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长春卵巢囊肿手术哪家好365知识长春无痛人流哪里好

2019年08月19日 08:43:12    日报  参与评论()人

长春哪里做无痛人流做得好德惠市第二人民医院取环Butcher and Lawyer肉商与律师A dog ran into a butcher and grabbed a roast off the counter.有一只,跑进一家肉店把一块烤肉从台子上抢走。Fortunately,the butcher recognized the dog as belonging to a neighbor of his.很幸运地,肉商辨认出’这只是属于他邻居的。The neighbor happened to be a lawyer.这位邻居碰巧又是一位律师。Incensed at the theft,the butcher called up his neighter and said,这起窃盗激怒了这位肉商。于是他就打电话给他的邻居说:;Hey,if your dog stole a rasat from my butcher shop,would you be liable for the coast of the meat?;“喂,如果你的儿从我的肉店偷走了一块烤肉,你会为这块肉的损失费用负责任吗?”The lawyer replied,;Of course,how much was the roast?;这名律师回答说:“当然会呀,这块烤肉多少钱呢?”;.;Afew days later the butcher received a check in the mail for .“八元。”几天后,这位肉商收到一封邮件,里面有一张八元的票。Attached to it was an invoice that :这张票却附上了一张发票,上面写着:Legal Consultation Service:0.“法律咨询务 :一百五十元。” /201504/368403长春市公立三甲医院无痛引流多少钱 Exercise seems to be good for the human brain, with many recent studies suggesting that regular exercise improves memory and thinking skills. But an interesting new study asks whether the apparent cognitive benefits from exercise are real or just a placebo effect — that is, if we think we will be “smarter” after exercise, do our brains respond accordingly? The answer has significant implications for any of us hoping to use exercise to keep our minds sharp throughout our lives.体育锻炼似乎对大脑有益,最近的许多研究表明,经常锻炼可以改善记忆和思维能力。但一项有趣的新研究却提出了这样的问题:体育锻炼在提高认知能力方面显现出来的益处,是真实存在,还是心理作用?也就是说,假如我们相信自己在运动之后会“更聪明”,我们的大脑会不会做出相应的反应?对于想要通过锻炼来在一生中保持头脑敏捷的人来说,这个问题的至关重要。In experimental science, the best, most reliable studies randomly divide participants into two groups, one of which receives the drug or other treatment being studied and the other of which is given a placebo, similar in appearance to the drug, but not containing the active ingredient.在实验科学中,最出色可靠的研究会把参与者随机分为两组,一组得到正在研究的药物或治疗方法,另一组得到的则是无效的安慰剂,其外观与第一组拿到的药物类似,但不含活性成分。Placebos are important, because they help scientists to control for people’s expectations. If people believe that a drug, for example, will lead to certain outcomes, their bodies may produce those results, even if the volunteers are taking a look-alike dummy pill. That’s the placebo effect, and its occurrence suggests that the drug or procedure under consideration isn’t as effective as it might seem to be; some of the work is being done by people’s expectations, not by the medicine.安慰剂很重要,因为它们帮助科学家来控制受试者的预期。例如,如果人们相信一种药物会产生某些效果,他们的身体可能就会出现相应的反应,即使志愿者只是吃了外观相似的无效药物。这就是安慰剂效应,它的存在意味着,正在研究的药物或疗程并没有看上去那么有效;有些效果是由人们的期待促成的,而不是药物本身。Recently, some scientists have begun to question whether the apparently beneficial effects of exercise on thinking might be a placebo effect. While many studies suggest that exercise may have cognitive benefits, those experiments all have had a notable scientific limitation: They have not used placebos.最近,一些科学家开始怀疑,体育锻炼表现出来的改善思维的益处可能是安慰剂效应。尽管许多研究显示,运动或有提高认知能力的好处,但这些实验都存在一种明显的科学局限性:它们没有使用对照组。This issue is not some abstruse scientific debate. If the cognitive benefits from exercise are a result of a placebo effect rather than of actual changes in the brain because of the exercise, then those benefits could be ephemeral and unable in the long term to help us remember how to spell ephemeral.