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2019年06月25日 16:45:05来源:安健康

It is known to prevent against heart disease and is hailed as the secret to a long, healthy life. Now, researchers have found the Mediterranean diet can help people with depression, too。我们已经知道,地中海式饮食可以防止心脏病,而且被誉为健康长寿的秘密。如今,研究人员发现,地中海式饮食还可以帮助抑郁症人群。A study found people who followed the diet were happier, less stressed and reported an improved quality of life compared to those who ate fewer Mediterranean foods。研究发现,与食用较少地中海食物的人相比,地中海式饮食习惯的人更加快乐、压力更小且据说生活质量更高。The researchers said omega-3 in particular, a fatty acid found in fish, plays a vital role in maintaining and improving mental health and stability。研究人员称,尤其是欧米茄三,一种鱼肉中含有的脂肪酸,在维持和改善心理健康及稳定方面起到重要作用。As part of the study, Australian researchers recruited a total of 82 adults with depression, aged between 18 -65.作为研究的一部分,澳大利亚研究人员找到了82个患有抑郁症的成年人,年龄介于18到65岁。They then assessed how strongly they followed the Mediterranean diet through a 14-item questionnaire。然后,通过一份有14个问题的问卷,研究人员可以了解到他们在何种程度上遵从地中海式饮食。This was despite the fact it was a study of people with depression, who tended to have poor diets in the first place。尽管事实上,这个研究是基于抑郁症人群的,而他们本身在饮食习惯上就不会很好。The study’s lead author, Dr Natalie Parletta told MailOnline: ‘What we found is that poor diet is predicting the onset of depression.’研究的主要负责人娜塔莉·帕莱塔士告诉每日邮报在线说:“我们发现,不良饮食习惯可以预报抑郁的发生。”‘It’s not that people are getting depressed and then eating badly, eating badly causes the depression in the first place.’“并不是说人们开始变得抑郁了然后吃得不好,而是吃得不好先引起了抑郁。”‘We recruited people who had depression aly. We screened out people who had good diet. So it was amazing that there was a significant correlation the Mediterranean diet and mental illness, even for people with low scores on the consumption of wholefoods.’“我们的研究对象是抑郁症患者,我们筛选出了饮食习惯较好的人。于是,令人惊讶的是,我们发现地中海式饮食和心理疾病显著相关,哪怕是对于全食摄入得分较低的人群也是如此。” /201503/363256。

  • DUNHUANG, China — In the cool shadows of Cave 98, Li Lingzhi watched as workers in blue suits inspected the Buddhist frescoes commissioned in this Gobi Desert cliff grotto more than a millennium ago by a local ruling family.中国敦煌——李凌志(音译)站在98号窟阴凉的暗处,看着身穿蓝色工装的工作人员查看洞窟里的佛教壁画,这些在戈壁滩崖洞里的壁画,是1000多年前由一个统治当地的家族出资创制。It has taken a decade to restore the cave. Metal scaffolding still surrounds the central statue, a three-story seated Buddha with orange robes.修复这个洞窟前后花了十年时间。洞窟中心是一座三层楼高、身披橘色袈裟的坐佛,佛像周围还立着金属脚手架。“We’re waiting for an expert to inspect this, and then we will discuss when we can open it to the public,” said Mr. Li, who works on conservation for the Dunhuang Research Academy, which has managed the Mogao Caves for the central government since 1944, even before the Communists took power. “We’re monitoring humidity and temperature now in this cave.”“我们正在等待一位专家来检查这座佛像的修复情况,然后再讨论何时可以向公众开放,”李凌志说到,他在敦煌研究院负责文物保护工作。该院自1944年就开始为中央政府管理莫高窟,当时中国共产党还没有掌权。“我们正在监测这个洞窟现在的湿度和温度,”李凌志説。Such is the delicate work that goes into preserving these small, centuries-old caves, with nearly 500 of them providing a time capsule of art along the Silk Road and ranking among the world’s greatest Buddhist treasures.保护这些有成百上千年历史的小洞窟,正需要这样细致入微的工作,沿着昔日的丝绸之路分布着五百多座洞窟,它们是穿越时间的艺术,是世界上最重要的佛教宝藏之一。There are statues and figurines and frescoes of Buddha with curly hair and sharp noses, a style common in ancient Central Asian art; Tibetan-style bodhisattvas with a thousand arms drawn in the time of Mongol rule; and disciples wearing Indian dhotis. Most of the caves with art were paid for by royal families seeking a place for private worship. The oldest one dates back 1,600 years.洞窟中的雕塑和壁画描绘的佛陀有卷曲的头发和笔挺的鼻子,这种形象在古代中亚艺术中比较常见;蒙古统治时期绘制的藏式千手观音;身着印度传统饰托蒂(dhotis)的佛教徒。大部分存有艺术创作的洞窟都是由当时的王族出资建造,作为私人的礼佛之地。最古老的洞窟可以追溯到1600年前。The caves marked the western frontier of Chinese empires and the eastern one of Central Asian kingdoms. Camel caravans crossed the Hexi Corridor here laden with spices, silks and scriptures, some of which were deposited in the famous library cave that drew the explorers Sir Aurel Stein and Paul Pelliot in the early 20th century. An entire school of scholarship called “Dunhuang Studies” has sprung up in the decades since, and the area has been designated a World Heritage Site by the ed Nations.