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2019年08月19日 12:59:36    日报  参与评论()人

赣州泌尿外科江西赣州妇幼保健院不孕不育医院预约挂号Surgical patients who listen to music — even while they are under general anesthesia — have less anxiety and need less pain medication during recovery than those who do not, a large review of studies has found. 一项大型研究综述发现,与不听音乐的患者相比,听音乐的手术患者在恢复期间焦虑程度较低,需要的镇痛药量也较少,即使他们是在全身麻醉状态下依然如此。The analysis, in Lancet, includes data from 72 randomized controlled trials. The studies covered various music genres, timing and delivery methods (speakers versus headphones), and procedures ranging from routine colonoscopy to open heart surgery. Researchers recorded length of stay in the hospital, measured pain using numerical rating scales, and estimated anxiety and satisfaction by self-report.这项发表在《柳叶刀》杂志(Lancet)上的分析共计纳入了72项随机对照试验的数据。这些研究涵盖了不同的音乐类型、播放音乐的时机以及播放方式(扬声器还是耳机),涉及从常规结肠镜检查到心内直视手术等各种各样的手术。研究人员记录了患者们的住院时间,用数字评分量表衡量了他们的疼痛程度,并通过自我报告估计了他们的焦虑程度和满意度。Compared with regular care, music was associated with a 20 percent reduction in postoperative pain, a 10 percent reduction in anxiety and a significant reduction in the use of pain medication. It increased patient satisfaction slightly, but did not affect length of hospital stay.与常规治疗相比,音乐与术后疼痛减少20%,焦虑减少10%以及止痛药使用显著减少相关。它还令患者的满意度略有增加,但对住院时间长短没有影响。Pain was reduced most when music was played before the operation, slightly less when played during the procedure, and least when played afterward, but the difference in timing was not clinically significant.在术前播放音乐时减轻疼痛的效果最好,在术中播放时效果稍显不足,在术后播放时效果相对最差,但播放时机之间的差异不具备临床意义。“If you like music and find it calming, it might help a lot,” said the senior author, Catherine Meads, a er in health technology assessment at Brunel University in London. “It might be that hospitals would want to tell patients that they can listen to music before the operation.”“如果你喜欢音乐,觉得它能带给你平静,它可能会大有助益,”该研究的责任作者、《卫生技术评估》杂志(health technology assessment)的审稿人、布鲁内尔大学(Brunel University,位于伦敦)的凯瑟琳·米兹(Catherine Meads)说。“根据这一研究结果,医院可能会建议患者,如果喜欢,可以在手术前听听音乐。” /201509/399842赣州男性科咨询 The World Health Organisation#39;s cancer agency says processed meats can lead to colon and other cancers, and red meat is also a likely cause of the disease.Based on the evaluation, processed meat is classified as ;carcinogenic to humans; - in the same category as tobacco, asbestos and diesel fumes- and red meat as ;probably carcinogenic to humans.;世界卫生组织下属的国际癌症研究机构就食用红色肉类和加工肉制品的致癌性发表了一份最新评估。这份评估将食用红色肉类和加工肉类分别列为“较可能致癌”和“致癌”级别,与香烟、酒精、石棉及砒霜等同级。;From the combined analysis of several studies there was about a 17 percent increase of cancers of the colorectum per portion of about 50 grams per day of processed meat. Now that increased risk is about similar for red meat - it#39;s 1.17 per 100 grams - but again the evidence if it#39;s really causally related is not as strong yet.;“从若干研究的综合分析来看,每天进食约50克加工肉类,患大肠癌的风险即增加17%。而红肉带来的类似风险是每100克增加1.17%,但这种致癌关系并不如食用加工肉类明显。”What is Red meat?什么是红肉?Red meat includes beef, lamb and pork including minced beef, pork chops and roast lamb. It does not include chicken or turkey meat.红肉指的是在烹饪前呈现岀红色的肉,如猪肉、牛肉、羊肉等所有哺乳动物的肉都是红肉,不包括禽类。What is processed meat?什么是加工肉制品?Processed meat refers to meat that has been preserved by smoking, curing, salting or adding preservatives. Examples include ham, bacon, pastrami and salami, as well as hot dogs and some sausages. Hamburgers and minced meats only count as processed meat if they have been preserved with salt or chemical additives.