这个问题本身并不涉及什么深奥的科学辩论。如果运动提高认知能力的益处是安慰剂效应,而不是大脑因为运动发生了真正的改变,那么这些好处可能就会转瞬即逝,无法长期帮助我们记住“转瞬即逝”这种复杂词汇。Studying this issue, however, is difficult. There is no placebo for exercise and no way to blind people about whether they are exercising. They know if they are walking or cycling or not.然而,研究这个问题却很困难。对于体育锻炼来说,不存在无效对照剂,也没有办法不让受试者知道自己是不是在运动。他们清楚自己有没有步行或骑自行车。So researchers at Florida State University in Tallahassee and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign came up with a clever workaround. They decided to focus on expectations, on what people anticipate that exercise will do for thinking. If people’s expectations jibe closely with the actual benefits, then at least some of those improvements are probably a result of the placebo effect and not of exercise.因此,来自塔拉哈西的佛罗里达州立大学(Florida State University)以及伊利诺伊大学厄巴纳-香槟分校(University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)的研究人员想到了一个聪明的迂回办法。他们决定把关注点放在:受试者预期锻炼会对思维产生何种影响。如果他们的期待与实际的益处吻合,那么至少部分好处很可能是源于安慰剂效应,而不是锻炼的结果。The scientists had seen this situation at work during an earlier study of games and cognition. Past research had suggested that playing action-oriented games improves players’ subsequent thinking skills. But when scientists in the new study asked -game players to estimate by how much the games would improve their thinking, the players’ estimates almost exactly matched the gains seen on cognitive tests after playing. In other words, the cognitive benefits of playing games appear to be largely a result of a placebo effect.在早前对视频游戏与认知能力的关系所做的研究中,科学家们就遇到过这种情况。过去的研究显示,玩动作类视频游戏可以改善玩家的思维能力。但当进行新研究的科学家们让视频游戏玩家估计游戏能在多大程度上改善他们的思维能力时,玩家的估计几乎和玩后的认知测试的加分完全吻合。换句话说,玩视频游戏的认知好处似乎主要是心理作用。For the new study, which was published last month in PLOS One, the researchers repeated this experiment but focused on exercise. Recruiting 171 people through an online survey system, they asked half of these volunteers to estimate by how much a stretching and toning program performed three times a week might improve various measures of thinking, including memory and mental multitasking.关于锻炼的这项新研究上个月发表在《公共科学图书馆:综合》期刊(PLOS One)上。研究人员重复了这个实验,但把实验内容换成了体育锻炼。他们通过一个在线调查系统招募了171人,要求其中一半的志愿者来评估,如果一周进行三次拉伸运动,能够在多大程度上改善思维能力,比如和一心多用的能力。The other volunteers were asked the same questions, but about a regular walking program.另一组志愿者被问到同样的问题,不过锻炼项目换成了有规律的步行运动。In actual experiments, stretching and toning regimens generally have little if any impact on people’s cognitive skills. Walking, on the other hand, seems to substantially improve thinking ability.在真实的实验中,拉伸运动基本上对认知能力没有多少影响。另一方面,散步则显示出能大幅改善思维能力。But the survey respondents believed the opposite, estimating that the stretching and toning program would be more beneficial for the mind than walking. The volunteers’ estimates of the likely cognitive improvements from gentle toning averaged about a three on a scale from one to six. The estimates of benefits from walking were lower.不过,在这项实验中,受试者的想法则正好相反。他们估计拉伸项目比步行对大脑更有益处。以1到6级来衡量,志愿者认为,轻度拉伸对认知的潜在改善的平均等级是3。他们对步行的评估则低一些。These data, while they do not involve any actual exercise, are good news for people who do exercise. “The results from our study suggest that the benefits of aerobic exercise are not a placebo effect,” said Cary Stothart, a graduate student in cognitive psychology at Florida State University, who led the study.