在很重要——在美国和全世界都是如此,”她说。“如果我的学生们没有接触到这样的东西,他们可能会错过潜在的机遇和工作机会。” /201412/347277Human bodies are frail, easily damaged packages full of parts that can never fully come back once lost. Luckily, researchers worldwide are working on replacing every bit of the body to make us all cyborgs.人的身体是十分脆弱的,有些娇弱的器官一旦破坏就永远难以复原。幸运的是,世界各地的研究人员都在研究能替代我们身体部位的生化机械器官。10.Supersensitive Electronic Skin10.超敏感电子皮肤Skin has the thankless job of coating and protecting your whole body, making it your most easily damaged organ. When you burn or rip off a stretch of skin, your main option right now is to graft some back on from elsewhere on your body. But an effective synthetic replacement skin may not be that far off, thanks to research from Stanford scientists.皮肤辛苦的担任着包裹我们和保护我们整个身体的责任,因此它也成为了最容易被伤害的器官。当皮肤被烧伤或者被割破,你最快的选择是从身体其他部位移植一部分过来。然而,感谢斯坦福大学科学家的研究,一种能有效替代人体皮肤的材料,不久后将面世。Stanford#39;s Zhenan Baohas has developed a super-flexible, super-durable, and super-sensitive material that can be the basis for future synthetic skin. People have tried developing synthetic skin before, but Baohas#39;s material handles touch sensitivity better than any predecessor. It contains organic transistors and a layer of elastic, letting it stretch without taking damage. And it#39;s self-powered—this skin contains a series of elastic solar cells.斯坦福大学的Zhenan Baohas 研发出了一种具备超弹性、超耐性和超敏感的材料,能够作为未来发展人工皮肤的基础。以前,人们也研究过生化皮肤,但是Baohas的材料比以前研发出来的更具敏感性。它带有有机转换物质和一层弹性材料,保它在不被破坏情况下的延展性。另外,这种材料带有一系列的太阳能电池元件,可以自动充电。9.Beating Hearts Created In A Petri Dish9.在培养皿中跳动的心脏Scientists have long investigated stem cells#39; potential for growing hearts, and they reached a major milestone this year when they created heart tissue than can beat on its own.长久以来,科学家一直在研究干细胞分化为心脏组织的潜力,今年当他们创造出可以自己搏动的心脏组织时,这一研究工作达到了一个重要的里程碑。The University of Pittsburgh team used stem cells made from skin to make MCPs, a special kind of cell that acts as a precursor to cardiovascular tissue. They then placed these cells on a 3-D scaffold designed to support a mouse heart. Within 20 days, the new heart began beating at 40 to 50 beats per minute.匹兹堡大学的研究小组从来自皮肤的干细胞培养出MCPs,一种可以作为心血管组织驱动器的特殊细胞。他们把这些细胞放在一种可以维持老鼠心脏的3-D架上。在20天内,新的心脏开始以每分钟40~50次的速率搏动。This heart is too weak to actually pump blood, which is the primary reason anyone would want an new heart. But the tissue has a lot of potential for patching heart muscles that have suffered damage.虽然这个心脏太虚弱,不能真的输送血液,但是这种细胞组织在修复受伤的心脏肌肉方面具有巨大潜力。8.Prosthetic Hands That Sense Touch8.触感人造手Current prosthetic hands do little beyond filling the arm-shaped space between your body and the air. Sure, they can grasp things all right, and they help in balance, but they lack one of the human hand#39;s most important abilities—the sense of touch. People with prosthetics can#39;t detect if they#39;re in contact with an object without looking at it directly.现在的假手除了具备手的外形外,几乎没有其他功能。当然,这些假手能够拿东西和保持身体平衡,但是它们缺乏人手最重要的功能之一——触感。装了假手的人在碰触到一样物品时,如果不用眼睛看,是没法判断东西的。A research team at the University of Chicago has solved this problem, producing hands that send electric signals to the brain. They#39;ve begun with monkeys as test subjects, studying the animals to see how their brains respond to touch. When outfitted with prosthetic hands that stimulate their brains that way, the monkeys respond just as though they physically touch objects themselves.芝加哥大学的一个研究小组制造了一种能够向大脑传递信号的假手来解决这个问题。他们以猴子为测试对象,研究动物大脑对触摸信号的反应。当装备了可以刺激大脑的假手后,那些猴子的反应就好像他们身体接触到了物体一样。