In this method, a bridge is built in between the items given to be memorized. This technique is best suited learning material involving word pairs or material that can be reduced to word pairs. An example often cited by memory experts is the learning of the capital of Poland. The capital of Poland is Warsaw. World War II started with Germany's attack on Poland. Thus it may be arranged as Poland SAW War first. Here, the word pair to be connected together is Poland and Warsaw. The additional inmation of the World War II is used as a bridge or mediator in bringing these two words together
--5 ::0 来源：5. What is the man’s line of business?6.要努力当课堂的主人认真思考老师提出的每一个问题，积极参加课堂讨论
--19 :3: 来源：四级经验 英语四级 步骤 正确
--19 ::6 来源：。
老师能力的差异(The Difference a Teacher can Make) -- :6:00 来源： steve, a twelve-year-old boy with alcoholic parents, was about to be lost ever, by the u.s. education system. remarkably, he could , yet, in spite of his ing skills, steve was failing. he had been failing since first grade, as he was passed on from grade to grade. steve was a big boy, looking more like a teenager than a twelve year old, yet, steve went unnoticed... until miss white. miss white was a smiling, young, beautiful redhead, and steve was in love! the first time in his young life, he couldn’t take his eyes off his teacher; yet, still he failed. he never did his homework, and he was always in trouble with miss white. his heart would break under her sharp words, and when he was punished failing to turn in his homework, he felt just miserable! still, he did not study. in the middle of the first semester of school, the entire seventh grade was tested basic skills. steve hurried through his tests, and continued to dream of other things, as the day wore on. his heart was not in school, but in the woods, where he often escaped alone, trying to shut out the sights, sounds and smells of his alcoholic home. no one checked on him to see if he was safe. no one knew he was gone, because no one was sober enough to care. oddly, steve never missed a day of school. one day, miss white’s impatient voice broke into his daydreams. “steve!!” startled, he turned to look at her. “pay attention!” steve locked his gaze on miss white with adolescent adoration, as she began to go over the test results the seventh grade. “you all did pretty well,” she told the class, “except one boy, and it breaks my heart to tell you this, but...” she hesitated, pinning steve to his seat with a sharp stare, her eyes searching his face. “...the smartest boy in the seventh grade is failing my class!” she just stared at steve, as the class spun around a good look. steve dropped his eyes and carefully examined his fingertips. after that, it was war!! steve still wouldn’t do his homework. even as the punishments became more severe, he remained stubborn. “just try it! one week!” he was unmoved. “you’re smart enough! you’ll see a change!” nothing fazed him. “give yourself a chance! don’t give up on your life!” nothing. “steve! please! i care about you!” wow! suddenly, steve got it!! someone cared about him? someone, totally unattainable and perfect, cared about him!! steve went home from school, thoughtful, that afternoon. walking into the house, he took one look around. both parents were passed out, in various stages of undress, and the stench was overpowering! he, quickly, gathered up his camping gear, a jar of peanut butter, a loaf of b, a bottle of water, and this time...his schoolbooks. grim faced and determined, he headed the woods. the following monday he arrived at school on time, and he waited miss white to enter the classroom. she walked in, all sparkle and smiles! god, she was beautiful! he yearned her smile to turn on him. it did not. miss white, immediately, gave a quiz on the weekend homework. steve hurried through the test, and was the first to hand in his paper. with a look of surprise, miss white took his paper. obviously puzzled, she began to look it over. steve walked back to his desk, his heart pounding within his chest. as he sat down, he couldn’t resist another look at the lovely woman. miss white’s face was in total shock! she glanced up at steve, then down, then up. suddenly, her face broke into a radiant smile. the smartest boy in the seventh grade had just passed his first test! from that moment nothing was the same steve. life at home remained the same, but life still changed. he discovered that not only could he learn, but he was good at it! he discovered that he could understand and retain knowledge, and that he could translate the things he learned into his own life. steve began to excel! and he continued this course throughout his school life. after high-school steve enlisted in the navy, and he had a successful military career. during that time, he met the love of his life, he raised a family, and he graduated from college magna cum laude. during his naval career, he inspired many young people, who without him, might not have believed in themselves. steve began a second career after the navy, and he continues to inspire others, as an adjunct professor in a nearby college miss white left a great legacy. she saved one boy who has changed many lives. you see, it’s simple, really. a change took place within the heart of one boy, all because of one teacher, who cared. 能力 差异 老师 steve
