原标题: 玉泉区激光祛胎记多少钱飞度频道
Signalling explains all kinds of behaviour.信号行为能够解释各种各样的行为。Firms pay dividends to their shareholders, who must pay income tax on the payouts.企业给股东付红利,股东必须为这笔出缴纳收入税。Surely it would be better if they retained their earnings, boosting their share prices, and thus delivering their shareholders lightly taxed capital gains.如果留下盈利,刺激股价上涨,从而分发给股东课税较轻的资本利得会更好。Signalling solves the mystery: paying a dividend is a sign of strength, showing that a firm feels no need to hoard cash.信号行为能够解开这个迷团:付红利是一种力量的信号,表明企业认为无需囤积现金。By the same token, why might a restaurant deliberately locate in an area with high rents?同理,为什么餐馆要有意选址于高房租地区呢?It signals to potential customers that it believes its good food will bring it success.这是在向潜在的客户发出相信自己的美食会带给它成功的信号。Signalling is not the only way to overcome the lemons problem.信号行为不是克柠檬问题的唯一办法。In a 1976 paper Mr Stiglitz and Michael Rothschild, another economist, showed how insurers might “screen” their customers.在1976年的一篇论文中,斯蒂格利茨与另一名经济学家迈克尔·罗斯柴尔德展示了保险商可能如何 “筛选” 客户的问题。The essence of screening is to offer deals which would only ever attract one type of punter.筛选行为的关键是提供永远只吸引某类客户的协议。Suppose a car insurer faces two different types of customer, high-risk and low-risk.假设,汽车保险商面对两种不同类型的客户,一类是高风险的,一类是低风险的。They cannot tell these groups apart; only the customer knows whether he is a safe driver.他们无法将其区分开来;只有客户才知道自己是否是安全的驾驶员。Messrs Rothschild and Stiglitz showed that, in a competitive market, insurers cannot profitably offer the same deal to both groups.罗斯柴尔德先生和斯蒂格利茨先生指出,在竞争市场中,保险商无法有盈利地把同样的保单同时提供给这两类人。If they did, the premiums of safe drivers would subsidise payouts to reckless ones.倘若如此,安全的驾驶员的保费就会补贴对鲁莽的驾驶员的赔付。A rival could offer a deal with slightly lower premiums, and slightly less coverage, which would peel away only safe drivers because risky ones prefer to stay fully insured.对手可能会提供一份保费稍微低一点、承保范围稍微小一点的保单,由于风险大的驾驶员倾向于保持全保,这份保单只会剔出安全的驾驶员。The firm, left only with bad risks, would make a loss.鉴于剩下来都是高风险的业务,保险企业会出现损失。(Some worried a related problem would afflict Obamacare, which forbids American health insurers from discriminating against customers who are aly unwell: if the resulting high premiums were to deter healthy, young customers from signing up, firms might have to raise premiums further, driving more healthy customers away in a so-called “death spiral”. )(有人担心,一个相关的问题会困扰禁止美国医疗保险商歧视性对待已经患病的客户的奥巴马医改:如果由此产生的高额保费把健康的、年轻的客户吓得不签约的话,保险企业可能不得不进一步提高保费,迫使更多的健康客户脱离所谓的 “死亡漩涡”。)The car insurer must offer two deals, making sure that each attracts only the customers it is designed for.汽车保险商必须提供两份保单,确保每份保单只吸引为之所设计的客户。The trick is to offer one pricey full-insurance deal, and an alternative cheap option with a sizeable deductible.窍门是提供一分昂贵的全保保单和一份便宜的自费比例大的替代保单。Risky drivers will balk at the deductible, knowing that there is a good chance they will end up paying it when they claim.由于知道自己在理赔时终将为自费条款掏腰包的概率很大,风险大的驾驶员会避开自费条款多的保单。They will fork out for expensive coverage instead.相反,他们会为昂贵的承包范围出钱。Safe drivers will tolerate the high deductible and pay a lower price for what coverage they do get.安全驾驶员会容忍高额自费条款,并为他们得到的承包范围付较低的价格。This is not a particularly happy resolution of the problem.这不是这一问题的特别愉快的解决之道。Good drivers are stuck with high deductibles—just as in Spences model of education, highly productive workers must fork out for an education in order to prove their worth.好驾驶员受高额自费条款所困扰——如同在斯彭斯的教育模型中,高生产率的工人必须要为了明他们的价值而为学历花很多钱一样。Yet screening is in play almost every time a firm offers its customers a of options.然而,在几乎每一次企业为客户提供一份选项菜单时,筛选行为都在发挥作用。Airlines, for instance, want to milk rich customers with higher prices, without driving away poorer ones.例如,航空公司想用较高的价格培养富有的客户,同时又不赶走较穷的客户。