Programming these same signals into artificial human limbs would give amputees replacement hands unlike anything we#39;ve developed before.将这些类似的信号通过编程的方式写入造假肢,会给截肢者带来和以前研发出来的产品完全不同的假肢。7.Thought-Controlled Bionic Legs7.思想控制仿生腿Though bionic legs are of course a huge boon to amputees, they lack actual nerve connections with the body. As a result, walking on them is cumbersome and tiring. But last year, Seattle resident Zac Vawter was outfitted with the world#39;s first thought-controlled leg, a bionic limb that takes signals directly from his mind.虽然仿生腿对截肢者来说是巨大的福音,但是它们与人体缺乏真正的神经联系,导致依靠仿生腿走路十分麻烦和劳累。但是去年,西雅图的居民Zac Vawter 安装了世界上第一思想控制的腿,一种直接接受从他大脑发出信号的仿生肢体。This technology previously existed for arms, but legs are rather more complicated. And since a mis signal can send you jumping off a bridge or in front of a moving car, thought-controlled legs need more stringent programming than equivalent arms. As one of the researchers delicately put it, “If you#39;re using a bionic arm and it misbehaves, the elbow may move slightly. If the prosthetic leg misbehaves . . . that could be quite a safety issue.”这项技术曾经运用于武器,但是运用在仿生腿上会更复杂。误读信号可能导致安装者跳下桥或站在开动的车辆前,依靠思想控制的仿生腿需要比武器更为复杂的程序。正如研究者指出的那样:如果你使用仿生胳膊,而胳膊动作做错了,可能只是手肘偏移预订位置。而如果仿生腿动作做错了,那可能就是生命安全问题了。Vawter climbed 103 floors of a Chicago skyscraper on his bionic leg, but its designers are still working on improving it. To optimize it for everyday use, they have to make it even thinner and lighter. Its successor (the iLeg Air?) may meet the Army#39;s stated goal for a bionic leg—10,000 steps without recharging.Vawter 使用仿生腿在芝加哥一栋高楼里向上爬了103个阶梯,但是仿生腿的设计者们仍然在尝试提高它的性能。为了使它能适用于日常生活,设计者们必须让它更轻更薄。它的衍生品(充气仿生腿)可以满足陆军对于仿生腿的阶段性目标——行走一万步不用充电。6.Miniature Human Brains6.微型人脑Brain death is a bit of an inconvenience if you#39;re a fan of living, and if you#39;re looking to replace yours with a spare, you#39;re out of luck. Sure, maybe we#39;ll one day be able to plant brains into skulls, but the brain#39;s not just another organ. It contains all your thoughts and memories. They can plop a new brain in your head, but you#39;ll still be gone, so the idea of making artificial brains may seem absurd.如果你热爱生存,那么脑死亡是一件不美好的事。而且,如果你想用空闲的大脑来替换,那你是绝对找不到的。当然,也许有一天,我们能将大脑放入头骨中,但是大脑跟别的器官不同。它装有你所有的思想和记忆。人们能在你头里放一个新的大脑,但是你还是不存在,所以人造大脑这种想法看起来很荒谬。But that hasn#39;t stopped scientists from growing actual human brains in a lab. Starting with nothing but stem cells, scientists in Austria this year managed to create brains equivalent to those in nine-week-old fetuses. These miniature brains are the size of peas and are incapable of thought—so far. The one thing keeping the brains from growing beyond this stage and becoming fully functional is that they have no blood supply.但是这并没有阻止科学家在实验室发展人造大脑。今年奥地利的科学家仅从干细胞开始,成功地创造出等同于9个周大的婴儿的大脑。目前,这些大脑只有豌豆大小,也不能思考。阻止这些试验品发育成具有完全功能的大脑的因素是它们没有血液供给。But that hasn#39;t stopped scientists from growing actual human brains in a lab. Starting with nothing but stem cells, scientists in Austria this year managed to create brains equivalent to those in nine-week-old fetuses. These miniature brains are the size of peas and are incapable of thought—so far. The one thing keeping the brains from growing beyond this stage and becoming fully functional is that they have no blood supply.尽管这些大脑没有进入任何人的身体,但是他们给科学院研究脑科疾病提供了原材料。