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山东省青岛妇幼保健口碑好不好光明指南青岛李村做人流一般多少钱

2019年09月19日 04:41:16    日报  参与评论()人

青岛妇科在哪莱芜看妇科多少钱Business Drugmakers Cliffhanger商业 制药企业 悬念Big Pharma struggles to protect its blockbusters as they lose patent protection大型制药企业艰难保护着专利失效的;重磅炸弹;药物FOR some years the big drugmakers have been ding an approaching ;patent cliff;—a slump in sales as the patents on their most popular pills expire or are struck down by legal challenges, with few new potential blockbusters to take their place.多年来,大型制药企业一直担心;专利悬崖;出现——最畅销药品的专利到期或专利因诉讼而中止,而市场上鲜有新的;重磅炸弹;药物,这时企业的销售额将会锐减。This week the patent on the best-selling drug in history expired—Lipitor, an anti-cholesterol pill which earned Pfizer nearly billion in revenues last year.本周,史上最畅销的药物;立普妥;(Lipitor)专利到期,这种降胆固醇药去年就为辉瑞公司赚了近110亿美元。In all, blockbusters with a combined 0 billion in annual sales will go off-patent by 2015.到了2015年,多种;重磅炸弹;药物(年销售额总计达1170亿美元)的专利都将失效。What is supposed to happen now is that lots of copycat firms rush in with ;generic; (ie, chemically identical) versions of Lipitor at perhaps one-fifth of its price.很多仿制药公司现在大概正忙着推出与立普妥的非专利药(即化学结构相同的药物),价格仅为立普妥的1/5。Patients and health-care payers should reap the benefit.病人和医疗费用付方会收益,而辉瑞的收入会缩水。Pfizers revenues should suffer. The same story will be repeated many times, as other best-selling drugs march over the patent cliff (see chart).同样的事件将反复上演,因为其他畅销药也要临近;专利悬崖;(见图)。But generics makers may face delays getting their cheaper versions to market.然而,非专利制药企业却发现仿制药上市一拖再拖。Ranbaxy, a Japanese-owned drugmaker, struggled to get regulators approval for its generic version of Lipitor, and only won it on the day the patent expired.兰伯西(Ranbaxy)这家日本制药企业历尽艰辛,获得了立普妥非专利药的生产许可,但该许可要到专利失效那天才生效。More important, research-based drug firms are using a variety of tactics to make the patent cliff slope more gently.更重要的是,以研发为基础的制药公司正使用各种方法缓冲;专利悬崖;效应。Jon Leibowitz, chairman of Americas Federal Trade Commission (FTC), is concerned by drugmakers filing frivolous additional patents on their products to put off the day when their protection expires.美国联邦贸易委员会(Federal Trade Commission,FTC)主席Jon Leibowitz注意到,制药商们千方百计地为产品增加后续专利,以延缓保护的失效,但其实那些专利没什么价值。Another tactic is ;pay-for-delay;, in which a drugmaker facing a legal challenge to its patent pays its would-be competitor to put off introducing its cheaper copy.另一种战术是;有偿延迟;协议,也就是说在专利诉讼时,制药企业会付给未来竞争对手一笔钱,以延迟价钱更低的仿制药进入市场。In the year to October the FTC identified what it believes to be 28 such settlements.截止到10月,FTC就发现了28起类似事件。American and European regulators are looking into these deals.美国和欧洲的监管部门也开始调查这些协议。However, legal challenges against them have faltered, and a bill to ban them is stuck in Congress.然而,反对这些协议的诉讼一再搁浅,而美国国会也未能通过禁止此类事件的一项法案。To encourage generics makers to challenge patents on drugs, and introduce cheaper copies,为了鼓励非专利制药企业挑战药品专利、生产价钱更低的仿制药,an American law passed in 1984 says that the first one to do so will get a 180-day exclusivity period,美国于1984年通过一项法案,其中提到;第一个挑战成功的仿制药企能获得180天市场独占期,in which no other generics maker can sell versions of the drug in question, as Ranbaxy supposedly won with Lipitor.