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福建省泉州中医院网上咨询Science and Technolgy科技Foie-gras production论鹅肝How much is too much?多少是个度Why some duck livers are delicious, and others nasty为什么有的鹅肝是珍馐,有的却让人恶心FOIE GRAS is one of the most controversial dishes on earth. To protagonists, it is simply the finest foodstuff that exists. To those opposed, it is a product of cruelty that is not far short of criminal. The overfeeding of ducks and geese, so that their livers bloat to between six and ten times their normal size and take on a buttery consistency valued by gourmets, exploits the ability of these birds to store large amounts of calorie-rich fat, which was needed to propel them on the long migrations that their wild ancestors would routinely have undertaken. The moral argument over the way foie gras is produced (by feeding the birds with grain, through a tube or a funnel) turns on whether this is merely the permissible exaggeration of a natural inclination, or is tantamount to abuse. Intriguingly, a newly published piece of research on foie-gras production suggests the quality of the product depends on exactly the same distinction.鹅肝是这世上最富争议的食物之一。持鹅肝的人说它是最美的珍馐;而反对者则认为制作鹅肝与犯罪无异。鸭鹅被过度灌食后,肝脏将变为正常水平的6至10倍并呈现出美食家所推崇的黄油状,肝脏贮存脂肪的能力被充分挖掘。鸭鹅的祖先需要定期长途迁徙,而这些脂肪可以为其提供充足的能量。制作鹅肝*(用管子或漏斗对鸭鹅灌饲谷物)涉及一个道德问题:这种做法究竟是在可接受的范围内将动物自身的功能发挥至极致,还是一种虐待行为。有意思的是,最近发表的一篇关于制作鹅肝的研究认为,鹅肝的质量取决于这一问题。From the chefs point of view, one of the disturbing things about foie gras is how variable it is. Some livers, when cooked, retain their fat and thus their rich flavour. Others lose fat when heated and end up tasting terrible. To try to work out why, Caroline Molette, a biologist at the University of Toulouse, did some experiments. Her results, just published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, suggest that the difference is whether the liver in question is truly healthy or not.在厨师看来,鹅肝的麻烦事之一是质量参差不齐。有些肝脏烹饪后还保留着脂肪、油腻感十足。有些肝脏在加热后脂肪就没了,相当难吃。为了搞清楚其中缘由,法国图卢兹大学(University of Toulouse)的生物学家Caroline Molette进行了实验,并将结果发表于《农业与食品化学杂志》(Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry)。她认为其中差别在于所用肝脏健康与否。Dr Molette and her colleagues raised 150 male mule ducks (a cross between Pekin and Muscovy ducks that is often used to produce foie gras) for 13 weeks in standard poultry-house conditions and then transferred them into individual enclosures. For a further 12 days the birds were fattened up with a mash of grain and flour—the usual procedure for enlarging their livers. They were then slaughtered, their livers removed, and those livers immediately trimmed of their blood vessels and chilled for six hours.Molette士与其同事将150只雄性杂交鸭(北京鸭与疣鼻栖鸭的杂交种,常用于生产鹅肝)在家禽饲养场标准条件下养殖13周,然后转入单独的笼子中。在之后的12天,用谷物和面粉的混合物灌饲鸭子——这是让肝脏变大的常用步骤。然后处死鸭子,取肝脏,快速剔除血管,冷藏六小时。So far, so normal. But instead of cooking the whole things, Dr Molette removed a 200-gram sample from each liver (an average liver weighed 550 grams) and put the rest in cold storage. She then placed each sample into a jar with a bit of salt and pepper, and cooked it for an hour. As she expected, some livers released a lot of fat when cooked while others released little. Armed with this information, she was able to turn her attention back to the uncooked sections of the livers and see if she could find any systematic chemical differences between them.