这些洞窟曾处在历代中华帝国疆土和西方的中亚王国接壤的地方。当时穿梭于河西走廊的骆驼满载着香料、丝绸、经卷,有些经卷原先保存于著名的藏经洞里,正是这个洞窟吸引探险家奥雷尔·斯坦因爵士(Sir Aurel Stein)和保罗·伯希和(Paul Pelliot)在20世纪初来到敦煌。一大批被统称为“敦煌学”的学术研究在之后几十年陆续涌现。这个地区也被联合国列入世界遗产名录。But the modern era’s threats to the art have been legion: sandstorms, rainwater, local tomb raiders, plundering foreign archaeologists (Messrs. Stein and Pelliot among them), and White Russian soldiers who once lived in the grottoes.但到了近现代,这些艺术品却遭遇来自多方面的威胁:沙尘暴、雨水、当地盗墓者和前来捋掠的国外考古学家(包括斯坦因和伯希和),以及曾经住在这些洞窟里的白俄罗斯士兵。Scholars and preservationists now warn of an even greater looming threat: tourist hordes, even beyond the thousands of daily visitors who flood the area between May and October.如今,学者和文物保护者担心一个更为严重、日益突出的威胁:成群结队的游客,这远不止五月到十月间令这里人满为患的成千上万名游客。Officials in Gansu Province, which includes Dunhuang, and a company in Beijing have drawn up plans for a sprawling theme park connecting the caves with a separate area of sand dunes that aly exists as a tourist playground (think dune buggies and camel rides). The connecting strip of desert would be filled with faux temples, folk villages and souvenir stands.敦煌所在的甘肃省政府和一家北京公司已经在规划建设一个巨大的主题公园,将敦煌石窟和另一片沙丘连起来,那里已经是一个观光乐园(提供沙漠越野车和骆驼骑行之类的项目)。中间相连的狭长沙漠地带将会建起假寺庙、民俗村和纪念品商店。“We hope it won’t become reality,” said Fan Jinshi, 76, known as the “Daughter of Dunhuang,” who has worked at the academy since 1963 and directed it for 17 years, until March. “The Mogao Caves are irreplaceable and nonrenewable. Not only do the caves have to be respected, but the atmosphere around them must be protected, too. The atmosphere around them is part of their integrity.”“我希望它不要变成现实,”76岁的樊锦诗说到,她被称为“敦煌的女儿”,自1963年就开始在敦煌研究院工作,担任该院院长17年,直到今年三月退休。“莫高窟无可替代,一旦破坏也不可恢复。我们不仅要保护洞窟本身,还要保护其周边环境。周边环境也是这个整体的一部分。”He Shuzhong, founder of the Beijing Cultural Heritage Protection Center, a nonprofit preservation group, expressed his concerns in an essay in the March issue of World Heritage Magazine, a publication of the Chinese Foreign Ministry.非盈利保护机构北京文化遗产保护中心发起人何戍中今年三月在中国外交部主管的《世界遗产》杂志发表了一篇文章,也表达了这方面的担忧。“For 20 years, the city has never stopped trying to exploit the caves for money,” Mr. He said in an interview. “The plan would destroy the environment of the caves.”“过去20年,这个城市一直在利用洞窟敛财,”何戍中在一次接受采访时说到。“这个项目会毁掉洞窟的环境。”The plan, requested by Gansu officials, was completed last October by the Boya Strategy Consultation Group, a Beijing-based company that develops commercial tourism sites across China. The proposal has circulated among Gansu officials and the Dunhuang Research Academy, but it has not been publicly released.应甘肃省官员的要求,在全国参与多个商业旅游景区开发的雅方略咨询集团已经在去年十月完成了这个项目的策划。这份策划书已经在甘肃官员手上和敦煌研究院里传阅,但还没有对外公布。In the plan, Boya designers list various shortcomings in the area around the Mogao Caves, including a lack of hotels, live entertainment, large shopping areas and bus parking lots, according to a copy obtained by The New York Times.《纽约时报》获得的一份策划书复印件显示,雅公司在其中列举了在莫高窟周边建景区的各种弊端,包括缺少配套酒店、设施、大型购物区和大巴停车场。The plan proposes building a trailer park and campground complete with a drive-in movie theater, a vineyard and wine cellar, and a “Silk Road Village” between the caves and the sand dunes with hotels, shopping malls, museums, performance halls, restaurants, bars and movie theaters.策划书建议在周边建立旅行拖车公园、带汽车影院的露营地、一个葡萄园和酒窖,以及在沙丘和洞窟之间建一个有配套酒店、购物中心、物馆、表演场所、餐厅、酒吧和影院的“丝绸之路村”。Its authors give generous estimates of potential income. By 2017, it says, the main tourism zone will attract more than 2.13 million tourists a year, with revenue of 496 million renminbi, or million. By 2020, the revenue will grow to 3 million.据策划者估算,这个商业项目的潜在收入将非常可观。策划书中写道,2017年主旅游区每年将会吸引213万游客,创造4.96亿人民币(或8000万美元)的营收。至2020年,收入将增至1.23亿美元。“The concept of the tourism zone was suggested by the provincial government after it established a tourism industry leading group,” said Dou Wenzhang, a Peking University business scholar who founded Boya. “The goal is to establish 20 of these zones across Gansu Province.”“这个旅游区的概念是省政府在成立了一个旅游产业领导小组之后提出的,目标是在甘肃省内建起20个这样的景区,”雅方略创始人、北京大学经济学者窦文章说到。