这些数据虽然没有涉及真正的体育锻炼,对于真正从事锻炼的人来说却是个好消息。“我们的研究结果显示,有氧运动的好处不是安慰剂效应,”佛罗里达州立大学的认知心理学研究生卡里·斯托塔特(Cary Stothart)说。他牵头进行了这项研究。If expectations had been driving the improvements in cognition seen in studies after exercise, Mr. Stothart said, then people should have expected walking to be more beneficial for thinking than stretching. They didn’t, implying that the changes in the brain and thinking after exercise are physiologically genuine.斯托塔特解释,假如是人们的期待在驱动研究中发现的锻炼对认知能力的改善,那么受试者就应该是期待步行比拉伸更有益处。他们没有,这就意味着体育锻炼之后,大脑和思维能力真的发生了生理上的变化。Of course, this study was small and involved a self-selected group of people who happen to like completing online surveys. Some said they exercised, others said they did not. None claimed to be familiar with the science related to exercise and the brain, but it is impossible to know if people were being forthright.当然,这项研究的规模较小,参与者只涵盖了喜欢完成网上调查的人。有些人声称自己平时锻炼,其他人则说自己不运动。没人自称熟悉与运动和大脑有关的科学,但也无法知道他们是不是都说了真话。Still, the findings are strong enough to suggest that exercise really does change the brain and may, in the process, improve thinking, Mr. Stothart said. That conclusion should encourage scientists to look even more closely into how, at a molecular level, exercise remodels the human brain, he said. It also should spur the rest of us to move, since the benefits are, it seems, not imaginary, even if they are in our head.不过,斯托塔特表示,这些发现仍然足以明,锻炼真的会改变大脑,或许在这个过程中,还可能改善思维能力。他说,这个结论应该可以鼓励科学家们进一步探索:在分子层面上,运动是如何重塑了我们的大脑。它还应该激励我们其他人动起来,因为看来这些益处并非想象出来的,虽然它们的确发生在我们的大脑里。 /201411/344933德惠市第二人民医院宫颈息肉

长春宽城区流产好不好Downton Abbey#39;s Lady Mary is now the most in-demand British voice in America, new research has revealed.有新研究指出,《唐顿庄园》里大玛丽的声音已经成为在美国最受欢迎的英国声音。Actress Michelle Dockery#39;s cut glass English tones beat the likes of quintessential English actor Hugh Grant and current James Bond Daniel Craig, to become the most requested UK accent for the US voiceover industry.女演员米歇尔#8226;道克瑞那精致的英音击败标杆人物英国演员休#8226;格兰特和新晋邦德演员丹尼尔#8226;克雷格,成为美国配音行业最受欢迎的英国口音。Voiceovers are big business in America covering everything from TV ads to recorded birthday greetings and at the moment famous British - and Irish - voices are particularly popular.配音在美国是一个非常庞大的行业,包括电视广告到生日祝福录音等领域。现在英国和爱尔兰名人的口音尤其受欢迎。From Nigella Lawson#39;s sultry tones to Liam Neeson#39;s Ulster brogue and even Gordon Ramsay#39;s angry rants, demand has more than doubled in the past year.去年,妮格拉#8226;罗森性感的声音和连姆#8226;尼森的爱尔兰口音,甚至是戈登#8226;拉姆齐的愤怒咆哮,这些声音的需求量都成倍增长。Copycat versions of these, and others from Hugh Grant to Keith Lemon, are used for all kinds of things including online guides, training s and even automated voicemails.这些声音的模仿版本,以及模仿休#8226;格兰特,基思#8226;柠檬的声音被用于多个方面,包括在线指引,训练视频和自动语音邮箱。And Lady Mary#39;s cut-glass upper-class accent is the most popular of the lot, according to PPH#39;s analysis of 5,000 job adverts requesting British-sounding voices in the USA.根据全球自由职业者市场网站PeoplePerHour(PPH)在美国对5000份英音招聘启事的分析报告显示,玛丽精致高贵的口音在众多声音中最受欢迎。It does not even mean using the real voice of Ms Dockery who plays the aristocrat in the successful series, said PPH boss Xenios Thrasyvoulou.这并不意味着要使用大玛丽扮演者道克瑞女士的真实声音,PPH的老板Xenios Thrasyvoulou如是说。