5.3-D Printed Ears5.3-D 打印耳朵We#39;ve had the technology to artificially restore hearing for decades, but internal implants do nothing for the visible parts of the ear. You#39;d think those big flaps (“pinnae”) on either side of your head would be easy to replicate, since they#39;re just skin and cartilage rather than complex organs. In reality, scientists have never done a good job with fake ears. Traditional replacements look and feel like plastic toys.我们发展出人工记录声音的技术已经有几十年了,但是人工植入器官在耳朵这一领域没有任何改变。你可能认为生长在头两边的肉块极易替换,因为它们只是皮和软骨,而不是复杂的器官。事实上,科学家在制作假耳上并没有做得非常出色。传统的替代耳朵看起来或感觉起来都像塑料玩具。But researchers this year came up with a new method that makes flexible, realistic ears out of real cells. Those cells come from rats and cows, and they form a collagen gel that can take the shape of any mold. When placed in a mold of a human ear—a mold assembled using a 3-D printer—the gel forms an ear in less than an hour. The artificial ear then just needs a few days growing in nutrients before it#39;s y to be implanted in a subject.但是今年,研究者提出一种新的方法,这种方法可以通过真的细胞制作出有弹性真实的耳朵。这些细胞来自老鼠和奶牛,可以形成胶原凝胶,按任何模具成型。当放入使用3-D打印技术制作的耳朵模型后,一个小时内那些凝胶形成了一只假耳。在移植到对象之前,人造耳朵只需要在营养成分中生长培养几天。These artificial ears will be a huge benefit to those who suffer injuries or who have microtia, a condition that keeps the ears from ever developing.这些人造耳朵对那些遭受过耳朵伤害或者耳朵停滞发育即患有小耳畸形的人来讲是巨大的福音。4.Noses That Smell Diseases4.闻疾病的鼻子Scientists may be working hard at making organs that match the body#39;s capabilities, but why stop there?科学家们在赋予人体器官原本能力方面投入很深,但是为何要仅限于此呢?When researchers at the University of Illinois set out to create a device that identifies chemicals by their scent, they didn#39;t settle for the sensitivity of the human nose. Instead, they created an artificial nose that uses the smell of bacteria to identify and diagnose specific diseases.当伊利诺伊大学的研究员着手建立一种靠嗅觉来鉴别化学物质的装置时,他们并不满足于提高人类鼻子的灵敏度。相反,他们发展出一种假鼻子,依靠对细菌的气味来鉴别和诊断某些疾病。The result doesn#39;t look much like a nose—it#39;s a bottle filled with liquid nutrient that cultivates bacteria. But give the “nose” a blood sample and let it sniff for a few days, and the bottle#39;s dots will change color to indicate what bacteria, if any, it identifies.产品看起来并不太像一个鼻子,而是一个瓶子,装满了培养细菌的营养液体。但是给这个“鼻子”一个血液样本,让它嗅上一段时间,这个瓶子的斑点会改变颜色来表示它鉴别出的细菌种类。3.Artificial Pancreas3.人工胰腺The pancreas produce insulin, and if yours don#39;t, you need to inject yourself with the hormone manually. Diabetics are therefore trapped in a stressful routine of continually checking their blood sugar and then shooting insulin whenever the need arises.胰腺产生胰岛素,如果你的胰腺没有这样做,你需要人工注射胰岛素。因此,糖尿病患者必须进行的日常事例是检查他们的血糖,并且在必要时注射胰岛素。Artificial pancreas, however, knock insulin into your body automatically. The device looks much like a regular insulin pump, which slips you insulin continuously through your skin, but this one monitors your blood sugar at all times and adjusts itself accordingly. So even when the wearer sleeps, there#39;s no danger of falling into shock if their sugar drops too low.但是人造胰腺能够自动释放胰岛素到你的身体里。这个装置看起来像一个规律的胰岛素泵,它可以穿透皮肤连续地释放胰岛素进入身体。而且它一直监视血液里的血糖含量,并根据血糖含量调整胰岛素释放量。所以,即使携带该设备的人睡着了,也不会有血糖降至很低而晕倒的危险。Unlike several items on this list, artificial pancreas aren#39;t still in some early development stage. The device very much exists and got FDA approval for sale this past September.不像这篇文章中其他的人造物品,人工胰腺并不处于前期研究阶段,这个装置确实存在,而且在今年9月份得到了FDA的销售许可2.Artificial Eyes2.