在此期间其他仿制药企不能贩售同一专利药的其他仿制药,就像兰伯西获得立普妥仿制药的生产权一样。;However, Pfizer is exploiting a loophole in the 1984 law, which lets it appoint a second, authorised copycat—in this case, Watson, another American firm.然而,辉瑞钻了这个法案的空子,它让第二家授权仿制药企业——华生制药公司(Watson,美国公司)来仿制。According to BernsteinResearch, under the deal between the two drugmakers Pfizer will receive about 70% of Watsons revenues from its approved copy of Lipitor.根据BernsteinResearch的分析,在此交易期间,华生公司获得立普妥的仿制权,辉瑞将获得华生公司年收入的70%。More unusual, Pfizer has cut the price of its original version, and will keep marketing it vigorously.更为不同的是,辉瑞将降低立普妥专利药的价格,并对其采取积极的营销策略。So Ranbaxy faces not one, but two competitors.所以说,兰伯西的对手是两个,而非一个。This strategy has precedent, says David Risinger of Morgan Stanley, but the scale and structure of Pfizers scheme is unmatched.根士丹利的David Risinger认为,这项策略虽有先例,但就规模和结构而言绝对不能与辉瑞的计划相比。Patients with a special discount card from Pfizer will make co-payments (their contribution to the pills costs under their health plan) of just for a months worth of the original Lipitor, compared with about for many generic medicines.辉瑞的患者,若使用一种特殊打折卡,通过共同付方式(在健康计划中他们对药物成本的贡献),只花4美元就可以获得一个月用量的立普妥专利药,而其他仿制品需要花费约10美元。Pfizer is also offering Lipitor for a generic price to big firms such as Medco, which manage health schemes prescription costs.辉瑞还以仿制药价格向美可保健(Medco)等大型公司(负责管理健康计划处方的成本)提供立普妥。All this may raise Pfizers sales by nearly 0m in the first half of 2012 compared with what they would otherwise have been, says Tim Anderson of BernsteinResearch, with revenues then falling after the 180 days are over.BernsteinResearch的Tim Anderson认为,所有这些举措将使得辉瑞2012年上半年的销售额比不采取措施时增加近5亿美元,总收入在180天市场独占期后会下降。Medco argues that Pfizers scheme will save money for all parties, and ensure a steady supply of the drug (Ranbaxys regulatory struggles are bound to have caused some concern).美可保健公司辩解说,辉瑞的项目是为各方省钱,并保稳定供货(兰伯西批准受挫也引起类似的忧虑)。Others fear that Pfizers tactics may drive up costs for the employers who sponsor health plans, thanks to the complexities of co-payment schemes, and confuse patients lectured for years about the merits of generics.也有人担心,由于共同付计划很复杂,辉瑞的战术会增加雇主门付健康计划的成本,也让患者们在数年内都不明白仿制药的重要意义。Express Scripts is advising the health plans it works for to reject Pfizers deals for Lipitor.快捷药方公司(Express Scripts)正建议其所属的健康计划反对辉瑞的立普妥交易。The biggest worry is that Pfizers strategy, if copied, will make the 180-day exclusivity period worth far less, and thus discourage generics firms from challenging patents in the first place.他们最担心,如若辉瑞的做法被仿制,那么180天专有期的价值会缩水,而仿制药公司挑战专利的动力也会在初期被抑制。 /201211/211143青岛崂山区四维彩超价格 潍坊盆腔炎多少钱

山东省妇女儿童医院周末有上班吗青岛打孩子费用 即墨区妇幼保健医院在哪儿