到此阶段,一切正常。然而Molette 士并没有使用整个肝脏,而是从每份肝脏(均重550克)中取200克作为样品,其余冷藏。她将每个样品分别放置在罐子中,加入少许盐和胡椒,烹饪半小时。正如她所料,烹饪时有些肝脏释放出大量脂肪,而有些却不是。获得这一信息后,她就将目光转向至还没处理的那部分肝脏,她想知道这二者之间是否存在系统性化学差异。Using a combination of electrophoresis (which sorts proteins according to their size and electrical properties) and mass spectrometry (which sorts fragments of those proteins according to their weight), she was able to do just that. The upshot was that the fat-retaining livers were rich in a variety of proteins known to help the body digest and store food. In the fat-shedding livers, by contrast, she found high concentrations of a protein called fatty-acid-binding-protein 4. In a human liver, this would be a marker of disease. Put simply, the fat-retaining livers are healthy while the fat-shedding ones are not.Molette 士使用电泳(根据蛋白质的分子大小和电荷差异,将蛋白质分离)和质谱(根据分子量将蛋白碎片分离)测定来进行实验。结果发现,保留脂肪的蛋白质富含多种有助于人体消化和贮存食物的蛋白质。相比之下,她在没有脂肪的肝脏中发现了一种名为脂肪酸-结合蛋白4的蛋白质,且浓度很高。在人类肝脏中,这种蛋白是一种疾病指示物。简单的说,保留脂肪的肝脏是健康肝脏,而没有脂肪的肝脏不健康。Both sides of the debate, then, are right. Foie-gras production can be a form of abuse but is not necessarily so, for an enlarged liver can still be healthy. The question is, how do you draw the line?所以,讨论双方说的都对。生产鹅肝可以是一种虐待行为,但也可以不是,因为超大肝脏仍然可以是健康的。问题在于,分界线在哪里?Dr Molettes ducks were all treated similarly, and their livers were of more or less the same size (certainly, the fat-shedding ones were not systematically heavier). The search is therefore on for some way to tell in advance which animals will respond positively to extra helpings and which will not. That knowledge would help farmers, gourmets and animal-lovers alike.Molette士的鸭子,处理方法相似,肝脏大小差不多一样(当然,没有脂肪的肝脏总体来说不会更重)。所以,这项研究可以从某种角度提前告诉我们:哪些动物对过度喂食反应良好,哪些不是。这一点也可帮助农民、美食家、以及动物爱好者。 /201210/203567泉州体检一般多少钱 Now from the Boston Museum of Science, Scitech Today on NECN.有线新闻波士顿消息。Well, you may have heard the myth, but do all of those antibacterial products really make bacteria stronger? Joining us now from the Museum of Science, Boston is Dr. Duane Hill. Good to have you here.我们都听说过关于抗菌产品的传说,抗菌产品真的只是会使细菌进化得更加强大吗?来自波士顿科技馆的士Duane Hill将向我们做详细介绍。你好。Oh good morning. How are you?观众们上午好,主持人你好。Im good. So are we talking about, you know, what you spray on your kitchen counter and wipe up?你好。我们需要谈论的是喷洒在厨房台面然后再擦掉的消毒剂吗?Sort of, I mean, a lot of those common household disinfectants, ur, that we think of things like Lysol or even things like wet wipes, things like that, have disinfectants in them. Theres one research. Theres one piece of research that was on in Ireland not too long ago, looked at a common disinfectant called benzalkonium chloride which is the disinfectant that we find in wet wipes, things like Lysol and a lot of those products, even cosmetics that we use everyday.某种程度上说,是的。我是说一般的家用除菌用品比如煤酚皂溶液,湿纸巾这类用品都含有消毒剂。有一项研究,也就是不久前爱尔兰的一项研究显示在湿纸巾,煤酚皂溶液这类产品,甚至是每天都可能用到的化妆品中存在一种名叫氯化苯甲烃铵的物质。Ok,and the findings are interesting.It was actually making the bacteria grow stronger.好的,这项研究结果很有趣,因为这些物质可以促进细菌的生长。