人工眼睛As we pointed out earlier, we#39;ve long been able to restore hearing to the deaf, but restoring sight to the blind is a much more complicated matter. When people lose their sight, their retinas no longer send signals from their photoreceptors to their brains. To make an artificial eye, we#39;d need to understand how the retina processes those signals, and that#39;s a code scientists just haven#39;t been able to crack.我们前面已经指出,我们已经能够让聋子听到声音,但是让盲人看见画面是更复杂的事情。当人们失去视力,他们的视网膜不再把光感受器的信号发送给大脑。为了制造人工眼睛,我们需要了解视网膜是如何取得这些信号,而这正是科学家尚未解决的关键之处。Not until recently anyway. But scientists at Weill Cornell Medical College have at last managed to—at least with mice and monkeys. This produced artificial retinas, whose chips convert images into electronic signals and whose tiny projectors convert electronic signals into light.直到最近,Weill Cornell Medical College的科学家们至少在老鼠和猴子身上实现了这一点。这种人造视网膜,它的芯片可以将画面转换为电子信号,而它的微型投影机可以将电子信号转化为投影光线。These artificial eyes have indeed restored sight to blind mice. And the follow-up experiments on monkeys offer a lot of hope for eventual trials on humans because monkey and human retinas work similarly.这些人工眼睛,确实恢复了盲鼠的视力。猴子的视网膜工作原理和人类的非常相似,因此随后在猴子上进行的试验给了最终的人类试验以成功的希望。1.Fingers That Store Digital Files1.手指存储器When Finnish programmer Jerry Jalava had a motorcycle accident in 2008, he faced a double tragedy. First, he lost his finger, an obvious problem for anyone who types for a living. Second, he had to deal with a medical team who thought they were comedians—learning of his profession, one surgeon joked that Jalava should go out and buy a “USB finger drive.”当芬兰程序员Jerry Jalava 2008年遇到车祸,他面临双重悲剧。首先,他失去了他的手指,对于靠打字生存的人来说是个大问题。其次,他必须跟一个幽默感过剩的医疗小组打交道。了解了他的遭遇后,一位外科医生竟然提议Jalava应该出门去买个“USB手指驱动器”。Rather than strangling the doctor (difficult, due to his injury) Jalava took the corny line as inspiration. He decided to go ahead and actually build a prosthetic finger that contains two gigabytes of digital storage. He can now jack his finger into a computer just by peeling back the nail to expose the USB plug. He can also remove the entire finger at any time and hand it to a friend to use.但是Jalava并没有拒绝医生的建议(出于伤情的实际情况考虑,拒绝很困难),而是将这个建议作为自己的期待。他决定试一试,并且真的在植入的手指里放入两千兆字节的数字存储器。他现在只需将指甲剥掉,露出USB插头,即可将手指插入电脑连接。他也可以在任何时候拿掉整个手指,并且借给朋友使用。The next step? Jalava plans to upgrade the finger with an RFID tag and add wireless support. He also wants to add more memory, which seems pointless to us. If he needs more storage, he has nine other fingers he can chop off and replace with flash drives.下一步呢?Jalava打算给手指带上RFID标签以进行升级,并且增加无线持功能。他想扩充容量,方法自然是很无厘头的。如果他想有更多空间,他还有9个手指可以切掉换成移动存储器呢。 /201504/368707The prospects for the Jaguar and Land Rover brands under the ownership of Tata Motors of India looked weirdly uncertain in 2008, as the global financial crisis unfolded with no clear indicator whether and how soon sales of luxury cars would again grow.2008年,当捷豹和路虎被转让给印度塔塔集团时,这两大品牌的前景还非常不明朗。彼时,全球经济危机刚刚爆发,还没有明确的迹象表明豪华车型的销量何时才能再度恢复增长。Any undue fretting turns out to have been misplaced. The two quintessentially British automakers, sold to Tata by Ford Motor F 0.40% , delivered a record 462,678 vehicles globally in 2014, up from 425,000 a year earlier, with a forecast to break half a million this year. The automaker opened a manufacturing plant last year, its fifth worldwide, with ambitions to reach 750,000 units sold annually by the end of the decade and a million eventually.现在看来,当时的担心完全是不必要的。路虎和捷豹都是典型的英国汽车品牌,被福特卖给塔塔后,它们的全球销量在2013年达到425,000台,2014年更是达到了创纪录的462,678台,今年甚至有望突破50万台。去年塔塔集团又开设了它在全球的第五家制造厂。这家雄心勃勃的公司希望,到2020年,捷豹和路虎的销量能够达到75万台,最终冲破百万大关。