If they knew the depth of each customers pockets in advance, they could offer only first-class tickets to the wealthy, and better-value tickets to everyone else.如果事先知道每一位客户的钱包的深浅,他们可能只给富人提供头等舱机票,给其他人提供性价比更高的机票。But because they must offer everyone the same options, they must nudge those who can afford it towards the pricier ticket.但是,由于他们必须给每一个人都提供同样的选项,因而必须把能够出得起钱的人推向价格更高的机票。That means deliberately making the standard cabin uncomfortable, to ensure that the only people who slum it are those with slimmer wallets.这意味着有意让标准仓不舒适,确保唯一屈尊标准仓的是钱包较瘪之人。Adverse selection has a cousin.逆向选择有一位近亲。Insurers have long known that people who buy insurance are more likely to take risks.保险商早就知道,投保的人更有可能去冒险。Someone with home insurance will check their smoke alarms less often; health insurance encourages unhealthy eating and drinking.买了房屋保险的人会降低检查烟雾警报装置的频率;健康险会促进不健康的饮食行为。Economists first cottoned on to this phenomenon of “moral hazard” when Kenneth Arrow wrote about it in 1963.经济学家最初开始理解这种 “道德风险” 现象是肯尼斯·阿罗在1963年论述它的时候。Moral hazard occurs when incentives go haywire.道德风险发生在激励失控之时。The old economics, noted Mr Stiglitz in his Nobel-prize lecture, paid considerable lip-service to incentives, but had remarkably little to say about them.斯蒂格利茨在他的诺奖演说中指出,老的经济学曾给激励开出了大量的空头许诺,但极少说起它们。In a completely transparent world, you need not worry about incentivising someone, because you can use a contract to specify their behaviour precisely.在一个完全透明的世界中,由于可以用合约精确地规范他人行为,人们根本无需为激励他人而操心。It is when information is asymmetric and you cannot observe what they are doing (is your tradesman using cheap parts? Is your employee slacking? ) that you must worry about ensuring that interests are aligned.只有在信息不对称或者看不到别人正在做什么 (店员是否正是使用廉价部件?雇员是否正在偷懒?)的情况下,才必须为确保利益均衡而操心。Such scenarios pose what are known as “principal-agent” problems.这类情况所引发的就是众所周知的 “委托—代理” 问题。How can a principal (like a manager) get an agent (like an employee) to behave how he wants, when he cannot monitor them all the time?(类似于管理者的) 委托人怎么才能让 (类似于雇员的) 代理人在自己无法时刻监控他们的时候,按照他的意愿去做事呢?The simplest way to make sure that an employee works hard is to give him some or all of the profit.最简单的办法是确保努力工作的雇员把盈利部分或者全部地交给他。Hairdressers, for instance, will often rent a spot in a salon and keep their takings for themselves.例如,理发师经常会在沙龙内租用一处地点,把收入放进自己的腰包。But hard work does not always guarantee success: a star analyst at a consulting firm, for example, might do stellar work pitching for a project that nonetheless goes to a rival.但是,努力工作并非总能保成功:例如,咨询公司的明星分析师可能会为了拿到一个落入对手手中的项目拼命工作。So, another option is to pay “efficiency wages”.因而,另一个选项是付 “效率工资”。Mr Stiglitz and Carl Shapiro, another economist, showed that firms might pay premium wages to make employees value their jobs more highly.斯蒂格利茨和另一位经济学家卡尔·夏皮罗指出,企业或许会为了让雇员更重视他们的工作而付奖励工资。This, in turn, would make them less likely to shirk their responsibilities, because they would lose more if they were caught and got fired.反过来,这会让雇员不太可能去推卸责任,因为如果被抓或是遭到解雇,他们会失去更多。That insight helps to explain a fundamental puzzle in economics: when workers are unemployed but want jobs, why dont wages fall until someone is willing to hire them?这个真知灼见有助于解释经济学的一个根本之谜:当工人失业但是想要工作时,为什么工资直到有人原意雇佣才下降呢?An answer is that above-market wages act as a carrot, the resulting unemployment, a stick.是:高于市场的工资扮演的是胡萝卜的角色,由此而造成的失业则是大棒。And this reveals an even deeper point.而且这还揭示出更深的一点。Before Mr Akerlof and the other pioneers of information economics came along, the discipline assumed that in competitive markets, prices reflect marginal costs: charge above cost, and a competitor will undercut you.在阿克洛夫和信息经济学的其他先驱出现之前,这门学科假设,在竞争市场中,价格反映边际成本:只要收费高于成本,竞争对手就会以低于你的价格出售。