首页>英语能力>英语翻译>英语口译 口译考官指导月口译应试(下) -- :57:36 来源： 上海新东方学校资深口译口语教学与研究专家，口译教研组成员中高级口译考试笔试阅卷人及口试主考官，高级同声翻译，上外英语语言文学硕士，副教授美国西弗吉尼亚大学访问学者，曾为包括美国前总统克林顿在内的多位国家领导人作过翻译参与编著新东方《中高级口译口试备考精要一书首先祝贺那些包括新东方学员在内的已经顺利通过中高级口译笔试的所有考生，但同时你们也面临着更大的挑战——口译的第二阶段考试：口语和口译，而口译又是第二阶段的主要部分口语阶段结束后，马上转入口译阶段，考官会给考生发一张口译记录纸此刻，录音机开始播放指令，先是两篇英译汉，再是两篇汉译英英译汉部分一定要注意听力理解，在记笔记时要分清层次，特别是要抓住信息词现以实考题的分析说明：Passage 1In this world, the dominant trend is still one of peace and progress, but there are a few interest groups which always want to seek gains by creating tension here and there. This is against the will of the majority of the people and against the trend of the time.In order to create an enormous market demand and promote economic prosperity, we should make continued efts to advance the cause of peace and development. We should also ensure that people around the world live and work in peace and contentment and focus on economic development and on scientific and technological innovation.（参考）在这个世界上，主流仍然是和平与进步，但有少数利益集团，总想在这样或那样的地方制造紧张局面来谋利，这是违背大多数人民的意志和时代潮流的为了建立巨大市场需求和促进经济繁荣，我们应该不断努力，推进和平与发展的事业我们还应该确保各国人民安居乐业，集中精力发展经济，创新科技（）这篇口译有关世界形势和中国的发展由于是涉及到世界形势，尽管原文措词比较正式，但有较多套话，很多学生对这些内容并不陌生即使没能听清每个短语，也完全可以根据自己的背景知识加以弥补在第二层中，句中所用的词并不难，理解没有问题，但是句子结构很长，给考生增添不少麻烦考生只需抓住所理解的信息点，自己把意思串联起来，不必囿于原句第一段共分3层：（1）dominant trend peace progress 主流 和平与进步（）║ interest group gains by tension here and there 但是 利益集团 通过紧张局面谋利 在这样或那样的地方（3）against will of the people trend of the time 违反 人民的意志和时代潮流第二段共分3层：（1）→ market demand ↑ economic prosperity 为了 市场需求和促进经济繁荣（）continued efts ↑ cause of peace development 继续努力 推进和平与发展事业（3） ensure: people live, work in peace contentment focus: economic development, S T innovation 确保 人民安居乐业 集中精力：经济发展 科技创新文章所用词并不难，考生只需熟悉有些词常在外交上表示的意思即可同时，还需要把握住大结构请看下面词汇与短语：（1）seek gains by… 通过…谋利（）be against 违反（3）ensure that… 确保…（）make continued efts to… 不断努力以…（5）focus on…on… 关注…和…汉译英部分学生的笔记相对来说较容易，即使没有记下来，但大部分的信息在脑子里依旧非常鲜活，难点在于运用自己有限的词汇来组句Passage 世界览会一种规模宏大，影响深远的大型展示活动它综合反映了当代世界各国政治、经济、文化和科技发展水平及成就，因而被喻为“经济、科技和文化的奥运会”自198年至今中国已参加了九次世界览会去年，中国成功地在云南昆明举行了世界园艺览会这是中国第一次举办了由世界览会管理机构即国际展览局确认的顶级专项世界览会（参考）The World Exposition is a large-scale, far-reaching grand show reflecting comprehensively the development and achievements of different countries in the fields of politics, economy, culture as well as science and technology. Theree, it is know as the “Olympic Games of Economy, Science and Technology, and Culture.”China has participated in nine World Expositions since 198. Last year, China successfully held the World Horticultural Exposition in Kunming, capital of Yunnan Province. This was the first time that China hosted top-class specialized world exposition recognized by the Bureau of International Exhibition, the administrative body of the World Exposition.（）这篇口译有关世界览会文章是当年的热门话题，没有涉及到较难的词汇，内容也并不陌生在口译时，对应的英文组句也并不困难考生可能面临的问题是：专有名词不熟悉比如说“世界览会”，“世界园艺览会”，“世界览会管理机构”，“国际展览局”这一问题还需要考生对热门话题相关信息的收集和积累如果在考场上因碰到专有名词而犯愁时，只能根据其意思，自己编造请注意以下信息点：（1）大型展示活动 grand show（）综合反映了… reflect comprehensively（3）被喻为… be know as（）自198 参加九次 since 198 participate in 9…（5）成功地云南举行 successfully hold… in Kunming, capital of Yunnan Province（6）由…确认 be recognized by当然，口译考试不仅考试学生的语言能力，而且还考验学生的心理素质和反应能力，这些好的素质和能力不是短时间内一蹴而就的，考生应该平常多努力，才能顺利通过口译考试有关临场考生常见的问题及应对措施，请看本文作者以前写的“口译十戒”和即将出版的新东方口译系列丛书的第四本：《中高级口译口试备考精要最后，代表新东方祝广大口译学员考生成功
首页>英语能力>英语翻译>英语口译 年上海中级口译考试笔试试题及 -- 00::18 来源： 上海中级口译笔试模拟题及SECTION 1： LISTENING TEST（5 minutes）Part A： Spot Dictat ionDirections： In this part of the test， you will hear a passage and the same passage with blanks in it. Fill in each of the blanks with the word or words you have heard on the tape. Write your answer in the corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET. Remember you will hear the passage ONLY ONCE.British people are far more sophisticated about beverages than they were 50 years ago. Witness the Starbucks revolution and you’ll know where ___________ （1） goes. However， spurred on by recent studies suggesting that it can cut the risk of ___________ （） and retard the aging process， tea is enjoying a ___________ （3）Although tea is available in more places than ever， it remains to be _____________ （） of a typical British family.If you are invited to an English home， _____________ （5） in the morning you get a cup of tea. It is either brought in by a heartily _____________ （6） or an almost malevolently silent maid. When you are _____________ （7） in your sweetest morning sleep you must not say： ‘Go away， you _____________ （8）’ On the contrary， you have to declare with your best five o’clock smile： ‘Thank you very much. I _____________ （9） a cup of tea， especially in the morning.’ If they leave you alone with the liquid you may pour it _____________ （）！Then you have ___________ （）; then you have tea at o’clock in the morning; _____________ （）; then you have tea tea; then after supper; and again at eleven o’clock _____________ （）You must not refuse any additional cups of tea under the _____________ （）： if it is hot; if it is cold; if you are _____________ （）; if you are nervous; if you are watching TV; _____________ （）; if you have just returned home; if you feel like it; if you do not feel like it; if you have had no tea ______________ （）; if you have just had a cup.You definitely must not ______________ （18） I sleep at five o’clock in the morning; I have coffee breakfast; I drink innumerable _____________ （19） during the day; I have the _____________ （） even at tea-time！