加工肉制品指指的是经调味等加工处理而制得的熟肉制成品或半成品,香肠、火腿、培根、都属于这一类。Meat is a good source of protein, vitamins and minerals such as iron, zinc and B vitamins. It is one of the main sources of vitamin B12. Advice from the Department of Health is to consume healthier meat or meat products, such as lean cuts of meat and lean mince and cut down on processed meat.肉类含有丰富的蛋白质,维生素和矿物质,能够为人体提供充足的铁,锌和维生素B, 是维生素B12最主要来源。卫生部门表示购买健康安全的肉和肉制品,可以自己将肉剁碎,少吃肉质加工品。 /201510/406314With the announcement Thursday that scientists had discovered direct evidence of gravitational waves, one of Albert Einstein’s wildest theories was validated. It was further proof (as if any were needed) of Einstein’s genius.上周四,科学家们宣布观测到了引力波存在的直接据,从而实了阿尔伯特·爱因斯坦(Albert Einstein)的一个最令人难以置信的理论。这又一次印了爱因斯坦是个天才(说得好像还需要什么明似的)。But being a genius did not prevent the scientist, who died in 1955, from making mistakes. Some of his most significant errors occurred when he refused to believe the implications of his own ideas.不过,身为天才,这位1955年辞世的科学家也不能避免自己犯错。他的一些最重大的失误源于不愿相信自己的理论能推导出一些结论。Lawrence M. Krauss, a theoretical physicist at Arizona State University, walked us through four of Einstein’s notable blunders.亚利桑那州立大学(Arizona State University)的理论物理学家劳伦斯·M·克劳斯(Lawrence M. Krauss)给我们介绍了爱因斯坦犯下的四个不小的错误。1. Quantum Entanglement一、量子纠缠Einstein referred to this physical phenomenon, which suggests that objects separated by great distances can affect one another, as “spooky action at a distance.” He rejected the possibility, refusing to believe that objects could influence each other no matter how far apart they were.这种物理现象意味着,相隔甚远的物体之间可以相互影响,曾被爱因斯坦称为“鬼魅般的超距作用”。他否认了这种可能性,拒绝相信无论离得有多远的物体之间都可能相互影响。“He didn’t think the spooky action at a distance would be verified, but it was,” Dr. Krauss said. “He thought that was somehow unphysical. He presented this as an example of why quantum mechanics is probably wrong, but in fact it’s right.”“他认为鬼魅般的超距作用不会被实,但它就是被实了,”克劳斯士说。“他觉得这不符合物理原理。他举出这个例子,是为了说明为什么量子力学很可能是错误的,结果它其实是正确的。”A study released by a group of scientists in October provided the strongest evidence yet to support the claim. It followed a string of other experiments that have been conducted since the 1970s that suggest Einstein was too dismissive.去年10月,一群科学家公布的研究成果提供了迄今为止持这种说法最为有力的据。在此之前,有一系列自70年代以来的实验表明爱因斯坦太过武断。“These tests have been done since the late ’70s but always in the way that additional assumptions were needed,” one of the scientists involved told The Times in October. “Now we have confirmed that there is spooky action at distance.”“从70年代末开始就做了这些实验,但一直都需要做些额外的假设,”其中一名科学家在去年10月份告诉时报。“现在我们实,的确存在鬼魅般的超距作用。”2. Gravitational Lensing二、引力透镜效应In 1936, Einstein published an article in Science magazine, detailing what he called “lens-like action of a star by the deviation of light in the gravitational field,” or, in less scientific terms, the idea that objects in space could divert light.在1936年,爱因斯坦在《科学》杂志(Science)上发表了一篇文章,详细解释了他口中的“恒星让通过引力场的光线发生偏差的类似透镜的效应”。用更平白的语言来说,就是太空中的物体可以扭曲光线。“Of course,” he wrote offhandedly, “there is no hope of observing this phenomenon directly.”“当然了,”他随手写到,“没有直接观测到这一现象的希望。”But Dr. Krauss said: “He only thought of lensing by stars and didn’t think of galaxies. He really wasn’t much of an astronomer.”然而,克劳斯说:“爱因斯坦只考虑到了恒星的透镜效应,没有想到星系。他的确不那么精通天文学。”Gravitational lensing has become one of the most useful techniques available to scientists in mapping the universe.引力透视效应如今成为了让科学家得以绘制宇宙图谱的最有用的技术之一。