Instead, a good impression will do as it will for others on the top 20 list including Daniel Craig and Helen Mirren - familiar to Americans for playing James Bond and The Queen.相反,一个好的印象非常重要,比如其他位列前20名的人,包括丹尼尔#8226;克雷格和海伦#8226;米伦,这两位因扮演詹姆斯#8226;邦德和女王而被美国观众所熟知。All the Americans want is an English-speaking voice that sounds like the star or, sometimes, more generically they will ask for a #39;B News#39; or a #39;Downton Abbey#39; accent, according to research by global freelance marketplace PeoplePerHour (PPH).PPH研究发现,美国人想要的是一个听起来像玛丽说英语的声音,或者,有时是想要一种“B新闻”或者“唐顿庄园”那样的口音。Colin Farrell, the Irish actor who is a Hollywood A-lister is high in the list alongside Scot James McAvoy, who has also had success in American movies.好莱坞一线演员、来自爱尔兰的科林#8226;法瑞尔与在电影方面有极大成就的苏格兰演员詹姆斯#8226;麦卡沃伊都在英国腔热门榜上名列前茅。Surprisingly, Cheryl Fernandez-Versini#39;s Geordie accent is often requested, even though her failure as a US X-Factor judge was attributed to US audiences unable to understand her.出乎预料的是,谢丽尔#8226;费尔南德兹-维西尼的口音需求也很旺盛,虽然她在美国X音素(X-Factor)中担任评审的失败被归咎于美国观众听不懂她说话。Americans request British and Irish voiceovers more often than that of any other nation, said Xenios Thrasyvoulou and it is fast becoming a major UK export across the Atlantic.美国人对英音和爱尔兰口音的配音需求比对其他国家的都要大,Xenios Thrasyvoulou说。这也迅速成为英国跨越大西洋的主要出口业务。Often they will request a #39;Downton accent#39; or a #39;Hugh Grant#39; or even a #39;B News accent#39; when advertising for the service, said PeoplePerHour#39;s research.PeoplePerHour研究报告显示,在需求广告中,他们通常会提出想要一种“唐顿庄园”、“休#8226;格兰特”或者一种“B新闻”的口音。It may be for promotional or training s made by private companies or even for novelty purposes like a #39;celebrity#39; voicemail on a mobile or landline telephone.这些声音可以被私人公司用于推广或者训练视频,甚至可以由一些新奇的用途,比如给手机或固定电话的语音信箱加一段“名人”语音。Around 10.4 million Americans regularly tuned in to watch the last series of Downton Abbey shown over there and similar numbers enjoy Sherlock and Doctor Who.大概有1040万美国人会定期追看《唐顿庄园》,以及《神探夏洛克》和《神秘士》。But it is not just America. PPH found requests for British voices from countries as far afield as Australia and India to Mexico, Egypt and even Germany.这个现象不仅仅发生在美国。PPH发现对英音的需求还来自澳大利亚,印度,墨西哥,埃及甚至德国等国家。Xenios Thrasyvoulou said: #39;The original British export was manufacturing then it was financial services now it seems to be the British accent.Xenios Thrasyvoulou说:“英国起初的出口是制造业,随后是金融业,现在是英式口音。”#39;With more companies than ever across the world utilising s for promotional purposes, voiceover artists from the UK are cashing in on the popularity of their accents.“随着世界各国各个公司更多地使用视频资料来做宣传推广,英国配音演员也因他们的口音而获益颇丰。”#39;It#39;s not just companies either, it seems that people from America, Australia and the UAE are also hiring voiceovers for novelty projects like birthday messages.“而且不仅仅是公司方面的需求,美国,澳大利亚和阿拉伯联合国酋长国的人们都在用新奇的方式使用英国腔,例如录制生日祝福语等。#39;The is potentially driven by a new wave of British programmes that are becoming hugely popular in the US and other countries across the world.#39;“英国的电视节目在美国和其他各国都越来越受欢迎,而这种对英音的需求正是其内在驱动的结果。”TOP TWENTY MOST IN DEMAND BRITISH ACCENTS IN AMERICA美国最受欢迎的英音前20位1. Lady Mary (Downton Abbey)1.大玛丽(唐顿庄园)2. Hugh Grant2.休#8226;格兰特3. Daniel Craig3.丹尼尔#8226;克雷格4. Colin Farrell4.科林#8226;法瑞尔5. James McAvoy5.詹姆斯#8226;麦卡沃伊6. Helen Mirren6.