Part B： Listening Comprehension1. StatementsDirections： In this part of the test， you will hear several short statements. These statements will be spoken ONLY ONCE， and you will not find them written on the paper; so you must listen carefully. When you hear a statement， the answer choices and decide which one is closest in meaning to the statement you have heard. Then write the letter of the answer you have chosen in the corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET.1. （A） The program on Channel Eight reminds me of TV commercials.（B） The product advertised in the TV commercial cannot help cure my illness.（C） I don’t watch TV that much， because of the omnipresent advertisements.（D） I have to sit on the sofa， because I am too sick to stand in front of the television.. （A） The plane arrived at 7:30.（B） The plane arrived at 8:00.（C） The plane arrived at 9:00.（D） The plane arrived at :00.3. （A） I’ll ask someone else to and check this agreement errors.（B） I’ll think more about the agreement bee making a decision.（C） It’s obvious that I’ll discuss the agreement with my assistant first.（D） It’s out of question that I should get into any agreement with you.. （A） The better members decided to cancel the meeting.（B） Less than half of the committee was away on business trips.（C） It’d be better if no one had attended this morning’s committee meeting.（D） The meeting was cancelled because of low attendance.5. （A） Supermarkets in the inner city and the suburbs are usually owned by the same company.（B） Products in grocery stores are more expensive than those in supermarkets.（C） There is a price difference the same product even in shops run by the same company.（D） People prefer to shop in supermarkets， which are mostly located in the suburbs， with free parking space.6. （A） Many Americans cannot afd higher education because of the soaring college tuition fees and expenses.（B） Sending their children to college is no longer a bigger challenge millions of Americans.（C） The American government has set the goal that it will eventually stop funding higher education institutions.（D） Nowadays， American parents have to pay more to send their children to college.7. （A） many university graduates， the jobs they take will not be related to their academic achievements.（B） Because of economic recession， the number of university students majoring in liberal arts is declining.（C） University students who are interested in liberal arts will have more job opporties upon graduation.（D） With high unemployment rate， many university students will have to opt transferring to other majors.8. （A） Good business negotiators will never repeat what other people have aly restated.（B） Restating by good business negotiators is not an effective way to check the inmation.（C） Good business negotiators are sometimes curious about other people’s restatements.（D） Restating what others have said is a good strategy confirming understanding.9. （A） We cannot reach an agreement， let alone a spoken promise.（B） We’d better draft and then sign a written agreement.（C） We generally keep our promises in business transactions.（D） We hope you understand why we are unable to keep our promises.. （A） I don’t think you have more to say on that topic.（B） I think we’d better talk about that in detail sometime later.（C） I am truly appreciative if you can elaborate on that topic after lunch.（D） I am busy right now， so we might as well discuss it over lunch today. . Talks and ConversationsDirections： In this part of the test， you will hear several short talks and conversations After each of these， you will hear a few questions. Listen carefully because you will hear the talk or conversation and questions ONLY ONCE. When you hear a question， the four choices and choose the best answer to that question. Then write the letter of the answer you have chosen in the corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET.Questions —. （A） Two （B） Three （C） Four （D） Five. （A） A profit-making private school.（B） A non-profit-making independent school.（C） A state school that is funded by non-governmental sources.（D） A secondary school that is open to the majority of British students.. （A） Many children are no longer placed in schools according to their academic abilities.（B） Many children can afd to study in private schools， as they become part of the state system.（C） Children from wealthy families no longer choose to go and study in public schools.（D） Cleverer children will be sent to the best private schools in the country a better development.. （A） Clever and less bright children will mix well with each other.（B） School authorities will receive more funds from the government.（C） Most students will do well in their entrance examination the higher education.（D） Every child will have an equal opporty to go on to higher education.Questions —18. （A） One that is unabridged with detailed definitions.（B） One that contains fewer words and emphasizes on special words.