Jiang Jianhong, director of daily operations at the Dunhuang City Tourism Bureau, said, “There is no timeline as to when construction will start on the tourism zone.” He added, “Protection of the caves is of the highest importance.”敦煌市旅游局姜建宏表示,“对于何时开始建设这个旅游区,我们还没有具体的时间表。”他还说,“洞窟的保护是最重要的。”Perhaps most worrying to the Dunhuang Research Academy, the plan calls for the creation of a provincial government commission to oversee tourism, potentially stripping the academy of some or all of its authority. Mr. Dou argued that the academy would retain much of its power and that its rules on tourism would be respected.最让敦煌研究院担心的恐怕是,该计划需要省政府建立专门委员会来监督旅游业发展,这可能会部分削弱或完全剥夺研究院的权力。窦文章认为政府会保留研究院的很多权力,他们对景区旅游的管理权也会得到尊重。In the eyes of Ms. Fan and her colleagues, the imperatives of preservation must be placed well above tourism. Aly, the number of tourists generates anxiety at the academy. After 1979, when the caves were opened to the public, 10,000 to 20,000 people visited annually. In recent years, the crowds have sometimes reached that number in a single day in the peak season, with a total of 810,000 last year.在樊锦诗和她的同事看来,文物保护的重要性一定要高于旅游开发。单是大量游客到来已经让他们倍感焦虑。1979年敦煌莫高窟对外开放后,每年有一两万人到访。最近几年,旅游旺季一天的游客人数就能达到这个量,去年的游客总数已经达到81万。Ms. Fan and her colleagues worked for years on a plan to control tourism that is just now taking effect. The academy built a new visitors’ center about 10 miles north of the caves. People park there and are required to watch two 20-minute films about the caves before taking shuttle buses to the site. There, guides lead groups of 25 people in tours of one to two hours through about eight caves, with a limit of 6,000 visitors a day.樊锦诗和同事们为一项控制游客数量的计划努力了多年,最近刚刚开始实施。研究院在洞窟北面10英里(约合16公里)处新建了一座游客中心。游客在那里换乘班车前往景区之前,需要观看两段时长20分钟的有关洞窟的影像资料。景区日接待游客总量控制在6000人内,旅游向导每次带25人入窟,一两小时内观看完八个洞窟。One of the films, in 3-D, is projected on the inside of a dome that brings the viewer into six caves, including one with an 85-foot-high sitting Buddha.其中一段是3D影像,在一个穹顶结构墙面上放映,可以让游客立体观看六座洞窟内的景象,其中一个洞窟里有一座高达85英尺(约合26米)的坐佛像。“The point is to have people look at the art but without going into the caves,” Ms. Fan said. “This is the first place in all of China to experiment with this method.”“这样做的目的是让游客不必进入洞窟就可以观赏洞窟艺术,”樊锦诗说到。“这里是全中国第一个尝试用这种方法的地方。”About 80 percent of the caves are less than 85 square feet and cannot accommodate many visitors, yet 1,187 people bought tickets for the tour one recent day.80%的洞窟面积不到85平英尺(约合8平方米),无法容纳太多游客,而最近一天就有1187人购买了门票。Their mere presence can be harmful, raising the temperature and levels of carbon dioxide and humidity. Sensors in the caves send ings to the academy’s control rooms. If those exceed recommended levels, the academy temporarily closes the cave.这些人哪怕什么也不做,只是出现在洞窟里,也会带来危害,他们会增加窟内温度、二氧化碳浓度和湿度。窟内安装的感应器会向研究院的控制室发送检测数据。如果数据超过了一定范围,研究院就会暂时关闭洞窟。“If there are too many tourists, the aly existing conditions will worsen,” Ms. Fan said. “If you develop just the tourism industry and sacrifice cultural relics protection, the profit will run out quickly.”“游客数量过多,情况会比现在的更糟,”樊锦诗说到。“如果只追求旅游开发,而牺牲文物保护,这种利润很快就会耗尽。” /201506/381520。
  • Two years ago, Elizabeth Millard discovered a way to put fresh produce into car food. No, she’s not the one who smuggled shredded lettuce into the Doritos Cheesy Gordita Crunch-Fiery, a 490-calorie, zero-noun snack from Taco Bell. Rather, Ms. Millard, a sustainable farmer outside the Twin Cities, did something even more unlikely: she grew a crop of microgreens on the passenger-side floor mat of her 2005 VW Beetle convertible.两年前,伊丽莎白·米勒德(Elizabeth Millard)发现了一个方法,可以让新鲜的农产品成为车载食品。别多想,她可不是在Taco Bell快餐店出售的那种490卡路里、0营养的小食“多力多滋奶酪玉米片”(Doritos Cheesy Gordita Crunch-Fiery)里,偷偷放进碎生菜的人。不过,这位在双城市(Twin Cities)的市郊从事可持续农业生产的农夫,所做的事要离谱得多:在自己那辆2005年大众甲壳虫敞篷车的副驾座位地垫上,种出了一小块微型菜园(microgreen)。“We were shuttling our box of seeds back and forth from our rented greenhouse space to our house,” she said the other day. “And I tripped and they fell all over the place.” Cress, mustards, a little purple mizuna.“当时,我们正从租用的温室里来来回回往家搬运一箱箱的种子,”她那天说了起来,“然后我绊了一跤,把那些种子撒得满地都是。”其中有水芹、芥菜,和一点紫色日本色拉菜。Ms. Millard added: “Being frustrated and lazy, I decided I would clean them up some time in my lifetime. Which means never.”