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2019年07月18日 01:26:48 | 作者:快乐面诊 | 来源:新华社
Qunin, Yaoshu《齐民要术》Qunin, Yaoshu (also Main, techn,iques for the Welfare of the People ) is the most completely preserved of the anaent Chinese agricul-tural texts, and was written by the Northern Wei Dy-nasly offcial Jia Sixie. The book is believed to have been completed in the second year of Wu Ding of Eastern Wei, namely in 544, while anolher account gives the completion belween 533 and 544. The text of the book is divided into ten volumes and 92chapters, and records 1500-year-old Chinese ag-ronomy, horticulture, afforestation, sericulture, an-imal husbandry, veterinanlt medicine, breeding,brewing, cooking, storage,as well as remedies for barren land.The book ed nearly 200 ancient books.Important agricultural books such as Fansheng Zhishu and Simin Yueling from the Han and Jin Dynasties are now lost, so future genera-tions can only understand the operation of agriculture at the time from this book.Since the publication of the book, historical Chinese govemments have long otto-ched great importance to it. Since the book sp overseas, it has also often been considered a classic to study changes in the ancient species. When Charles Datwin was researching the theory of evolution, he made reference to an encyclopedia of anaent China. It is said that the book he referred to was in fact Qimin, Yaoshu .The book#39;s name Qimin, Yaoshu can be explained as techniques by which common peo-ple make their livelihood, and also be explicated as techniques to harness the people#39;s livelihood.《齐民要术》是迄今保存最为完整的我国古代农学著作,由北魏时期官员贾思勰所著。有人认为《齐民要术》成书于东魏武定二年,即公元544年,还有记载说该书的完成时间在公元533和544年间。该书正文分十卷,共九十二篇,收录了中国1500年前农艺、园艺、造林、蚕桑、畜牧、兽医、配种、酿造、烹饪、贮藏以及治荒等方面的知识。书中援引古籍近200部,所引的重要农学著作如《泛胜之书》、《四民月令》等汉晋重要农书现已失传,因此后人只能从此书了解当时的农业运作。该书自出版后,长期受中国历朝政府重视,传遍海外后亦常被认为研究古物种变化的经典,达尔文研究进化论时曾参考一部中国古代百科全书,有说此书正是《齐民要术》。《齐民要术》可解作平民谋生方法,亦可解为治理民生的方法。 /201601/419327

The Simuwu Rectangle Ding司母戊大方鼎In 1939, a bronze ding which is an ancient cooking vessel with two loop handles and four legs was unearthed in Anyang, Henan Province. This four-legged ding known as the Simuwu Rectangle Ding was so big and heavy that it could not be moved after it was unearthed. The Japanese invaders tried several times to plunder it. To protect this rare cultural relic, the local people reburied it and then unearthed it again after China won the Anti-Japanese War in 1945. The Simuwu Rectangle Ding is now collected in the National Museum of Chinese History. The opening of the Simuwu Rectangle Ding is 110cm long and 78cm wide,its sides are 6cm thick and the loop handles are 133cm high. The whole ding weighs 875 kilograms and is the heaviest bronze ware in the world. The casting of this huge bronze vessel used over l ,000 kilograms of metal and needed 70 t0 80 crafts-men to work on it. It is the biggest bronze ware unearthed in China and also a treasure in the world#39;s bronze ware collection. Though the ding is big and heavy,its workmanship is exquisite.Relief of Kui (a one legged mythical animal) was carved on the four sides of the body of the ding. The animal figures are portrayed with artistic exaggeration and create a ferocious, mysterious and dignified atmosphere. Dings were used in the primitive society in China as cooking utensils. At first they were made of pottery clay. Then, as metallurgy emerged and developed, the material was changed to bronze at the end of the Shang Dynasty some 3, 000 years ago. By that time, dings had changed function to become sacrificial vessels and the symbol of their owners#39; power and wealth. The Simuwu Rectangle Ding reveals a high level of casting technique and artistry. It represents the highest casting achievement of the Shang Dynasty. According to the archeologists, the King of the Shang Dynasty had the Simuwu Rectangle Ding made to commemorate his mother.1939年,在河南省安阳市出土了一件青铜鼎,该鼎为我国古代一种炊食器,有两个立耳和四足。这件被称为司母戊大方鼎的四足方鼎出土后,因为又大又重,一时无法搬运。日本侵略者多次强索该鼎,为避免这件珍稀文物惨遭掠夺,当地人们再次把它埋人地下,直到1945年抗战胜利后,才重新将其出土。司母戊大方鼎现收藏于中国历史物馆。司母戊大方鼎口长110厘米,宽78厘米,壁厚6厘米,立耳高133厘米。整尊鼎重达875公斤,是世界上最重的青铜器。铸造这件大型的青铜器皿使用金属原料1000多公斤,需要七八十名工匠操作完成。它是中国出土的最大一件青铜器,也是世界青铜器收藏中的一件珍品。大方鼎虽然形大体重,但制作工艺非常精美,鼎身四周用浮雕刻出夔龙(想象中的一种单足动物)纹样。这些动物纹样是经过艺术夸张而刻划出来的,纹样衬托出一种狰狞、神秘、威严的气氛。鼎在原始社会时期的中国用作炊食器,最先由陶土烧制。随着冶金技术的出现和发展,在约3000年前的商代后期鼎改用青铜浇铸而成,而且,这时的鼎已经改变用途,成为一种礼器,是权力和财富的象征。司母戊大方鼎展现出一种高超的铸造工艺和艺术水平,代表了商代铸造技术的最高成就。据考古专家考,商王铸造这尊司母戊大方鼎是为了纪念自己的母亲。 /201601/419346