（C） One that contains a broad range of words in common usage.（D） One that spans several volumes and has extensive word histories. （A） The New Oxd Picture Dictionary（B） The American Heritage Dictionary（C） The Dictionary of Legal Terms（D） The Drinking Water Dictionary. （A） It lists abbreviations， proper nouns， and tables of measures.（B） It is an unabridged edition providing as many as 500，000 entries.（C） It was randomly compiled and contains as many eign words as possible.（D） It provides detailed inmation of famous people and places.18. （A） A school dictionary. （B） A college dictionary.（C） A general dictionary. （D） A specialized dictionary.Questions 19—19. （A） He’s bought his wife a present. （B） He’s missed an important phone call.（C） He’s dismissed his new secretary. （D） He’s popped out shopping.. （A） Talking about the latest fashion.（B） Offering special reductions.（C） Giving bigger discounts to female customers.（D） Pressing on the customer to make a decision.1. （A） Upside down and inside out. （B） Inside out and back to front.（C） With its sleeves as trouser legs. （D） With its pattern upside down.. （A） A V-necked pullover with short sleeves.（B） A high-necked pullover with long sleeves.（C） A white pullover with a pattern.（D） A blue pullover with a high neck.Questions 3—63. （A） That of a creator. （B） That of a re-creator.（C） That of a receiver. （D） That of a permer.. （A） Because we need to concentrate our quiet thought.（B） Because we want to give full attention to the driving.（C） Because we try to avoid being caught by the patrolling police.（D） Because we intend to be as casual as possible in the driving.5. （A） In the elevator. （B） In the car.（C） In the bathroom. （D） In the church.6. （A） By perceptive and analytical listening.（B） By taking a sonic bath.（C） By attending classical concerts.（D） By listening to an emotional piece of music.Questions 7—37. （A） His grandfather’s house. （B） His parents’ remarks.（C） A magazine. （D） A coursebook.. （A） Enjoying visiting zoos. （B） Driving a car.（C） Making money. （D） Taking kids to a museum.9. （A） It died a few years ago. （B） It killed several tourists.（C） It is only a legend. （D） It is a living dinosaur.30. （A） No one has provided an accurate description of the animal.（B） No dead bodies of the animal have ever been found.（C） There are only 500 species living in Loch Ness.（D） The lake is not deep enough such a huge animal. SECTION ： STUDY SKILLS（5 minutes）Directions： In this section， you will several passages. Each passage is followed by several questions based on its content. You are to choose ONE best answer， （A）， （B）， （C） or （D）， to each question. Answer all the questions following each passage on the basis of what is stated or implied in that passage and write the letter of the answer you have chosen in the corresponding space in your ANSWER BOOKLET.Questions 1—5The purpose of the American court system is to protect the rights of the people. According to American law， if someone is accused of a crime， he or she is considered innocent until the court proves that the person is guilty. In other words， it is the responsibility of the court to prove that a person is guilty. It is not the responsibility of the person to prove that he or she is innocent.In order to arrest a person， the police have to be reasonably sure that a crime has been committed. The police must give the suspect the reasons why they are arresting him and tell him his rights under the law. Then the police take the suspect to the police station to “book” him. “Booking means that the name of the person and the charges against him are mally listed at the police station.The next step is the suspect to go bee a judge. The judge decides whether the suspect should be kept in jail or released. If the suspect has no previous criminal record and the judge feels that he will return to court rather than run away— example， because he owns a house and has a family—he can go free. Otherwise， the suspect must put up bail. At this time， too， the judge will appoint a court layer to defend the suspect if he can’t afd one.The suspect returns to court a week or two later. A lawyer from the district attorney’s office presents a case against the suspect. This is called a hearing. The attorney may present evidence as well as witnesses. The judge at the hearing then decides whether there is enough reason to hold a trial. If the judge decides that there is sufficient evidence to call a trial， he or she sets a date the suspect to appear in court to mally plead guilty or not guilty.At the trial， a jury of people listens to the evidence from both attorneys and hears the testimony of the witnesses. Then the jury goes into a private room to consider the evidence and decide whether the defendant is guilty of the crime. If the jury decides that the defendant is innocent， he goes free. However， if he is convicted， the judge sets a date the defendant to appear in court again sentencing. At this time， the judge tells the convicted person what his punishment will be. The judge may sentence him to prison， order him to pay a fine， or place him on probation.The American justice system is very complex and sometimes operates slowly. However， every step is designed to protect the rights of the people. These individual rights are the basis， or foundation， of the American government.1. What is the main idea of the passage？