米勒德继续道:“我心烦意乱,也懒得收拾,就决定另外再找个时间把它们清理干净。其实就是再也不管了。”It rained the next day. Ms. Millard, now 46, and Karla Pankow, her partner in life and in their C.S.A. business, called Bossy Acres, tracked mud into the car. After that, the June sun busted loose and they threw down the top. I think you can see where this is going.第二天下起了雨。今年46岁的米勒德和她的人生伴侣兼C.S.A.生意伙伴、Bossy Acres公司的合伙人卡拉·潘科(Karla Pankow),把满脚的泥带进了车里。再然后,六月里的炎炎烈日让他们放下了车顶棚。我想你能猜到后来发生了什么吧。“About five days after the incident, I came out to my car in the morning and there was a beautiful flush carpet of microgreens on the passenger side,” Ms. Millard said. “It looked like a Chia Pet.”“那次意外之后大约过了五天,我早上去开车门,发现副驾座位下面,有块整齐漂亮的微型蔬菜地毯,”米勒德说,“看起来就像芡欧鼠尾草娃娃(Chia Pet)。”The accident fed the philosophy behind her new book “Indoor Kitchen Gardening: Turn Your Home Into a Year-Round Vegetable Garden” (Cool Springs Press). This is a how-to guide that describes Ms. Millard’s experiments raising crops — sun-loving outdoor plants like herbs, carrots, radishes, potatoes and tomatoes — in her Minneapolis bungalow.这次意外事件充实了她的种植理念,成就了她的新书《室内厨房园艺:把你的家变成四季菜园》(Indoor Kitchen Gardening: Turn Your Home Into a Year-Round Vegetable Garden,由Cool Springs出版)。这是一本操作指南,描述了米勒德在自己那栋位于明尼阿波里斯市(Minneapolis)的平房里,是如何尝试在室内种植一些喜欢阳光的户外作物的,例如各种香草、胡萝卜、水萝卜、土豆和番茄。I, for one, have daydreamed about owning a conservatory: a bright, climate-controlled growing space with windows, supplemental lights and a handy watering source. And here was Ms. Millard to tell me that I aly possessed such a space, and it was called my condo.其实我本人就幻想过拥有一间温室:一个明亮的、可控制气候影响的生长空间,有几扇窗户、有补充光源、还有方便取用的水源。但米勒德郑重其事地告诉我,我已经拥有一个这样的地方了,那就是我的共管公寓。You don’t have to be a plant whisperer to enjoy success in this endeavor. Although, occasionally, you do have to be the bee. In a quest for bug-less indoor pollination, Ms. Millard stimulated the tomato’s reproductive parts with her electric toothbrush. (Talk about forbidden fruit.) But what she discovered, and what the book illustrates, is that it’s possible and even easy to cultivate shoots, greens and the odd root crop with almost no special equipment.你不必成为一名花语者(plant whisperer),也能在这一领域有所作为。不过有时候,你的确得充当一只蜜蜂。为了探索室内无虫授粉的问题,米勒德用她的电动牙刷来刺激番茄的生殖器(还谈起了禁果什么的)。但她在实践中发现——也在这本书中谈到,栽培芽类植物、绿叶植物和那些奇怪的块茎类作物,不但有可能、而且是很容易做到的,几乎无需特别的设备。The VW microgreens did not become the stuff of a piquant salad. “I can’t imagine the carpet of your car is a food-safe environment,” Ms. Millard said. (What vinaigrette goes with road salt?) Instead, it became a proof of concept. “The lesson is: Don’t worry about it so much,” Ms. Millard said of her indoor garden. “If the conditions are right, it will happen.”不过,她在甲壳虫车上栽培的那些微型植物,并没有成为一份鲜美色拉的配料。“我没法想象车上的地垫是食品安全级的环境,”米勒德说(谁能想象把香醋色拉汁和道路化冰盐搭配起来,会是什么味道呢?)。不过,这是一次理念的验。“经验是:别想太多,”米勒德谈起她的室内种植工作,“只要条件合适,该发生的自然会发生。”In many ways, the gardening conditions in the northland are best suited to ornamental berries, red-barked shrubs and alcoholism. The professional eschatologists (known elsewhere as meteorologists) were predicting scattered frosts for the night after Ms. Millard paid me a house call. It was early September.从许多方面来看,北部地区的种植条件最适宜具有装饰性的浆果类植物、红皮灌木丛,以及酗酒。这天晚上,米勒德到我家上门务后,那些专业的末世论者(在其它地方又称气象学家) 开始预测哪儿会有霜降了。这才刚刚九月初呢。The parsley and sage in my backyard could hang on until Thanksgiving. But if I didn’t bring the basil inside now, I wouldn’t see it again until May or June.我后院里种的欧芹与鼠尾草还可以坚持到感恩节;但我现在如果不把罗勒移到屋里来的话,到明年五、六月之前,我可就别想再看见它了。While I was outside, I noticed a volunteer tomato seedling and a stray mint. What would be the harm in digging them up and converting them into house pets? (Ms. Millard recommends converting the garage or a three-season porch into a kind of halfway house where the plants can get acclimated.)我在外面忙活的时候,注意到了一株跃跃欲试的番茄幼苗和一株流浪的薄荷。如果把它们都挖出来变成室内宠物,会有什么坏处吗?(米勒德建议我把车库或三季门廊[three-season porch,类似于玻璃阳光房的门廊——译注]改成临时的种植园,让这些植物有个适应过程。)I asked Ms. Millard about what may still be growing at her house across town. But she had moved out soon after finishing a draft of the book. While she and Ms. Pankow shopped for farmland of their own, they were dwelling in a downscale version of that VW Microgreen: a 25-year-old Coachman fifth-wheel camper they bought from friends for ,000. The quarters were homey; a previous owner had gone through the effort of painting the wallpaper.