Tata’s vision could be helped by two initiatives announced earlier this month at the North American International Auto Show in Detroit: diesel engine availability for most models and Jaguar’s first crossover, F-Pace.为了实现这个愿景,塔塔在2015底特律车展上宣布了两项计划:一是为旗下大多数车型推出柴油版,二是推出捷豹的首款跨界车型F-Pace。Diesel engines seem ideal for Jaguar and Land Rover vehicles because they’re more fuel-efficient than gasoline engines, a key consideration as automakers strive to meet more stringent efficiency rules worldwide. Diesel’s image among luxury buyers has improved in recent years because the latest versions of the engine are virtually free of smoke, odor and clatter, while providing particularly rapid acceleration from a dead stop. All of the luxury brands have been offering diesel, so why not Jaguar Land Rover?对于捷豹和路虎的车型来说,柴油发动机似乎是个理想的选择,因为柴油版的燃油经济性要优于汽油引擎,随着全球各国对能耗标准卡得越来越严,此举是非常必要的。近几年,柴油引擎在豪车阵营的形象已有所好转,因为最新的柴油发动机基本上避免了烟雾、气味和噪声等短板,同时还能提供非常理想的加速能力。所有的豪车品牌都开始提供柴油版,捷豹和路虎肯定也不愿落于人后。Andy Goss, worldwide head of sales, said in Detroit this month the brands “have to challenge the established order the way Audi had to do with BMW and Mercedes not so long ago. We are creating clear differentiation for people to buy Jaguar over one of the German brands. The Germans tend to look at each other rather than anyone else.”捷豹路虎全球运营总监安迪o高斯在底特律表示,捷豹路虎“必须挑战奥迪、宝马和奔驰建立的现有秩序。我们正在为人们建立明显的差异化选择,吸引他们购买捷豹而不是哪个德系品牌。这几个德系品牌通常只把对方当作竞争对手,并不太重视其他品牌。”What seems clear is that Tata has allowed Jaguar and Land Rover to maintain their British identity while providing prodigious capital to renew their model lineups, invest in new technology such as diesel engines and market aggressively to luxury shoppers. For anyone with a feel for history, the arrangement has an ironic aspect since India was a colony of Great Britain until it gained its independence in 1947. More than a few British aristocrats plied Indian roads in their Jaguars and Land Rovers.目前可以看出,塔塔允许捷豹和路虎保留了它们的英式风格,同时提供大量资本来革新两大品牌的车型组合。另外,塔塔还进行了柴油发动机等技术投资,并在市场营销方面不惜血本。对于任何一个对历史有一点了解的人,这一幕恐怕都不乏一丝讽刺感,因为印度直到1947年之前还是英国的殖民地,很多英国贵族一度开着他们的捷豹和路虎疾驰在印度的大小公路上,现在却要靠印度来拯救这两个历史悠久的英国品牌。In early 2016, Jaguar’s first “performance crossover” – the aluminum-bodied F-Pace – is scheduled to debut. The event should bring cheer to the hearts of U.S. franchise dealers especially, since U.S. sales fell 7% to 15,773 units last year. Crossovers are the hottest vehicle segment worldwide and have proliferated among the luxury brands as well.作为捷豹的首款“性能跨界车型”,铝合金车身的F-Pace预计将于2016年正式亮相。该车的上市应该会令美国的捷豹路虎经销商感到兴奋,因为去年捷豹路虎在美销量下跌了7%,只卖出15,773台。目前在全球范围内,跨界车都是最受市场欢迎的车型,在豪车板块也一样受到追捧。Jaguar and Land Rover’s new diesels may have arrived at an odd moment in the U.S. since the price of gasoline has been plummeting while diesel fuel is becoming relatively more expensive. But energy prices have a way of confounding consumers just when they think they’ve figured out which way prices are moving and how to adjust.捷豹和路虎的最新柴油车型登陆美国的时机则有些尴尬,因为美国的汽油油价正在暴跌,相比之下,柴油车型的燃油成本反而显得不划算。不过能源价格总有办法迷惑消费者,就在他们以为自己已经了解价格走势以及怎样适应后,它说不定又会杀你个回马。Tata Motors no doubt has been watching and learning as it invests in its estimable British brands. How long before Tata uses that knowledge to advance under its own name and ethnic identity to the front ranks of global automakers?在投资建设这两个英国豪车品牌的同时,塔塔无疑也在不断观察和学习。不知还要多久,塔塔就会利用这种知识打造具有其民族特征的自有品牌,最终跻身全球汽车厂商的“第一梯队”?(财富中文网) /201502/359908