（A） The American court system requires that a suspect prove that he or she is innocent.（B） The US court system is designed to protect the rights of the people.（C） Under the American court system， judge decides if a suspect is innocent or guilty.（D） The US court system is designed to help the police present a case against the suspect.. What follows ‘in other words’ （para.1）？（A） An example of the previous sentence.（B） A new idea about the court system.（C） An item of evidence to call a trial.（D） A restatement of the previous sentence.3. According to the passage， ‘he can go free’ （para.3） means _________.（A） the suspect is free to choose a lawyer to defend him（B） the suspect does not have to go to trial because the judge has decided he is innocent（C） the suspect will be inmed by mail whether he is innocent or not（D） the suspect does not have to wait in jail or pay money until he goes to trial. What is the purpose of having the suspect pay bail？（A） To pay the judge and the trial.（B） To pay a court lawyer to defend the suspect.（C） To ensure that the suspect will return to court.（D） To ensure that the suspect will appear in prison.5. According to the passage， which of the following statements is true？（A） The American justice system sometimes operates slowly.（B） The police can arrest a suspect without giving any reasons.（C） It is the responsibility of the suspect to prove he is innocent.（D） The jury considers the evidence in the court room. Questions 6—So you’ve got an invention—you and around 39，000 others each year， according to statistics！The 6，000-dollar question， if you have come up with a device which you believe to be the answer to the energy crisis or you’ve invented a lawnmower which cuts grass with a jet of water （not so daft， someone has invented one）， is how to ensure you’re the one to reap the rewards of your ingenuity. How will all you garden shed boffins out there keep others from capitalizing on your ideas and lining their pockets at your expense？One of the first steps to protect your interest is to patent your invention. That can keep it out of the grasp of the pirates at least the next years. And this reason inventors in their droves beat a constant trail from all over the country to the doors of an anonymous grey-fronted building just behind London’s Holborn to try and patent their devices.The first ‘letters patent’ were granted as long ago as 9 to a Flemish craftsman by the name of John Utynam. The letters， written in Latin， are still on file at the office. They were granted by King Henry VI and entitled Utynam to ‘import into this country’ his knowledge of making stained glass windows in order to install such windows at Eton College.Present-day patents procedure is a more sophisticated affair than getting a go-ahead note from the monarch. These days the strict procedures governing whether you get a patent your revolutionary mouse-trap or solar-powered back-scratcher have been reduced to a pretty exact science.From start to finish it will take around two and a half years and cost ￡5 the inventor to gain patent protection his brainchild. That’s if he’s lucky. By no means all who apply to the Patent Office， which is a branch of the Department of Trade， get a patent.A key man at the Patent Office is Bernard Partridge， Principal Examiner （Administration）， who boils down to one word the vital ingredient any inventor needs bee he can hope to overcome the many hurdles in the complex procedure of obtaining a patent—‘ingenuity’6. People take out a patent because they want to __________.（A） keep their ideas from being stolen（B） reap the rewards of somebody else’s ingenuity（C） visit the patent office building（D） come up with more new devices7. The phrase ‘the brain-children of inventors’ （para.5） means _________.（A） the children with high intelligence（B） the inventions that people come up with（C） a device that a child believes to be the answer to the energy crisis（D） a lawnmower that an individual has invented to cut grass8. What have the 00’s machine gun and the present-day laser in common？（A） Both were approved by the monarch.（B） Both were granted by King Henry VI.（C） Both were rejected by the Department of Trade.（D） Both were patented.9. Why is John Utynam still remembered？（A） He is the first person to get a patent his revolutionary mouse-trap.（B） He is the first person to be granted an official patent.（C） He is the first person to be an officer in the Patent Office.（D） He is the first person to have invented a lawnmower.. According to the passage， how would you describe the complex procedure of obtaining a patent an invention？（A） It is rather expensive.（B） It is an impossible task.（C） It is extremely difficult.