我问米勒德,还有些什么植物仍然生长在她那位于小镇另一边的屋子里。但她把这本书的初稿写完不久,就搬了出来。她与潘科在购买她们自己的农场期间,就住在那辆甲壳虫微型植物基地的简约版里:一辆车龄25年的马车夫(Coachman)五轮野营车,是他们花2000美元(约合人民币12259元)从朋友手里买来的。车里舒得像在家一样;一位前车主还劳心劳力地绘制了壁纸。“It’s surprisingly spacious,” she said. “It’s like a New York apartment.”“那辆车宽敞得惊人,”她说,“就像一套纽约公寓。”Except, presumably, in New York it would have cost .65 million in an all-cash transaction and another million for a parking spot.只不过,在纽约购买这样一套公寓,大概得花265万美元(约合人民币1624万元),不仅是现金全款交易,还得再花100万美元(约合人民币613万元)去买个停车位。Ms. Millard has good news for the yardless metropolitan. Much of the equipment you need for indoor kitchen gardening is aly in the kitchen. Sprouts should grow in a Mason jar with a screen lid for air and drainage. Soak the seeds (Ms. Millard likes the flavor of broccoli). Then, after a day or two, turn the jar upside down and wait.米勒德给那些没有院子的都市人带来了喜讯。这项室内厨房园艺所需的设备,多数都已经在厨房里了。幼苗应该生长在一只梅森罐(Mason jar——一种玻璃食品罐)里,罐子要有网盖,可以透气和排水。把选好的种子(米勒德喜欢西兰花的味道)浸湿,然后等上一、两天,把这只罐子倒转过来,再继续等待。Are the white filaments edible food or some type of brassica thrush? Ms. Millard was noncommittal. “I will sprout things if people ask me to,” she said. “But I have not been a huge fan.”这些白色的纤维到底是可以吃的食物,还是某种芸苔属的病态植物呢?米勒德含糊其辞地说,“反正我会让东西长出芽来,只要有人要我这样做,”她说,“但我也不会特别沉迷于这些事。”Farther down in the cupboards, pie plates or baking sheets make satisfactory planters to grow microgreens or shoots. At the start, plastic wrap can keep the seeds humid. You may even have the shoot seeds in the bulk bin: say, dried peas, raw sunflower seeds or untreated popcorn.橱柜的很下方有几只馅饼盘或烤盘,可供那些能干的种植者们种植一些嫩茎类或芽类的蔬菜。刚开始的时候,用塑料袋包裹,可以让这些种子保持湿润。你甚至可以用散粒储存箱来装这些嫩芽植物的种子:比如干豌豆、生的向日葵籽,或是没经处理的玉米粒。Germination isn’t a sign of spoilage; it’s the goal here. Ms. Millard recommends soaking the seeds for a day or two beforehand, changing the water now and again. “If you leave them longer than that, they’ll give off a really vile smell,” she said, “like burning moldy feet.” At this point, you’re not raising food but developing a biological weapons program.发芽并不是变质的标志,而恰是我们此时此刻的目标。米勒德建议大家把种子提前浸泡一、两天,不时换换水。“如果你浸泡的时间再长一点,它们就会发出相当难闻的气味,”她说,“就像在燃烧发霉的脚一样。”这样的话,你就不是在种植可食用的东西、而是在研发一种生化武器了。The easiest indoor gardening projects look a lot like seed-starting. You don’t need much dirt: an inch and a half for sprouts, and maybe half an inch for microgreens (a regular lettuce mix, harvested early). “You can do that on a paper towel,” she said. “They’re not going to grow into their fullest expression of what they could be.” But then, who among us hasn’t thought about their own dirt nap and harbored the same self-doubt?在室内栽培项目中,最简单的似乎就是让种子发芽了。你不需要太多土壤:铺上1.5英寸(约合38毫米)厚的土用来发芽,再铺半英寸(约合13毫米)用于那些嫩茎菜的生长(这是一种常见的混合生菜食材,很早就被采摘下来)。“这些活儿,你在一张纸巾上照样能做,”她说,“它们不会长成其成熟植株本来会是的样子。”但是仔细想想,我们当中有谁从没想过自己最终的结局,然后抱有同样的自我怀疑呢?Ms. Millard had dragged a full bag of vermiculite as big as a pillowcase up the three flights of stairs. This, of course, was a bit of a sight gag: the white filler looks like Styrofoam and weighs no more. The idea was to mix it with a bagged organic compost she likes, called Cowsmo. But any indoor potting mix with a little fertilizer would do.米勒德拖着枕头套那么大的一袋蛭石,爬了三段楼梯。这确实有点像滑稽表演:袋子里那些白色的东西看起来好像泡沫塑料,实际却沉重无比。她打算把这些“泡沫”和她喜欢的科兹(Cowsmo)袋装有机堆肥混在一起。不过任何室内盆栽混合土壤,只要含一点肥料,都是可以的。“You want something that drains really well,” Ms. Millard said. “Dirt from your garden is too dense.” As a no-pesticide farmer, she welcomed the chance for a clean start. There’s a book to be written about how to breed common garden bugs in the house, but let’s leave that to the newspaper’s entomology expert.“你要的是那种排水非常好的东西,”米勒德说,“从自己花园里挖来的土壤,密度太大。”她是一位不使用杀虫剂的农夫,喜欢从一开始就保持土壤的纯净。至于如何在屋里养殖常见的花园昆虫,这个话题可以写出一本书来,我们还是留给本报的那些昆虫学专家们吧。Ms. Millard totes a stack of 20-inch black plastic planting flats almost everywhere she goes, the same way a real estate agent seems to bleed a trail of lawn signs. Get the ones with the bottom watering slits and the translucent lids. They are a masterful piece of industrial design, they cost about .50 each and they look just like garbage.米勒德不管到哪儿,都拖着一堆20英寸(约51厘米)厚的黑色塑料种植板,就像一名房地产经纪人不管到哪儿都会竖起一连串草坪标牌那样。