Guangzhou’s municipal government is planning to launch its own Uber-like online taxi hire service, only weeks after police closed the San Francisco-based transport app’s office in the southern Chinese city.广州市政府计划推出一个与优步(Uber)类似的在线约租车平台,就在几周前,警方关闭了这家总部位于旧金山的专车应用在广州的办事处。The new company, Ruyue (meaning “by appointment”), will offer rides to customers using a smartphone app. However, the journeys will be provided by the four taxi companies with licences to operate in Guangzhou, which had faced competition from Uber before it was shut.新公司“如约”将利用智能手机应用向顾客提供用车务。然而,这项务将由广州4家拥有出租车牌照的出租车公司提供,在优步被关闭之前,这些出租车公司面临来自优步的竞争。The timing of Ruyue’s looming launch — weeks after Uber was taken out by a police raid — has raised questions about the city’s commitment to a level playing field.如约即将推出的时机在优步被警方突击搜查并取缔几周后,这引发了有关广州对于创建公平竞争环境这一承诺的疑问。“It is hard to say for sure whether the crackdown against Uber in Guangzhou was directly related to this new app, but I think it is natural to make the connection,” said Zhang Yi, head of iMedia, an internet consultancy in Guangzhou. “It appears the intention was to clear the scene for the new government-run app.”“很难说广州针对优步的打击与这款新应用直接相关,但我认为,人们会很自然的把二者联系在一起,”广州互联网咨询公司艾媒咨询(iMedia)首席执行官张毅表示,“其用意似乎是为这款新的由政府管理的应用软件扫清道路。”State-run companies that dominate many sectors in the Chinese economy face pressure from nimble internet companies that can disrupt inefficient markets such as transport and financial services.主导中国经济很多领域的国有企业正面临来自灵活的互联网企业的竞争,后者可能会搅乱交通和金融务等低效率市场。However, taxi hire apps — both Chinese and foreign — face attention from law enforcement agencies in many Chinese cities due to prohibitions on unlicensed taxi operation.然而,由于禁止无出租车业务,中国国内外的打车应用引起了中国很多城市执法机构的注意。Additional reporting by Ma FangjingMa Fangjing补充报道 /201505/377163

In the ed States, drones have interfered with aircraft trying to put out wildfires. They have buzzed dangerously close to jets taking off at airports and have irritated fans at sports events by hovering over stadiums.在美国,无人机已经干扰了用来扑灭山火的飞机。有时候嗡嗡轰鸣着,危险地逼近机场上起飞中的喷气机,还有的时候,它盘旋在体育场上空,令赛事观众们颇为不快。Now federal regulators, hoping to discourage mischief and negligence among drone pilots, are proposing a new system to require owners to register their unmanned aircraft.现在联邦监管者提出成立一个新系统,要求机主注册自己拥有的无人机,以此遏制无人机飞行当中的恶作剧与疏忽现象。At an event in Washington on Monday, the transportation secretary, Anthony Foxx, said the department had formed a task force to come up with the details for the registration process. The task force will be composed of more than two dozen representatives from the drone and manned aviation industries, federal government and other groups.周一,在华盛顿的一次会议上,运输部长安东尼·福克斯(Anthony Foxx)说,运输部已经成立专案组,制定这一登记程序的具体细节。该专案组由20多名成员组成,分别来自无人驾驶与有人驾驶航空业、联邦政府与其他组织。Mr. Foxx asked the group to deliver a report with its findings by Nov. 20, with the goal of putting them into place by December, an unusually speedy process for a new aviation rule with the potential to affect millions of drones. Mr. Foxx said the department was motivated to act fast because of growing reports of safety violations by drones, and because the devices are expected to be big sellers during the holiday season.福克斯要求这一小组在11月20日前递交一份报告,目的是于12月付诸实施,鉴于这项新航空规定可能会影响到数以百万计的无人机,速度快得非同寻常。福克斯说,运输部想做出快速反应,是因为部门接到的无人机影响安全的报告越来越多,而且一到假期,这种东西肯定会大卖。“We feel the level of urgency here is sufficient for us to move as quickly as we possibly can,” he said.“我们觉得这件事的紧迫性足以让我们尽快采取行动,”他说。