The Gan,shi Classic of the Con,stellation《甘石星经》The Chinese people have paid great attention to astronomical phenome-na since very early times. Meteor showers and solar eclipses which oc-curred as far back as in the Xia Dynasty(2070~1600) are recorded in ancient books, and are thought to be the earliest astronomical accounts in the world. By the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods, astronomy had reached quite a high level of sophistication. Astronomers of the State of Lu obseNed 37 solar eclipl ses, among which 33 have been proved accurate. The earliest record of an ap-pearance by Halley#39;s Comet (613 ) is contained in the chronicle of Lu known as The Spring and Autumn, Annals .中国人很早就注意观察天象。古书上关于夏朝(前2070年~前1600年)时流星雨和日食的记载,是世界天文史上最早的记录。春秋战国时期,天文学已取得了相当高的成就。鲁国的天文学家在对天象的观测中,观测到37次日食,其中33次被明是可靠的。哈雷彗星早在公元前613年鲁国的史书《春秋》就有记载,这是世界上关于哈雷彗星的最早的记录。During this period there appeared specialized works on astronomy.Based on their long-time observa-tion of the celestial phenomena, Gon De of the State of Chu wrote a work titled Astron,omy an,d Astrology in eight volumes, and Shi Shen of the State of Wei wrote his As-tronomy, also in eight volumes. The two works were combined later generations as The Gan,shi Classic of the Con,stellation,s.The earliest astronomical work extant in the world.这一时期还出现了天文学专著。在长期观测天象的基础上,楚国人甘德著《天文星占》八卷,魏国人石申撰写《天文》八卷,后人将它们合为一部,称《甘石星经》,这是世界上现存最早的天文学著作。It recorded the motions of Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, Mars and Saturn,and the rules dictating their appearances.It also recorded the names of 800 stars,of which the positions of 121 have been pinpointed.Gon De discovered Jupiter s moon with the naked eye, 2,000 years earlier than the Italian astronomer Galileo,who discovered it with an astronomical telescope in 1609. Shi Shen discovered the reason for solar and lunar eclipses. A crater on the moon has been named after Shi Shen.书中记录了水、木、金、火、土五大行星的运行情况以及它们的出没规律。书中还记录了800个恒星的名字,有121个的位置现在已经被测定。甘德还用肉眼发现了木星的卫星,比意大利天文学家伽利略在1609年用天文望远镜发现该星早2000多年。为了纪念石申,月球上有一座环形山就是用他的名字命名的。 /201511/409355

Apple Inc said its iPad Pro will be available to order online on Wednesday and arrive at stores later this week.苹果公司近日宣布,其最新产品iPad Pro平板电脑周三开始可以从网上订购,并于本周稍晚在苹果商店开售。The 12.9 inch-screen tablet, which starts at 9 but costs more than ,000 if buyers also want a keyboard and an optional stylus, will be available in more than 40 countries, including the ed States, the UK, China and Japan.这款平板电脑带有12.9英寸屏幕,最低售价为799美元,但如果消费者想同时购买一个键盘和可选的手写笔,则花费将超过1,000美元。该产品将面向美国、英国、中国和日本等40多个国家进行销售。Sales of iPads have been falling for several quarters as big-screen iPhones appeal to more consumers. Apple sold 54.86 million iPads in the year ended Sept. 26 - a drop of 19 percent from a year earlier.随着越来越多的顾客被大屏幕的iPhone手机所吸引,iPad系列产品已经连续几个季度销售持续走低了。截至今年9月26日,苹果公司共售出5400万台iPad,相比去年同期下滑达到19%。Since launching iPad with a 9.7-inch screen in 2010, Apple has released a mini version in 2012 with a 7.9-inch screen. Apple unveiled the larger iPad Pro on Sept. 9, hoping to rival Microsoft Corp#39;s 12-inch Surface Pro 3 in attracting business customers.苹果公司于2010年首次发布屏幕大小为9.7英寸的iPad,之后又于2012年发布7.9英寸的mini版本。而在今年的9月9日,苹果更大尺寸的平板电脑--iPad Pro正式亮相。该公司也希望这次的产品能够与微软发布的12英寸的Surface Pro 3相抗衡,吸引更多商务客户。 /201511/409536

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