去购买这些底部裂口、带透明盖子的东西吧。它们是工业设计的杰作,每个大约1.5美元(约合人民币9元),看起来就像垃圾一样。A Pyrex casserole dish makes a smarter display. “It may help with the drainage to put a low layer of gravel in the bottom,” Ms. Millard said, prepping the planter. A few handfuls of soil mix flew into the trays. She was no more delicate with the pea seeds and the popcorn kernels, scattering a single layer over the surface. Being housebound, they wouldn’t need a coat of dirt on top.用派热克斯(Pyrex)烤盘则要气派得多。“在底部铺上薄薄一层碎石,可以帮助排水,”米勒德说,她正准备播种。几把混合土壤撒进了这些托盘里。她不再小心翼翼地处理这些豌豆种子和爆米花硬核,而是粗略地在土壤表面撒了薄薄一层。反正是在室内,它们不需要在顶上再铺一层土。You’ll want to sow at the kind of density you would see in front of the stage at Bonnaroo. Once the sprouts come up, Ms. Millard said, “you could have someone crowd surf without falling in.”你播撒种子的密度,要像你在波纳罗音乐节(Bonnaroo)舞台前方看到的人群密度一样。等这些幼苗长出来,米勒德说,“你都能让一个人在上面玩人体冲浪,也不会掉下去了。”At this point, Ms. Millard mentioned a piece of look-for-it-in-the-basement gear: a box fan. A little airflow helps ward off disease and stiffens a plant’s resolve.说到这,米勒德提起一件“要去地下室里找”的装置:一台箱式电扇。一点气流可以帮助植物避免疾病,并增强植株的抵抗力。My summer corn crop in the yard had been a mixed success. By that I mean it was a success for the squirrels that stripped the stalks clean and a total failure for me, who waited 80 days and got nothing.我夏天在院子里种的玉米算是成败参半吧。我的意思是,对于松鼠来说是成功的,它们把玉米杆子剥得一干二净;但对我而言则是彻头彻尾的失败,等待了80天,结果一无所获。“Depending on your conditions in here, after about two weeks you should be able to harvest them,” Ms. Millard said. “Cut them like you’re giving them the worst haircut in the world.”“这取决于你这里的天气状况,再过大约两周吧,你应该就能有收获了,”米勒德说,“收割玉米的样子,就像你要给它们剪全世界最难看的发型。”I said, “I think I’ve given someone that haircut.”我说,“我大概给人剪过那样的发型。”Ms. Millard said, “I think I’ve had that haircut.”米勒德说,“我大概被人剪过那样的发型。”What about lights? This is the question that every lay agronomist seems to ask, Ms. Millard said. It’s as if she has proposed a suspect workaround: school without homework, say, or an affair without text messaging (I mean, sex).那么光照呢?这似乎是每位外行的农学家都会提出的问题,米勒德说。那语气就好像她已经提出了一个可疑的变通方案:就像是,比方说不留家庭作业的学校,或是不发短信(我指的是,性)的外遇。Ms. Millard dutifully runs through the options in the book. A window with southern exposure will get you somewhere. But the plant will need to be close to the pane, where conditions may be drafty. Incandescent bulbs give off more heat than light. Ms. Millard doesn’t spend too much time on specialty lighting systems: HID, LED or plasma. This kind of expertise and budget are the province of the marijuana cultivator. We have a lot to learn from them.米勒德很负责地把书中的选项都浏览了一遍。一扇向南的窗户会对你有所助益,但是植物得靠近窗格,那里的环境可能比较通风。一些白炽灯泡会比自然光发出更多热量。米勒德没有在如何布置专门的光照系统上花太多HID啦、LED啦,或者等离子什么的。这种光照系统的专业程度和预算花销,是大麻栽培者熟悉的范畴。我们有许多东西得向他们学习。Ultimately, Ms. Millard recommends cheap shop lights, with full-spectrum bulbs (t5 or t8) and reflective hoods. The adjustable fixtures are better still: You can start them a couple of inches above the newly sprouted seeds and raise them as your plants grow.最终,米勒德建议大家采用廉价的店铺照明,这种照明系统有全光谱的灯泡(光管直径t5或t8[t5直径约16mm,t8直径约25.4mm——译注])和反光罩。最好让那些可调节灯具保持固定:你可以一开始把它们装在新发芽的种子上方几英寸的位置,然后随着植物的生长逐渐升高。We’d moved on to planting herbs and root crops. Untreated potatoes from the farmers’ market would turn into suitable plants. Just wait for the eyes to form. Ms. Millard suggested putting five or six in a 15-gallon pot. “They should get some light during the day,” she said. But, “potatoes do well with the whole benign-neglect situation.” They’re like children that way.我们又谈到了种植香草和根茎类作物。从农贸市场上买来的、未经处理的土豆,就会长成适合栽培的植株,只要等待芽眼形成就可以了。米勒德建议在每个15加仑大小的锅里,放五至六个土豆。“它们应该在白天得到一些光照,”她说。但是,“土豆很会适应被完全善意忽视的情境。”在这方面,它们就像孩子一样。Rounded carrots and radishes wouldn’t outgrow their Procrustean beds. She mentioned French baby carrots (“carefully bred in France!”) and a favorite radish called Parisienne, which had the soul of a carrot. Alas, indoors, they would grow about as fast as the European economy. “Carrots take forever,” Ms. Millard said. “About two months, if you’re lucky.”圆滚滚的胡萝卜和小萝卜,生长过程中都不会超出它们那张“普罗克汝斯忒斯之床”(Procrustean beds,源自希腊神话,形容强求一致的标准——译注)。她还提到了法国小胡萝卜(French baby carrots)(“在法国悉心栽培的!”),和一种叫做“巴黎女子”(Parisienne)、的讨人喜欢的小萝卜,它拥有一根胡萝卜的灵魂。