山东省青岛市人民医院妇科咨询National Yangming University was recently the site of an international conference on the role of women in science. Arthur Chen, director of Yangmings Center of International Affairs, spoke of the pervasive influence of stereotypes in our lives.国立阳明大学最近召开一场国际性会议(全球女性科学家会议),探讨女性在科学领域所扮演的角色。 阳明大学国际学术交流中心主任陈宜民,讨论了刻板印象在我们日常生活中所造成的普遍影响。A conference designed in part to open societys mind about stereotypes about girls and women ought to push open the doors of our minds about other stereotypes we may harbor as well.一场旨在呼吁社会对女性的刻板印象采取开放心胸的会议,也应该敦促我们对藏在心中的其他刻板印象敞开心门。When the subject of cruel and inaccurate stereotypes here in Taiwan comes to mind, two groups of people come immediately to my mind.提到在台湾被烙印成残忍和不确实刻板印象的对象时,我马上想到两个族群。Those groups are Filipino migrant workers and homosexuals. When I raise the topic of Filipino workers with local people, 18 out of 20 times I get almost word for word the same barrage of images reeking with insensitive generalizations. Gays and lesbians generally stir more positive stereotypical images, but still many regard them with deeply rooted feelings of disapproval, suspicion and fear.那两群人分别是菲律宾籍劳工和同性恋者。跟当地居民提起菲律宾劳工这个话题时,20个人中有18位给的评价千篇一律,语气中充满着麻木不仁。男、女同性恋者通常带给人们比较正面的印象,可还是有许多人以根深蒂固的否定、怀疑和恐惧感看待他们。Whenever we find ourselves stereotyping other people, we need to stop and ask what it is we are doing, and why we are doing it. Do we want others to pass judgment on us according to our nationality, our gender, or some other general characteristic? Arent we individual people, and not clones of a group to which we may belong?每当发现自己对别人产生刻板印象时,我们必须停下来,问问自己在做什麽,以及这样做的原因。我们希望他人因我们的国籍、性别或其他总体特征,对我们骤下判断吗?难道我们不是独立个体而是所属团体的复制品吗?201205/183898 Books and Arts; Book Review;文艺;书评;Spanish football;Well red西班牙足球;别样红;How Spain learned to play the beautiful game;看,西班牙如何玩转足球;La Roja: How Soccer Conquered Spain and How Spanish Soccer Conquered the World. By Jimmy Burns.(《红色风暴》作者:吉米·彭斯; In football, timing counts: it makes the difference between a brilliant tackle and a red card, or a smartly taken goal and a raised offside flag. Jimmy Burnss publishers did not have to think too hard about when “La Roja”, his history of Spanish football, should appear: just before the European football championship, which kicks off on June 8th. The Spanish team won last time, in 2008, and are favourites to win again this year.足球赛场上,时机至关重要。分毫之距,天壤之别。时机决定了是出色抢截,还是被出示红牌。决定了是机智地反越位,还是被裁决为越位。之前,吉米·彭斯的出版负责人无须过于深思《红色风暴》此类描述西班牙足球历史的书应何时出版。就在6月8日开赛的欧洲杯之前,西班牙已经赢得了于2008年举行的上届欧洲杯,并且他们还是今年欧洲杯的夺冠大热。Mr Burns starts and finishes his account with Spains victory in the 2010 World Cup. That and the European win two years before put an end to a sorry pattern of underachievement. Spain had not won a major trophy since 1964. For years their playing lacked harmony. Footballers from Barcelona and Real Madrid, Spains two dominant clubs, fought like dogs in domestic matches. But with wise leadership from successive coaches, a brilliant generation of players is now producing flowing, winning football in the national colours.彭斯由西班牙队夺得2010年世界杯记录起,也以此为结尾。那一次胜利以及两年前赢得的欧洲杯结束了那些让人扼腕的反复失败。在此之前,在1964年之后,西班牙队从未赢过一项重要的荣誉。数年来,他们缺乏和谐的合作。来自巴塞罗那和皇家马德里,这两家西班牙顶级俱乐部的球星,在国内比赛中争执不断。然而随着一个又一个教练的智慧领导,这一代球艺高超的球员正在用一场又一场的胜利延续国家荣誉。