Exactly. What they did was they exposed these bacteria, a kind of bacterium called Pseudomonas, it causes a lot of different health conditions in humans. They exposed these bacteria to this benzalkonium chloride, this just infecting for only about a month. And what they found was that the bacteria became not only more resistant to the disinfectant itself but also to the antibiotic Sypro. So the bacteria kind of got a two for one learning by being exposed to this common disinfectant.没错,研究人员找到一种名为假单胞菌的细菌,一种能引起人类疾病的细菌。研究人员将这种细菌与氯化苯甲烃铵相互接触。仅仅一个月的时间,研究人员发现这些细菌的抗药性就增强了,甚至能对抗抗生素。因此,暴露在抗菌药物下,细菌反而生长得更加旺盛。And why does that happen?那么,为什么会这样呢?Well, I mean, when you think about it, a lot of the things that we have at our disposal, disinfectants, antibiotics are poisons from the point of view of the bacteria. And bacteria have these little things calls efflux pumps. Just little pumps that the cells use, we actually use them ourselves, different ones to pump poisons out of their cells. And what they think was happening is that the bacteria that could figure out how to defend themselves against this disinfectant also use those same pumps to protect themselves against the antibiotic sypro.当我们想要对付细菌的时候,有很多选择。消毒剂,抗生素都是细菌的天敌。细菌细胞有一种叫做外排泵的功能,和我们人类的基本相同,都是将有毒物质排出机体的功能。正如人体细胞,细菌细胞同样能对抗抗细菌产品甚至是抗生素,把它们排出体外以保护自己。Does that mean you should throw away your little wet wipes?这是说我们要扔点湿纸巾这些产品吗?Absolutely not. No one is saying that we should stop using disinfectants. Disinfectants are really important part of our arsenal against bacteria. But I think what the research is suggesting is that physicians, public health professionals, we ourselves need to kinda think about what some of the side-effects might be from these disinfectants and not just grab them and use them so indiscriminately. We need to kind of think about it.当然不是,没有人说我们不能够实用抗细菌产品。抗细菌产品是我们对抗细菌的有效武器。但我认为这项研究想要做的是提示医生们,以及所有的卫生行业从业者们,我们不能不加选择地一味使用抗菌产品而忽视它的副作用,我们应当适当地考虑一下。Woo its interesting, Dr. Duane Hill, thank you so much for joining us this morning.很有趣,Duane Hill士,谢谢你的介绍。Oh, my pleasure!不客气!And youll be sure to join us every Thursday morning at this time for Scitech Today. You can also log on to the Museum of Science website at MOS.ORG欢迎每周四早上准时收看Scitech Today,或者关注我们的网站mos.org。注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201205/182735泉州哪间无痛人流好

泉州不孕不育诊疗多少钱When Europes been peppered with uncertainty the whole year. And Monti was always a technocratic government that came in with a specific mandate. Then of course, Italys a democracy, said you will step aside and theres an election. Could come back as a politician. Maybe not. I think the fear is who could replace him. But I think hes done an excellent job and hes steadied the ship. But he did say he would step aside after a year, done certain measures.今年一整年内欧洲经济充满不确定性因素。蒙蒂政府是临危受难,肩负特殊使命的技术专家政府。当然,意大利是一个民主国家,蒙蒂即将辞职,将进行新的一轮选举。这一次可能是由政治家来担当此重任吗?可能不会。我想,人们担心的是,谁能够取代蒙蒂?因为我认为,他的工作非常出色,稳定了局势。但是他曾说过,在采取了一定措施后的一年后他要辞职。Now heres the question. Is it the issue of Monti stepping aside when he was sort of the steady hand on Italys unsteady finances, if you like? Or is it respective Berlusconi coming back that really has people worried? Because the bond markets, we see the yield rising on the 10-year Italian bonds as it seems that stock markets plummet in Milan.