海伦#8226;米伦7. Cheryl Fernandez-Versini7.谢丽尔#8226;费尔南德兹-维西尼8. Hugh Laurie8.休#8226;劳瑞9. Idris Elba9.伊德瑞斯#8226;艾尔巴10. Sean Connery10.肖恩#8226;康纳利11. Liam Neeson11.连姆#8226;尼森12. Simon Cowell12.西蒙#8226;考威尔13. Keira Knightley13.凯拉#8226;奈特莉14. Gordon Ramsay14.戈登#8226;拉姆齐15. Benedict Cumberbatch15.本尼迪克特#8226;康伯巴奇16. Matt Smith16.马特#8226;史密斯17. David Beckham17.大卫#8226;贝克汉姆18. Nigella Lawson18.妮格拉#8226;罗森19. Jason Statham19.杰森#8226;斯坦森20. Keith Lemon.20.基思#8226;柠檬 /201505/374408长春无痛上环多少钱 BEIJING: Chinais increasingly opening up to gays and lesbians with a new survey showing 59 percent of Chinese people saying the society should accept homosexuals.北京:中国对同性恋者越来越持开放态度,一份新发布的研究表明59%的中国人表示社会应当接受同性恋者。Fifty-nine per cent of 2,400 city residents interviewed in a survey said that society should accept homosexuals while 21 percent said they know gay people,state-run Global Times reported on Monday.据国家媒体《环球时报》周一报道,根据一份调查,2400名接受采访的市民中有59%的人表示社会应当接受同性恋者,有21%的人表示他们认识的人中就有同性恋者。On same-sex marriage, 40 percent of respondents supported the idea and 19 percent opposed.谈到同性婚姻,40%的受访者表示他们持持态度,另有19%的人反对。The survey, on the social acceptance towards LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual,transgender) people, was done by the Shanghai LGBT Professionals and Work For LGBT and Parents, Families, Friends of Lesbians and Gays (PFL).这份关于社会对同性恋、双性恋及跨性别人群接纳程度的调研是由上海同志商务和同性恋亲友会共同执行的。City residents aged 18 years and above were surveyed in November online and through mobile.11月,18岁以上的市民通过网络和手机接受了调查。The survey showed that Chinese people are more positive towards LGBT people.调查表明,中国民众对同性恋者持更正面的态度。Only 4 percent of the respondents said they have no opinion on LGBT people while 40 percent of those surveyed remained neutral.只有4%的受访者表示他们对同性恋者没有概念,而40%的受访者保持中立态度。Ah Qiang, a well-known gay rights activist and founder of PFL China said the report revealed that gay people can win more acceptance and understanding by socialising with others.知名同性恋权利活动专家及中国同性恋亲友会创始人Ah Qiang表示,报道揭露同性恋者在社会交往中获得了更多的接受和理解。Zhang Beichuan, a prominent scholar on homosexuality, said the survey indicates that Chinese society has made great progress in accepting homosexuals in the past 20 years but many people still lack an understanding of gay people.杰出的同性恋学者张北川(ZhangBeichuan)表示,这份调研表明中国社会在过去二十多年来已经在接纳同性恋者方面取得了很大进步,但仍有很多人对同性恋者缺乏理解。;The general public#39;s acceptance does not mean they fully understand the LGBT groups,; Zhang said, adding, that the majority of Chinese people may accept homosexuals in society but they would be opposed to the idea of having gay family members.张说,“大众接受并不意味着他们就是完全理解了同性恋群体”。他还说,大多数中国人可以接受社会中的同性恋者,但他们反对家庭成员中有同性恋者。A report on the state of HIV and AIDS in China released this month shows that China has more than 7,000 students who are either HIV carriers or AIDS patients while 64.8 percent of them contracted the virus through sex with people of the same gender, state-run Xinhua news agency reported.据国家媒体新华社报道,本月发布的一份关于艾滋病病毒和艾滋病的报告表明,中国有7000名学生是艾滋病病毒的携带者或是艾滋病患者,而其中有64.8%的人是因为与同性发生了关系而染上此病的。 /201412/347807长春最好的做人流手术医院