In the 19th century British engineers and managers had brought the game to the mining towns of southern Spain and to the industrialising north. The tale quickly became a Spanish one—in the early days, with a strong Basque flavour. Athletic Bilbao provided the core of the team that won the silver medal in the 1920 Olympics in a hard, fast style known as La Furia.西班牙足球故事起源于19世纪,英国工程师和经纪人将足球带到了西班牙南部的矿业城镇以及北部的工业区。很快,在很早的一段时间,这个故事就有了西班牙人的参与,而且带有浓郁的巴斯克风味。1920年奥运会,西班牙队赢得银牌的关键正是毕尔巴鄂竞技队球员带来的硬朗快速球风,也就是众所周知的”旋风式”。Much of the book deals with regional stories and rivalries. Mr Burns, born a stones throw from Reals stadium but a Barca fan and an author of books about both clubs, traces their complicated interconnections with Spanish politics—notably, the civil war and the dictatorship of General Franco. It is a delicate task, involving the links between Barca and Catalan nationalism, Francos use of the game for political ends and the intricate links between Basque nationalism, football and the Catholic church. Mr Burns, who has reported on the land of his birth for many years, ths his way skilfully through it.书中大多记录的是地方故事与竞赛。彭斯出生在离皇家马德里仅有一步之遥的地方,但却是巴萨的球迷。他也撰写过关于这两个俱乐部的书。他的报道描绘了这两家俱乐部与西班牙政治错综复杂的关系,尤其是在内战时期和佛朗哥独裁时期。书里既有探讨巴萨队和加泰罗尼亚人的民族主义之间的联系,又讲述了佛朗哥利用足球比赛达到其政治目的的故事,以及巴斯克民族主义,足球以及罗马天主教错综复杂的关系。这些对他来说,是一项微妙的挑战。彭斯报道他的故乡已有多年,这一次,他通过其高超的采访技术,越过障碍,成功完成这项挑战。Britains pioneers are gone and the national team may rule the world, but Spanish football has been continually refreshed by foreigners. Tours to and from South America taught Spaniards a thing or two in the 1920s. Reals wonder-team of the 1950s was led by Alfredo Di Stéfano, an Argentine, and Ferenc Puskas, a Hungarian. The most exciting player today is another Argentine, Lionel Messi (although he joined Barca as a boy). Mr Burns enthuses about all these and more—notably a Dutchman who played and coached Barca and remains a huge influence. Any football-mad er will envy the author who can write: “The first time I met Johan Cruyff…”英国作为足球开拓者的位置已经消失殆尽。也许其国家队仍将统领世界。然而西班牙足球力量却有外国人源源不断地注入新活力。20世纪20年代和南美的足球比赛,给了西班牙教训。50年代的皇马舰队,有阿根廷球星阿尔弗雷多·迪·斯蒂法诺和匈牙利球王普斯卡什的带领。而当今最让人兴奋的足球运动员则是另一位阿根廷人,莱昂内尔·梅西(尽管他加入巴萨时还是个小男孩)。彭斯对这一切很感兴趣,而且更显然的是,他对一个在巴萨踢过球,执教过,拥有巨大影响力的荷兰人更感兴趣。任何足球狂热读者都会嫉妒这个作者可以这样描绘道,“我第一次遇到约翰·克鲁伊夫......”Like many a football team, however, the book is let down a little by its finishing. Even the modern photos are in grainy black and white. Mr Cruyff is pictured in the orange strip of the Netherlands rather than Barcas red and blue. Arriving at Real, a clichéd David Beckham “like a proverbial phoenix rising from the ashes, calmly ran the gauntlet of the worlds media”. Nevertheless, Mr Burns shows that there is far more to tell about Spanish football than todays success on the field.不管怎样,这本书就像大多数足球队,其结尾部分多少让人失望。更别说书中在现代拍的照片是以木纹黑白照的形式出现。约翰·克鲁伊夫在相片中穿的是荷兰的橙色装而非巴萨的红蓝。大卫·贝克汉姆加入皇家马德里之后,曾有个关于他的陈词滥调,“如众生所知,凤凰涅槃,于媒体林弹雨之前,沉着奔跑”尽管如此,彭斯的书向我们展示了,西班牙足球不仅仅只有胜利,更有许多说不完,道不尽的精足球故事。 /201208/196541青岛新阳光妇科医院薇薇人流多少钱城阳哪里流产好

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