（D） It is very tricky. Questions —All living cells on earth require moisture their metabolism. Cereal grains when brought in from the field， although they may appear to be dry， may contain per cent of moisture or more. If they are stored in a bin thus， there is sufficient moisture in them to support several varieties of insects. These insects will， theree， live and breed and， as they grow and eat the grain， it provides them with biological energy their life processes. This energy will， just as in man， become manifest as heat. Since the bulk of the grain acts as an insulator， the temperature surrounding the colony of insects will rise so that， not only is part of the grain spoiled by the direct attack of the insects but more may be damaged by the heat. Sometimes， the temperature may even rise to the point where the stored grain catches fire. safe storage， grain must be dried until its moisture content is per cent or less.Traditional arts of food preservation took advantage of this principle in a number of ways. The plant seeds， wheat， rye， rice， barley millet， maize， are themselves structures evolved by nature to provide stored food. The starch of their endosperm is used the nourishment of the embryo during the time it over-winters （if it is a plant of the Temperate Zone） and until its new leaves have grown and their chlorophyll can trap energy from the sunlight to nourish the new-grown plant. The separation by threshing and winnowing is， theree， to some degree part of a technique of food preservation.The direct drying of other foods has also been used. Fish has been dried in many parts of the world besides Africa. Slices of dried meat are prepared by numerous races. Biltong， a m of dried meat， was a customary food travelers. The drying of meat or fish， either in the sun or over a fire， quite apart from the degree to which it exposes the food to infection by bacteria and infestation by insects， tends also to harm its quality. Proteins are complex molecular structures which are ily disrupted. This is the reason why dried meat becomes tough and can， with some scientific justification， by likened to leather.The technical process of drying foods indirectly by pickling them in the strong salt solutions commonly called ‘brine’ does less harm to the protein than straightward drying， particularly if this is carried out at high temperatures. It is this reason that many of the typical drying processes are not taken to completion. That is to say， the outer parts may be dried leaving a moist inner section. Under these circumstances， preservation is only partial. The dried food keeps longer than it would have undried but it cannot be kept indefinitely. this reason， traditional processes are to be found in many parts of the world in which a combination of partial drying and pickling in brine is used. Quite often the drying involves exposure to smoke. Foods treated in this way are， besides fish of various sorts， bacon， hams and numerous types of sausages.. According to the passage， insects spoil stored cereals by ________.（A） consuming all the grain themselves（B） generating heat and raising the surrounding temperature（C） increasing the moisture content in the grain（D） attacking each other more grain. In speaking of the traditional methods of food preservation， the writer ________.（A） expresses doubts about direct smoking（B） describes salting and pickling as ineffective（C） condemns direct drying（D） mentions threshing and winnowing. Direct drying affects the quality of meat or fish because ________.（A） it exposes them to insects（B） it makes them hard（C） it damages the protein（D） it develops bacteria. We can learn from the passage that salting preserves food by ________.（A） destroying the protein（B） drawing away moisture from the food（C） drying the food in the sun（D） dressing the food. According to the passage， partial drying is useful because ________.（A） it damages the protein less（B） it can be combined with pickling（C） it leaves the inside moist（D） it makes the food soft Questions —We are moving inexorably into the age of automation. Our aim is not to devise a mechanism which can perm a thousand different actions of any individual man but， on the contrary， one which could by a single action replace a thousand men.Industrial automation has moved along three lines. First there is the conveyor belt system of continuous production whereby separate operations are linked into a single sequence. The goods produced by this well-established method are untouched by the worker， and the machine replaces both unskilled and semiskilled. Secondly， there is automation with feedback control of the quality of the product： here mechanisms are built into the system which can compare the output with a norm， that is， the actual product with what it is supposed to be， and then correct any shortcomings. The entire cycle of operations dispenses with human control except in so far as monitors are concerned. One or two examples of this type of automation will illustrate its immense possibilities. There is a factory in the U.S.A. which makes 1，000 million electric light bulbs a year， and the factory employs three hundred people. If the preautomation techniques were to be employed， the labour ce required would leap to 5，000. A motor manufacturing company with 5，000 spare parts regulates their entire supply entirely by computer. Computers can be entrusted with most of the supervision of industrial installations， such as chemical plants or oil refineries. Thirdly， there is computer automation， banks， ing departments， insurance companies and the