Some drone makers were concerned, though, by the lack of detail about how the system will work and the speed with which the task force has been ordered to work out those particulars. Many questions about the regulation are unsettled, including exactly which drones are considered so harmless that they should be exempt from the new rules. The department said the regulations would not apply to toys and other small drones that posed low safety risks.不过,有些无人机生产者表示担心,因为这个系统如何运作,目前缺乏细节,而且专案组被要求很快制定出相关条文。关于这个规定,目前有很多问题都悬而未决,包括什么样的无人机应当被认为完全无害,可以排除在这些新规定里。运输部说,这些规定不适用于玩具无人机,以及其他低安全风险的小型无人机。“Whether a national drone registration system is workable and serves the purposes articulated by the secretary will depend on the criteria used to determine which drones are included, and the burden that is imposed on the public,” Brendan Schulman, vice president for policy and legal affairs at DJI, a leading Chinese drone maker, wrote in an email. “DJI is a strong supporter of drone safety initiatives, but the deadline announced today is extremely ambitious and surprising considering that the rule-making process for civilian drones has been in progress for a decade.”“全国无人机登记系统是否有效,能不能达到部长所强调的目的,关键在于对包含在规定中的无人机定义标准,以及该系统对公众所造成的负担,”中国顶尖无人机生产商DJI公司负责政策与法律事务的副总裁布伦丹·舒尔曼(Brendan Schulman)在电子邮件中说。“DJI非常持无人机安全倡议,但是鉴于为民用无人机制定规则的进程已经持续了十年,今天宣布的截止日期实在过于艰巨,令人吃惊。”It is not clear, for example, whether drones registered with the government will have to be physically labeled with the equivalent of a vehicle license plate — using a sticker, perhaps — or whether drones will be configured to electronically broadcast a unique registration number. A sticker could be useful if law enforcement officials are able to take possession of a drone after a crash. But it might not be as helpful if drone operators simply flew their devices away.比如,在政府登记的无人机是否应当悬挂和机动车牌照类似的实体牌照——可能会使用不干胶——又或者无人机是否应当配备具有独一无二的登记号的电子广播。这些目前都不清晰。如果执法人员能够在事故后得到无人机实体,不干胶可能有用。但如果无人机操作者让无人机逃掉了,那不干胶就没用了。Anyone who fails to register a drone could face civil fines up to ,500 and, if warranted, criminal penalties up to 0,000 or up to three years in jail, or both, according to a spokesman for the Federal Aviation Administration. He said the rule would apply to drones aly sold, not just new ones. Recreational fliers of drones do not have to be licensed, though there are stricter rules for commercial operators.联邦航空的发言人说,没有给自己的无人机作登记的机主可能会面临高达27500美元的民事罚款,如有必要,还会受到最高25万美元的刑事罚款,或入狱三年,又或二者兼有。他说,这项规定不仅适用于新的无人机,也适用于已经售出的无人机。宣传用的小型无人机不必登记,但对于商业运营者将有更加严格的规定。The registration proposal is just one of many measures that federal regulators are taking to open the skies to drones operated by civilians. The Federal Aviation Administration, which is part of the Transportation Department, has also introduced public education initiatives, including a “Know Before You Fly” campaign aimed at sping awareness about aviation rules among drone operators.这项规定草案是联邦监管者采取的众多措施之一,旨在向平民拥有的无人机开放领空。联邦航空隶属运输部,它已经发起了若干公众教育活动,比如向无人机操作者宣传有关航空规定的“飞前须知”活动。A “No Drone Zone” campaign uses signs showing a slash through a drone to let operators know where the devices are prohibited — near airports, for instance.“无人机禁飞区”活动使用了在无人机图案上画一道斜线的标识,让操作者明白,哪些地方是禁止无人机飞行的——比如说机场附近。“This isn’t riding your A.T.V. on your own property,” Mr. Foxx said. “This is going into space where other users are occupying that space. It’s a matter of responsibility that we take seriously.”“这和在自己家的地皮上开越野沙滩车不一样,”福克斯说,“你进入的空间里还有其他用户。这是我们要认真对待的责任。” /201510/405831

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