长春摘除宫颈息肉Poking fun at fat people should be treated as seriously as racism and sexism, researchers have said。研究人员表示,取笑肥胖人士的现象应像种族歧视和性别歧视一样被严肃处理。Obesity expert Dr Sarah Jackson said that the law should protect against weight discrimination, in the same way at it prohibits singling out people based on their age, gender or race。肥胖专家莎拉#8226;杰克逊士表示,法律应当禁止肥胖歧视,正如法律禁止年龄、性别及种族歧视一样。Dr Jackson, of University College London, spoke out after conducting two studies into the physical and psychological effects of fattism。就职于伦敦大学学院的杰克逊士在进行了两项关于‘肥胖歧视’对于生理和心理影响的研究后,发表了上述看法。Her latest study, of more than 5,000 British adults found that those who were made to feel ashamed of their size suffered more symptoms of depression。在她的最新研究中,通过对5000多名英国成年人的调查研究,她发现越是那些羞愧于自己体型的人被抑郁症折磨得越厉害。They also had a lower quality of life than those who didn’t feel victimised。同时,这些人的生活质量也远低于那些不受肥胖歧视困扰的人。Examples of fattism included being treated disrespectfully, including being the butt of jokes, receiving poorer services in shops, restaurants, hospitals and doctors’ surgeries, being threatened and being assumed to be stupid。肥胖歧视的表现包括:被无礼对待;被取笑;在商店、餐厅、医院以及医生治疗时得不到良好务;被威胁;被认为是愚蠢的象征。She previously showed shaming fat people into losing weight is counterproductive。而她之前的研究显示通过嘲笑来促使肥胖人士减肥会适得其反。Far from shocking people into slimming, it actually leads to them piling on the pounds。别人的嘲笑不仅不会使他们变瘦,事实上还会导致他们体重增加。It is thought fattism drives those who are aly sensitive about their weight to comfort eat. Fear of ridicule may also mean they avoid exercise。研究认为,肥胖歧视使得那些本已经对自身体重十分敏感的人自暴自弃,大吃特吃。而且,出于对被嘲笑的恐惧,这些肥胖人士还会拒绝运动。With two-thirds of British women overweight or obese, jibes, taunts and simple thoughtlessness could be having a huge effect on the nation’s mental and psychological health。而在英国有三分之二的女性都存在超重或者肥胖问题,嘲弄、辱骂以及轻率对待肥胖人士就有可能对整个国家的精神和心理健康状况产生重大影响。Dr Sarah Jackson, the lead author of both studies, said that people may believe that weight discrimination is socially acceptable because unlike ageism, sexism and racism, it is not covered by law。两项研究的第一作者莎拉#8226;杰克逊士表示:“不像年龄、性别、种族歧视,肥胖歧视不受法律管制,于是人们就可能认为体重歧视是被社会接受的。She said: ‘In the ed Kingdom, the Equality Act 2010 legally protects individuals from discrimination on the basis of age, sex, race, disability, religion or beliefs, sexual orientation, marital status, pregnancy, or gender reassignment; making it clear that discriminatory behaviour of this nature is not to be accepted。“在英国,通过颁布《2010平等法案》,每个人都可以免受因年龄、性别、种族、残疾、宗教信仰、性取向、婚姻状况、怀、变性这些不同自然选择带来的歧视。‘However, our results indicate that discriminatory experiences contribute to poorer psychological wellbeing in individuals with obesity, but there are currently no laws prohibiting weight discrimination。“然而,我们的研究结果显示:尽管肥胖人士饱受因被歧视带来的心理问题困扰,但是现行法律中没有哪部法律禁止体重歧视。‘This might send the message to people that weight discrimination is socially acceptable。“这就可能给人们传达这样一个讯息:体重歧视是被社会接受认可的。‘If weight was a protected category it might help to reduce the prevalence of weight-related discrimination and thereby improve quality of life and wellbeing for a significant proportion of obese individuals.’“如果体重属于法律保护的一个范畴,就有可能降低肥胖歧视的发生率,因此就有利于更多肥胖人士享受健康生活,提高其生活质量。” /201504/369103 Lesson one: New challenges require new ways of thinking1.面对新挑战,要有新思路Part car, part jet fighter, part spaceship, Bloodhound SSC aims to be the first land vehicle to break the 1,000mph barrier. One of the key challenges has been to design the wheels. How do you create the fastest wheels in history, make them stable and reliable at supersonic speeds, and with limited resources?