like. Here the essential features are the recording， storing， sorting and retrieval of inmation.The principal merit of modern computing machines is the achievement of their vastly greater speed of operation by comparison with unaided human eft; a task which otherwise might take years， if attempted at all， now takes days or hours.One of the most urgent problems of industrial societies rapidly introducing automation is how to fill the time that will be made free by the machines which will take over the tasks of the workers. The question is not simply of filling empty time but also of utilizing the surplus human energy that will be released. We are aly seeing straws in the wind： destructive outbursts on the part of youth whose work no longer demands muscular strength. While automation will undoubtedly do away with a large number of tedious jobs， are we sure that it will not put others which are equally tedious in their place？ an enormous amount of sheer monitoring will be required. A man in an automated plant may have to sit hours on and watching dials and taking decisive action when some signal inms him that all is not well. What meaning will his occupation bear the worker？ How will he devote his free time after a four or five hour stint of labor？ Moreover， what， indeed， will be the significance him of his leisure？ If industry of the future could be purged of its monotony and meaninglessness， man would then be better equipped to use his leisure time constructively.. The main purpose of automation is _________.（A） to devise the machine which could replace the semi-skilled（B） to process inmation as fast as possible（C） to develop an efficient labor-saving mechanism（D） to make an individual man perm many different actions. The chief benefit of computing machines is ________.（A） their greater speed of operation（B） their control of the product quality（C） their conveyor belt system of continuous production（D） their supervision of industrial installations18. One of the problems brought about by automation in industrial societies is _________.（A） plenty of inmation（B） surplus human energy（C） destructive outbursts（D） less leisure time19. Which of the following best explains the use of ‘stint’ （para.）？（A） Eft.（B） ce.（C） Excess.（D） Period.. According to the passage， which of the following statements is true？（A） There is no automation with feedback control of the quality of the product.（B） Computers are reliable in any supervision of industrial installations.（C） The essential features banks are the recording and sorting of inmation.（D） Automation will undoubtedly eliminate numerous tedious jobs. Questions 1—5The city water pipes in Rome were usually of baked clay or lead; copper was sometimes used and also hollowed stone. the large supply conduits leading to the city the Romans used covered channels with free water surfaces， rather than pipes. Perhaps this choice was a matter of economics， apparently they could make lead pipes up to inches in diameter. While pipes can follow the profile of undulating ground， with the pressure increasing in the lower areas， channels cannot. They must slope continuously downwards， because water in channels does not normally flow uphill; and the grade must be flat， from 1 in 60 in small channels to perhaps 1 in 3，000 in large ones， to keep the water speed down to a few feet per second. Thus the main supply channels or aqueducts had long lengths of flat grade and where they crossed depressions or valleys they were carried on elevated stone bridges in the m of tiered arches. At the beginning of the Christian era there were over 30 miles of these raised aqueducts in the 50 miles of channels and tunnels bringing water to Rome. The channels were up to 6 feet wide and 5 to 8 feet high. Sometimes channels were later added on the tops of existing ones. The remains of some of these aqueducts still grace the skyline on the outskirts of Rome and elsewhere in Europe similar ruins are found.Brick and stone drains were constructed in various parts of Rome. The oldest existing one is the Cloaca Maxima which follows the course of an old stream. It dates back at least to the third century B.C. Later the drains were used sewage， flushed by water from the public baths and fountains， as well as street storm run-off.The truly surprising aspect of the achievements of all the ancient hydraulic artisans is the lack of theoretical knowledge behind their designs. Apart from the hydrostatics of Archimedes， there was no sound understanding of the most elementary principles of fluid behaviour. Sextus Frontinus， Rome’s water commissioner around A.D. 0， did not fully realize that in order to calculate the volume rate of flow in a channel it is necessary to allow the speed of the flow as well as the area of cross-section. The Romans’ flow standard was the rate at which water would flow through a bronze pipe roughly 3 inch in diameter and 9 inches long. When this pipe was connected to the side of a water-supply pipe or channel as a delivery outlet， it was assumed that the outflow was at the standard rate. In fact， the amount of water delivered depended not only on the cross-sectional area of the outlet pipe but also on the speed of water flowing through it and this speed depended on the pressure in the supply pipe.1. The Romans used all of the following to make water pipes EXCEPT _________.