现在的问题是,蒙蒂目前已成为意大利不稳定财政的坚定领导人时,他真的要退出政府吗,你希望这样吗?或者,人们真正担心的是贝卢斯科尼再次掌权。因为,虽然债券市场的10年长期意大利国债收益正在增加,米兰的股票市场看起来却在大幅下跌。Yes, but its a one-day wonder that you saw the euro come off this morning, bounced right back. These markets are incredibly volatile and theres not much to do. So people are obviously to sell the story. Yes, of course, theres a few of them may replace him. Technocratic government did what the markets liked, gave us certainty but as I said, this is a democracy and democracies create uncertainty. And so wholl replace him? We dont know. But I think this big story moves on to Spain, the ESM and whether the ECBs going to start printing or not.是的,但是这只是一天的奇迹,今早欧元开始好转,有所反弹。毫无疑问,市场是易变波动的,有时候,人们有心无力。因此,人们很容易被说,是的,当然能取代蒙蒂的人不多。技术型政府可以采取任何市场喜欢的措施,给我们带来确定性。但是,如我已经说过的,这是一个民主国家,民主就会产生不确定性。因此,对于,谁能取代蒙蒂,无人所知。但是,我认为,现在欧洲现在的大问题已经转移到了西班牙,额外西班牙货币以及欧洲中央是否启动印制?OK. Now thats an interesting one. 2013 looming as I was saying before. Does that mean were going to have a full-on Spanish bailout in the early months of next year?是的。是让人感兴趣的问题。2013将至,这是否意味着,明年的最初几个月,将进行西班牙全面救市?I think could come even late this year. I think if it wasnt for the fiscal cliff and the market changing its focus over tension onto the US, we would have pressurized aly Spain into coming to the ESM, which as you know, ESM stands for Extra Spanish Money. So it shouldnt be a surprise when they confirm.我想可以要到明年晚些时候。我认为,如果不是到财政悬崖,以及市场将压力焦点转向美国,我们不会迫于压力,让西班牙采用额外西班牙货币,你知道,ESM的意思。如果此事得以确定,也在意料之中。Rather the European stability.只要欧元区能够稳定。Yes, absolutely.是的,绝对如此。Might even have gotten lost in the alphabet soup aly that EU’s created to try and solve the eurozone crisis. Well, what about credit rating cuts for some of these countries, notably just going back to the issue of Italy and the face of so much uncertainty? This is going to make it very difficult for these countries to try to cut their enormous amount of debt of debt-to-GDP, cut their budgets. And if they do get downgraded, will their debt becomes more expensive.也许问题都能够在这一缩写词语中得到解决,欧盟创造该词语以试图解决欧元区危机。不过,这几个国家的信用评级下调情况如何?特别是,刚才谈到的意大利问题,我们又如何面对这么多不确定性?这些国家试图减少债务率(债务占国内生产总值的比重)债务以及减少预算,都将变得非常艰难。如果他们的信用评级下调,那么他们的债务将变得格外昂贵。Well, not in the case weve seen of France. They got downgraded with, again, a one-day wonder. They sold off and French yields are straight back down again. The problem is if your debt-to-GDP starts rising but you think austeritys the answer, and you do austerity but growth starts to plummet, then you need more austerity and then growth goes down. And thats the Greek situation we’ve got ourselves in for. So Id say just ignore the rating agencies and try to do the right thing. Get growth going and dont overdo the austerity.是的,不过我们看到法国的情况例外。法国被降级了,不过这也是一天之内的奇迹。他们的股票低价抛光,法国再次收回了收益。问题在于,如果债务率开始上升,但是你却认为只有采取紧缩政策,并且你实施了紧缩政策,但是增长急剧下降,于是,你需要采取更多的紧缩,增长继续衰减。这就是我们让自己陷入希腊危机的原因所在。因此,我宁愿大家暂时忽略评级机构,而专注于做正确的事情:让经济增长,不要过于倚重紧缩政策。 201212/217889 泉州南安市医院看病口碑泉州新阳光怎么预约

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