部分汽车、部分喷气式飞机、部分宇宙飞船,猎犬号超级汽车的目标是做世界上第一辆时速突破1000英里的汽车。而这面临的一项关键挑战是车轮的设计。如果换做是你,你会如何在有限的资源下发明出超音速汽车上用的轮子呢?After much deliberation, and devising ideas that pushed the boundaries of material technology, Mark Chapman, chief engineer of the Bloodhound project said the team decided to take a step back and change the way they were trying to solve problems. “There’s very little we’ve actually developed that’s new,” he says, “what’s unique is how we apply technologies.”猎犬号项目的总工程师马克·查普曼思来想去,觉得材料还是不够好。最后他和他的团队决定退回一步、换个角度看有没有别的办法。“我们实际创新的东西并不多”,马克说:“我们的独特之处在于应用技术的方式别具一格。”They adopted an approach called the design of experiments – a mathematical technique of problem solving through doing lots of little experiments and then looking at the statistics all glued together. “All of a sudden, where we’d been knocking our head against the wall for maybe two, three, four months, we came up with a wheel design that would hold together and was strong enough,” he says.他们采用实验设计的方法做了很多的小实验,综合所得的数据再得出精确设计。“花了三四个月绞尽脑汁做尽各种实验之后,很突然地我们做出了一个大胆的设计:把各种可用的(飞机、飞船所用的)技术都融合在一辆车上,从而使它足够强大。”马克说。Lesson two: Let evidence shape your opinion2.观点要用据来明Like his peers, geophysicist Steven Jacobsen from Northwestern University believed that water on Earth originated from comets. But by studying rocks, which allow scientists to peer back in time, he discovered water hidden inside ringwoodite, which lies in the Earth’s mantle, and which suggests that the oceans gradually made its way out of the planet’s interior many centuries ago.美国西北大学地球物理学家史蒂文·雅各布森曾认为,地球上的水源于彗星。但通过对岩石的研究,他发现地幔的林伍德石里面也藏有水,这一发现表明或许在N个世纪之前,海洋是从地球内部自己慢慢溢出来的。“I had a pretty hard time convincing others,” he admits. Yet two key pieces of evidence uncovered this year seem to support his point of view. Time will tell whether the new theories are true, and there may be further twists to the tale. “But thinking about the fact that you may be the first person to see something for the first time doesn’t happen very often,” he says. “When it does it’s thrilling.”“那时候我难说别的学者相信这个。”史蒂文说。但是今年新发现的两个关键据似乎持了他的理论。所以,一个新理论的正确与否可能需要时间来慢慢印,在被世人接受前可能会经历很多曲折。“但是如果你发现你是第一个发现这个规律的人,且时间又明你是对的之后,你会倍受鼓舞的。”史蒂文说。Lesson three: It really is 99% perspiration3.天才的99%确实是汗水Sheila Nirenberg at Cornell University is trying to develop a new prosthetic device for treating blindness. Key to this was cracking the code that transmits information from the eye to the brain. “Once I realised this, I couldn’t eat, I couldn’t sleep – all I wanted to do was work,” says Nirenberg.康奈尔大学希拉·尼伦伯格正在研究治疗失明的新型假体,其中破解眼睛与大脑的信息交流密码是最关键的。“我意识到这一点之后,就吃不下饭、睡不着觉,只想全身心投入工作。”尼伦伯格说。“Sometimes I’m exhausted and I get burnt out,” she adds. “But then I get an email from somebody in crisis or somebody who’s getting macular degeneration, and they can’t see their own children’s faces, and it is like, ‘How can I possibly complain?’ It gives me the energy to just go back and keep doing it.”“每次觉得筋疲力尽、江郎才尽的时候,我都会收到一些到正处于危险状态马上要失明的、或是患有黄斑部退化症的病人的邮件,这些人将没办法看清自己孩子的长相、无法看这五颜六色的世界。每当这个时候,我就跟自己说‘我怎么能够抱怨呢’,然后就又动力十足的继续工作。”Lesson four: The answer isn’t always what you expect4.