唉,养在室内的话,它们的生长速度就能快得堪比欧洲经济了。“胡萝卜的生长周期很长,”米勒德说,“大约要两个月吧,如果你幸运的话。”In the end, she harvested maybe 10 carrots — not the kind of bounty to run through a juicer. “When you spend that much time and love,” she said, “you slice them up and eat them raw like carpaccio.”最后,她收获了大约十根胡萝卜——绝不舍得放进榨汁机里。“当你花了那么多的时间与爱心,”她说,“你只会把它们切成薄片,然后生吃,就像吃生牛肉片一样。”She wouldn’t blame anyone who concluded that indoor kitchen gardening is impractical. “There’s something of the hobbyist to it,” she said.如果有谁得出室内厨房园艺不切实际的结论,她也不会责怪他们。“这只是某种偏好。”她说。Before I forget, then, here’s a reminder. In New York City, the outdoor planting date for carrots is only 150 days away.以免我到时候忘了,先在这里提个醒。在纽约市,再过150天,就到了该在户外种植胡萝卜的日子了。 /201412/345438。
  • THIS season millions of Americans will celebrate with turkey on the table. The turkey is, after all, the native North American animal that Benjamin Franklin considered “a much more respectable bird” than the scavenging bald eagle. But while the eagle landed on the country’s Great Seal and the turkey gets pride of place at our holiday dinners, neither bird can claim to have changed American culture more than their lowly avian cousin, the chicken.这个季节,千百万美国人在庆祝节日时,餐桌上都摆着火鸡。毕竟,火鸡是北美本土的物种,本杰明·富兰克林(Benjamin Franklin)认为它与翻找腐肉的白头鹰相比,是一种“远更值得尊重的鸟”。尽管白头鹰登上了美国的国徽,火鸡也骄傲地成为节日餐桌上举国同享的美味,但这两种鸟对美国文化产生的影响,都比不上它们身份低微的表亲——家鸡。English settlers arriving at Jamestown in 1607 brought a flock of chickens that helped the struggling colony survive its first harsh winters, and the bird was on the Mayflower 13 years later. But the popularity of the Old World fowl soon faded, as turkey, goose, pigeon, duck and other tastier native game were plentiful.英国殖民者在1607年抵达詹姆斯敦的时候,带来了一群鸡。鸡帮助处境艰难的殖民地度过了最初几个凛冽的寒冬。13年后的“五月花号”(Mayflower)上也带了鸡。不过,由于火鸡、鹅、鸽、鸭及其他更美味的本地禽类琳琅满目,鸡这种旧大陆家禽变得不再那么受人关注。This proved a boon for enslaved Africans. Fearful that human chattel could buy their freedom from profits made by selling animals, the Virginia General Assembly in 1692 made it illegal for slaves to own horses, cattle or pigs. Poultry, though, wasn’t considered worth mentioning.不过,这对从非洲贩运来的奴隶倒是个好消息。由于担心作为私产的黑奴通过贩卖动物来赚钱赎身,弗吉尼亚议会(Virginia General Assembly)在1692年颁布法令,禁止黑奴拥有马、牛、猪。不过,他们认为家禽不值一提。This loophole offered an opportunity. Most slaves came from West Africa, where raising chickens had a long history. Soon, African-Americans in the colonial South — both enslaved and free — emerged as the “general chicken merchants,” wrote one white planter. At George Washington’s home, Mount Vernon, slaves were forbidden to raise ducks or geese, making the chicken “the only pleasure allowed to Negroes,” one visitor noted. The pleasure was not just culinary, but financial: In 1775, Thomas Jefferson paid two silver Spanish bits to slaves in exchange for three chickens. Such sales were common.这个法律漏洞提供了一个机会。许多黑奴来自非洲西部,在那里养鸡有很长的历史。很快,如一位白人种植园主所写到的,南方殖民地的非裔美国人,包括奴隶和自由人,就成了“常见的鸡贩”。在乔治·华盛顿(George Washington)的家弗农山庄(Mount Vernon),奴隶们被禁止养鸭子或鹅,一位来访者写道,于是鸡就成了“黑人获准拥有的唯一乐趣”。这种乐趣不仅涉及口腹,也涉及金钱。在1775年,托马斯·杰斐逊(Thomas Jefferson)花了两个西班牙雷亚尔,从黑奴手中买来了三只鸡。这样的交易颇为普遍。Black cooks were in a position to influence their masters’ choice of dishes, and they naturally favored the meat raised by their friends and relatives. One of the West African specialties that caught on among white people was chicken pieces fried in oil — the meal that now, around the world, is considered quintessentially American.黑人厨师可以影响主人对菜肴的选择,而他们自然更喜欢朋友和亲戚养殖的禽肉。油炸鸡块这道西非特色菜,就这样在白人当中受到了欢迎。而现在,这种吃法在全世界都被认为是典型的美国菜。Slaves laid the foundation for the American appetite for chicken, but it was the forced opening of China by the West in the 1840s that made the modern bird possible. American ships brought specimens of Asian chickens never seen in America. Breeders crossed the large and colorful exotics with their smaller but hardier Western counterparts to produce a bird that could lay more eggs and provide more meat. The results were famous varieties, like the Plymouth Rock and Rhode Island Red, that appeared just as the nation began to industrialize.黑奴为美国人热爱鸡肉的胃口奠定了基础,不过现代家鸡的问世,却要归结于1840年以后中国迫于西方压力而开关通商。由此,美国舰船带回了其本土前所未见的亚洲鸡。人们又将这些体格较大、色斑斓的鸡,与体格较小但适应力更强的西方鸡杂交,进而培育出了下蛋更多、产肉也更多的鸡种。