（A） earth （B） wood （C） copper （D） stone. Covered channels were used instead of pipes to supply large quantities of water probably because _________.（A） the Romans could build them more cheaply（B） these channels could follow uneven ground more easily（C） the Romans could not build large pipes（D） these channels avoided rapid changes of pressure3. The use of ‘grace’ in line suggests that the aqueducts today are _________.（A） hideous （B） divine （C） useful （D） attractive. In order to calculate the volume of water flowing through a pipe， it is important to know its speed and ________.（A） the area across the end of the pipe （B） the length of the pipe（C） the water pressure in the pipe （D） the level from which the water falls5. The main subject of the passage is concerned essentially with __________.（A） the classical scientific achievements（B） the theoretical Greek hydrostatics（C） the ancient Roman hydraulic system（D） the early European architectural designing Questions 6—30Every day of our lives we are in danger of instant death from small high-speed missiles from space—the lumps of rocky or metallic debris which continuously bombard the Earth. The chances of anyone actually being hit， however， are very low， although there are recorded instances of ‘stones from the sky’ hurting people， and numerous s of damage to buildings and other objects. At night this extraterrestrial material can be seen as ‘fireballs’ or ‘shooting stars’， burning their way through our atmosphere. Most， on reaching our atmosphere， become completely vaporised.The height above ground at which these objects become sufficiently heated to be visible is estimated to be about 60-0 miles. Meteorites that have fallen on buildings have sometimes ended their long lonely space voyage incongruously under beds， inside flower pots or even， in the case of one that landed on a hotel in North Wales， within a chamber pot. Bee the era of space exploration it was confidently predicted that neither men nor space vehicles would survive long outside the protective blanket of the Earth’s atmosphere. It was thought that once in space they would be seriously damaged as a result of the incessant downpour of meteorites falling towards our planet at the rate of many millions every day. Even the first satellites showed that the danger from meteorites had been greatly overestimated by the pessimists， but although it has not happened yet， it is certain that one day a spacecraft will be badly damaged by a meteorite.The greatest single potential danger to life on Earth undoubtedly comes from outside our planet. Collision with another astronomical body of any size or with a ‘black hole’ could completely destroy the Earth almost instantly. Near misses of bodies larger than or comparable in size to our own planet could be equally disastrous to mankind as they might still result in total or partial disruption. If the velocity of impact were high， collision with even quite small extraterrestrial bodies might cause catastrophic damage to the Earth’s atmosphere， oceans and outer crust and thus produce results inimical to life as we know it. The probability of collision with a large astronomical body from outside our Solar System is extremely low， possibly less than once in the lifetime of an average star. We know， however， that our galaxy contains great interstellar dust clouds and some astronomers have suggested that there might also be immense streams of meteorite matter in space that the Solar system may occasionally encounter. Even if we disregard this possibility， our own Solar system itself contains a great number of small astronomical bodies， such as the minor planets or asteroids and the comets， some with eccentric orbits that occasionally bring them close to the Earth’s path.6. According to the writer， the Earth is being continuously bombarded by _________.（A） big bright stars from space（B） man-made space vehicles（C） great interstellar dust clouds（D） small high-speed pieces of rock from space7. The word “vaporized” （para.1） means _________.（A） turned from stones into missiles（B） turned from a fireball into black（C） turned from a solid into a gas（D） turned from meteors into shooting stars. Why was it once thought that no spacecraft would survive very long in space？（A） People believed that spacecraft would be destroyed in a black hole.（B） People believed that spacecraft would be misguided by missiles.（C） People believed that spacecraft would be collided with a star.（D） People believed that spacecraft would be damaged by meteorites.9. What is the greatest danger to life on Earth？（A） Collision with small high-speed missiles.（B） Collision with an astronomical body.（C） Collision with stones from the sky.（D） Collision with spacecrafts.30. According to the passage， which of the following statements is true？（A） Our galaxy contains great interstellar dust clouds.（B） Near misses of bodies smaller than our own planet could be disastrous.（C） The probability of collision with a large astronomical body is very high.（D） The chances of anyone actually being hit by missiles are very high.