结果并不总是和预想的一样Sylvia Earle has spent decades trying to see the ocean with new eyes. Her “dream machine” is a submarine that could take scientists all the way to the bottom of the deepest ocean floor. What sort of material could best withstand the types of pressure you would encounter thousands of miles below the ocean surface? “It could be steel, it could be titanium, it could be some sort of ceramic, or some kind of aluminium system,” says Earle. “But glass is the ultimate material.” By her estimates, a glass sphere about four-to-six inches (10-15cm) thick should be able safely explore the ocean depths she dreams of exploring.西尔维亚·厄尔花了几十年的时间试图让人们用新的方式亲近海底,她的“梦想号”潜艇可以让科学家潜入到最深的海底。那种材料才能够承受住深海的巨大压力呢?厄尔说:“我想过用钢、钛、陶瓷等,但最终发现其实玻璃才是终极王者。”根据她的预计,一块10-15厘米厚的玻璃板就能让她进入梦寐以求的那片深海世界。Glass is the oldest material known to man and one of the least understood, says Tony Lawson, Earle’s engineering director at Deep Ocean and Exploration Research Marine. “It has a higgledy-piggledy molecular structure a bit like a liquid, rather than the ordered lattices often found in other solids. As a result, when glass is evenly squeezed from all sides – as it would be under the ocean – the molecules cram closer together and form a tighter structure.厄尔的项目技术总监称,虽然玻璃是人类已知的最古老材料,但是我们对它的了解却甚少。“玻璃的分子结构有点像是液体,排列方式没有一般固体的有规律。因此,当玻璃被海洋里的压力从四面八方压迫时,它的分子会被压在一起,形成更紧密的结构。”Lesson five: A little luck goes a long way5.偶尔的一点好运也可以维持很久It was hailed as one of the biggest success stories in the history of space exploration – 20 years of planning ended earlier this year with the Philae lander rendezvousing with Comet 67P over 300 million miles (480 million kilometres) away from Earth.菲莱探测器被誉为太空探索史上最大跨越之一,历经20年的策划期终于在年初发射并成功在离地球四亿八千万公里的67P彗星上着陆。The biggest challenge, says Stephan Ulamec, manager of the Philae lander programme, was how to design a probe to land on a body whose makeup they had little knowledge about. “We had no idea of the size, we had no idea of the day-night cycle, which influences the thermal design, we had no idea of the gravity, so how fast would the lander impact, we had no idea how the surface looked,” he says.据菲莱项目的负责人斯蒂芬介绍,在这20年里遇到的最大挑战是对彗星构造了解较少,不知道该如何设计这个探测器。“我们不知道彗星的昼夜循环情况会影响保热设计,不知道彗星的重力也无法预测探测器着陆后对转速的影响,甚至不清楚彗星表面的样子。”They needed to create design parameters that could cope with an extremely wide range of possible comet structures – but banked on the comet being a relatively even potato shape with enough flat surfaces for the probe to land on. Even then, not everything went to plan, and two decades of meticulous planning could have failed within minutes at touchdown. Philae#39;s anchoring harpoons didn#39;t fire as planned, and it bounced off the comet before settling onto its icy surface and successfully beaming data back to its relieved creators.科学家们需要建立尽可能符合多种彗星结构的设计参数,但是还是得寄希望于彗星的表面要够平坦。可即便是花了20年设计、缜密计划过的菲莱还是在着陆的几分钟里有点小失败:“鱼叉”系统未如计划打开,无法准确钉入彗星表面。不过幸运的是,菲莱还是成功地把数据发回了地球。Lesson six: Genius is indefinable6.“天才”定义不明“It’s a funny word: the word ‘genius’,” says Nirenberg. “I just sort of ignore it and just go on with life. You just do what you do independent of whatever label’s attached to you. I don’t know really how else to explain it.”“天才这个词很有趣”,尼伦伯格说,“我常常忽略这个标签继续走自己的路。只需要抛掉别人在你身上贴的各种标签做自己想做到的事就好了。因为所谓天才真是判断标准不一、无法解释的事情。” /201501/356302吉林妇保医院诊疗春城医院是公办的吗

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