其结果就是,在美国即将开始工业化时,普利茅斯石鸡(Plymouth Rock)和罗德岛红鸡(Rhode Island Red)这样的著名品种问世了。Still, chicken rearing in the ed States remained a small-scale family business; American meat-eating tended toward pork and beef, with chickens used mostly for eggs.不过,养鸡当时在美国仍然是一种小规模的家庭生意。美国人食肉的习惯也倾向于猪肉和牛肉,养鸡主要是为了下蛋。That began to change with the arrival of millions of Eastern European Jews, who relied on chicken as a meat source. By 1900, New York City boasted 1,500 kosher butcher shops, stocked by train cars filled with live chickens that arrived mainly from farms in the Midwest, where rural women, who ran much of the poultry business at the time, took advantage of the growing demand.随着数百万东欧犹太人的到来,这一点也开始发生转变,他们依赖鸡这种肉质来源。到1900年,纽约市有多达1500家犹太洁食(kosher)屠宰铺,出售的肉食主要来自中西部的农场出产,通过火车运来的活鸡。当时养殖禽类的生意主要由农村妇女经营,她们抓住时机回应了扩大的需求。Their market soon extended beyond immigrant Jews. Millions of people were leaving their Midwestern and Southern farms for factory jobs in the expanding cities in the North. Finding a reliable and cheap source of protein was critical. Pork and beef were expensive for urban shoppers, and there were not enough eggs produced in the ed States to satisfy their appetites. The chicken business started to take off.市场很快就拓展到了犹太移民社区之外。千百万人离开美国中西部和南部的农场,到不断扩张的北部城市寻找工厂的工作。要找到可靠廉价的蛋白质来源至关重要。猪肉和牛肉对城市里的消费者来说太昂贵了,而且美国出产的蛋也不足以满足美国人的胃口。于是养鸡产业开始飞速发展。World War I gave chickens another boost, when beef and pork stocks were diverted to the troops. Then, in 1923, an entrepreneurial Delaware woman named Celia Steele began sending the first broilers to New York, birthing a multibillion-dollar industry. For the first time, chickens began to be sold solely for their meat on a mass scale.第一次世界大战也给养鸡业带来了另一个助推,那时牛肉和猪肉储备转到了军队手中。1923年,特拉华州一位名叫西莉亚·斯蒂尔(Celia Steele)的女企业家,开始向纽约供应首批批量饲养的肉鸡,进而催生了一个价值数十亿美元的产业。这是鸡第一次因为它的肉,而被大规模出售。The rise of the chicken continued through the Great Depression, when chicken farming helped many farmers get by. Henry A. Wallace, a sometime vegetarian pacifist from Iowa who also served as Franklin D. Roosevelt’s agriculture secretary and vice president, argued that the chicken was the savior of poverty-stricken rural Americans. The company he helped found in the 1920s is now the world’s largest single producer of egg-laying hens. Finally, in the 1950s, engineers and scientists created a bird that could grow quickly with minimal feed — and the chicken we know today emerged.鸡的兴起一直贯穿了大萧条(Great Depression)时期,那时的养鸡产业帮助许多农户度过困境。富兰克林·D·罗斯福(Franklin D. Roosevelt)麾下的农业部长和副总统亨利·A·华莱士(Henry A. Wallace)一度食素,也是一名和平主义者。来自艾奥瓦州的华莱士认为,对于陷入贫困的美国农村,鸡是一个救星。他在1920年代帮助建立的公司,现在是世界上最大的蛋鸡饲养企业。最后在1950年代,工程师和科学家培育出了一种耗费饲料很少但增重很快的鸡。今天我们所知的鸡就是这时产生的。Today chicken is cheap, and it has become America’s favorite meat. In the land of the hamburger, we eat more of it than beef. And while we enjoy turkey at Thanksgiving, over the course of the year we will consume five times as much chicken.今天的鸡肉价格低廉,也已经成为美国人最喜欢的肉类。在这个汉堡包的国度,我们吃的鸡肉却比牛肉还多。尽管我们会在感恩节时享用火鸡,但全年消费鸡肉的总量却是火鸡的五倍。The bonanza of cheap meat and eggs has been a boon in many ways, but it has come at a largely hidden cost. Billions of chickens, both layers and broilers, live in vast warehouses locked behind fences and unprotected by federal regulations, which don’t consider poultry raised for food as animals. Then there are the low-paid workers who labor in the cold and dark of processing plants with high rates of injury, and the environmental degradation that sullies our waterways. And today’s industrial bird is a relatively tasteless food that we must relentlessly flavor with sauces, marinades and rubs.廉价肉蛋的丰富供应,在很多方面都是好事,但其中也存在常常不为人知的成本。数十亿只肉鸡和蛋鸡都饲养在巨大的仓库里,锁在笼子里,不受联邦法规的保障,因为联邦法规不把食用禽类视为动物。此外,还有薪水微薄的工人,他们在冰冷阴暗的加工厂里劳作,工伤率极高,相应的环境影响也污染了我们的河道。今天工业饲养的肉禽比较寡淡无味,所以我们必须要极力腌渍、蘸酱汁、撒调料。So as we celebrate and give thanks this season, take a moment to consider the lowly chicken, and how its story and that of our country are so deeply entwined. The bird that gets little respect is the creature that has given us more than we know.所以,我们在这个时节表达感谢时,请花些时间想一想身份低微的鸡,也考虑一下鸡肉的历史与这个国家的历史联系多么紧密。这种极少受人尊重的家禽,为我们做出了很多贡献,可我们却知之甚少。 /201412/345442。
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