3. The Cosmological Constant三、宇宙常数In trying to apply his general theory of relativity to the structure of the universe, Einstein threw into his equation a term representing a “cosmological constant,” because he believed he needed to represent a repulsive force that would counter the attractive force of gravity in order to represent the universe as static.在尝试将相对论的基本理论运用到宇宙构造中的时候,爱因斯坦在方程中加入了代表“宇宙常数”的一项,因为他认为,为了得到静态宇宙,需要加上这一项来代表制衡引力的一种斥力。Years later, when it was discovered that the universe was expanding, Einstein discarded the term. He was said to have called it “his biggest blunder.” (Though in recent years, questions have been raised about whether that e was misreported.) 多年以后,科学家发现宇宙在膨胀,于是爱因斯坦摒弃了这一常数。据称他把宇宙常数叫做“自己最大的错误”。(不过,近年来,有关这句话是否为误传的疑问浮出了水面。)In any case, Dr. Krauss said that Einstein should not be criticized for attempting to balance the equation, since the idea that the universe was static was accepted at the time. But, he said, that does not let Einstein off the hook.无论如何,克劳斯表示,那个年代大家公认宇宙是静态的,爱因斯坦不应该因为试图让方程成立而受到批评。但他又称,这并不意味着爱因斯坦就可以免责。“The second aspect is, it was also a mathematical blunder because the cosmological constant doesn’t produce a static universe,” he said. “It makes the universe expand faster and faster, which is what we’re experiencing right now.”“换个角度来看,这也是一个数学错误,因为宇宙常数并不能得到静态宇宙,”他说。“会得到的结论反而是宇宙在越来越快地膨胀,也就是我们现在的理解。”“Had he had the courage of his convictions, in some sense, he would have realized that his theory required a universe to be expanding, not one that was static, and he could have predicted it,” he added. “And as I often say, if he just could have predicted it, he would have been famous.”“在某种程度上,假如爱因斯坦有相信的勇气,就会意识到自己的理论成立的前提是宇宙在膨胀,而不是静态的,那么他就能做出这一预测,”克劳斯还表示。“我时常说,哪怕他只是预测出宇宙在膨胀,那他也会很出名。”(The cosmological constant, as it turns out, may not have been so wrongheaded. NASA scientists say that the term “significantly improves the agreement between theory and observation.” Dr. Krauss says that it is possible that dark energy may act in exactly the way that the term was originally meant to represent.)(现在看来,宇宙常数或许并非错得离谱。美国航空航天局[NASA]的科学家们表示,这个概念“极大地促进了理论与实测之间的融合”。克劳斯则称,有可能暗能量的行为恰好就符合这一概念当初代表的含义。)4. Gravitational Waves四、引力波Direct evidence of gravitational waves has Einstein back in the news again now, since he originally proposed their existence a century ago. So it’s funny to learn that he changed his mind, 20 years after suggesting the idea.引力波存在的直接据如今让爱因斯坦再次回到了新闻里,因为正是他在一个世纪前最先提出了该理论。有意思的是,在提出这一概念20年后,他改变了主意。“He wrote a paper saying they don’t exist, and retracted the idea,” Dr. Krauss said. “It turned out he had made a mathematical error that was only discovered just before he was going publish” the retraction.“爱因斯坦写了篇论文说引力波并不存在,要收回这个理论,”克劳斯说。“结果是他犯了个数学错误,在他马上就要发表(收回)文章的时候,错误被发现了。”That paper was rejected by a first journal, Physical Review, Dr. Krauss said, after the mathematician and physicist reviewing the paper, Howard P. Robertson, found the error.克劳斯说,这篇论文先是投给了《物理》(Physical Review),然而进行评议的数学家、物理学家霍华德·P·罗伯逊(Howard P. Robertson)发现了错误,于是文章被杂志拒收。Einstein, angry at having his paper reviewed, planned to publish it in another, obscure journal, but found his error independently and managed to rewrite the paper so that it was accurate before it was published爱因斯坦对自己的文章竟被拿去评议感到愤怒,准备把它发表到另一份不出名的期刊上。不过,他自己也发现了这个错误,设法重写了论文,弄准确了之后才发表。“He wanted to retract the very thing we just discovered this year,” Dr. Krauss said, chuckling. “I think it’s a nice bit of poetry.”“他想要收回我们今年刚刚实测到了的东西,”克劳斯自己笑了起来。“我觉得这真是有点诗意啊。” /201602/426527赣州那家医院是男性生殖专科

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