But in a world of information asymmetry, “good behaviour is driven by earning a surplus over what one could get elsewhere,” according to Mr Stiglitz.但是,据斯蒂格利茨,在信息不对称的世界中,“良好的行为是由赚取高于他处所得的盈余所推动的”。The wage must be higher than what a worker can get in another job, for them to want to avoid the sack; and firms must find it painful to lose customers when their product is shoddy, if they are to invest in quality.工资必须要高于工人在另一个工作中的所得;企业必须在产品粗制滥造时发现失去客户是痛苦的。In markets with imperfect information, price cannot equal marginal cost.在信息是不完全的市场中,价格不可能等于边际成本。The concept of information asymmetry, then, truly changed the discipline.如此说来,信息不对称的概念真正改变了这门学科。Nearly 50 years after the lemons paper was rejected three times, its insights remain of crucial relevance to economists, and to economic policy.在柠檬论文遭到三次拒绝将近50年后,它的真知灼见仍与经济学家和经济政策密切相关。Just ask any young, black Washingtonian with a good credit score who wants to find a job.只要问问华盛顿州的任何一位信用得分良好的年轻人或者黑人即可。 /201701/487176Wow!哇!用在口语中,表示惊奇、欣喜、兴奋等。hardly几乎不I could hardly believe my ears.我简直不能相信自己的耳朵了。I can’t believe this.我真不敢相信。不可能!It can’t be true! It’s impossible! No way!你脑子出毛病了?Are you out of your mind?out of one’s mind“精神不正常”这是我万万没料到的。It was the last thing I expected.Who would have thought?谁会想得到呢?I had no idea!我一点儿都不知道!太令人吃惊了!What a surprise! How surprising!I’m so surprised.我太吃惊了。这使我极为震惊。It was the shock of my life.It came from out of the blue.这如同晴天霹雳。It came from nowhere.这事也不知道是从哪儿冒出来的。我无言以对。I’m speechless. I’m at a loss for words. I don’t know what to say.我真是不知所措。I was taken aback. I almost lost it.be taken aback“大吃一惊,惊得目瞪口呆”你在开玩笑吧!You are kidding!Are you kidding?No kidding! 别开玩笑了!我会生气是理所当然的…Its natural for me to get angry…接下来看一些实用例句:1.Excuse me! Im sorry I startled you!对不起!很抱歉,让你受惊了!2.Paul started with surprise when Jim tapped his shoulder.当吉姆拍了保罗的肩膀时,保罗吓了一跳。3.He was shocked by Teds darling words.他为泰德厚颜无耻的话受了打击。4.The remark made him shudder with fear.那些话使他因恐怖而颤抖。 /201209/200289

I love this story.我喜欢这则故事A Nebraska man was arrested after police found a container of marijuana in his car labeled ;Not weed.;一名内布拉斯加男子被捕 因为警察在他车里发现一箱大麻 上面写着 不是大麻The mans been found not not guilty.此人已被判没有无罪I love that.Its like no.Pretty foolproof.Its what I call my cop spoiler.我很喜欢 不是哦 多简单啊 这下能糊弄警察了In New York,a couple,this is sweet,a couple who has been married 38 years celebrated a joint birthday together.纽约一对夫妇 好温馨 一对结婚38年的夫妇一起庆祝了生日very nice,the theme of the party was who are you again?派对的主题是 你是谁来着I like when I trick them thinking its sweet and then Im horrible.我就喜欢我骗他们 让他们以为是要罐鸡汤了 然后在犯浑Hey,yesterday,Justin Bieber turned 21 years old.昨天 贾斯汀·比伯21岁了Justin started celebrating on Saturday five years ago.贾斯汀为此从5年前的周六就开始庆祝了Forget the joke because its forgetable.别管那个段子了 太容易被遗忘But what I found much more interesting is that I announced that a human being was still alive after 21 years,and the audience booed.Reached 21,boo!Still alive,ey?但我觉得更有意思的是 我宣布一个人活到了21岁 观众们居然发出嘘声 21喽 嘘 还活着呢Seems like hes been live for 40 years.感觉他都存在四十年了Youre a soulless group.Thats what I have to say to you.你们真冷酷 真的201703/498296

时间过得真快,转眼Faith口语课堂-天天学已经开课快一个月了,你还喜欢我们的课程吗?欢迎回来,我是Faith老师。希望你们继续快乐坚持跟我学下去。 点击此处收听往期节目今天,我们主攻”make”的活用。1. make something 做某些东西You’ve got to find a job and make some money to support yourself. 你该找个工作,挣些钱养活你自己了。My mom is making breakfast in the kitchen. 我妈妈现在正在厨房做早饭。Jerry, make your bed after you get up. 杰锐,起床后把床整理好。2.make somebody something 为某人做些什么Would you make me a cup of coffee? 你能给我冲杯咖啡吗?I’ll make you a big dinner. 我会为你做一顿丰盛的晚餐。We’re going to make us some vegetable salad tonight. 今晚,我们会做一些蔬菜沙拉。3.make somebody someone 让某人成为什么样的人The students made me their chairman. 学生们选我做了主席。My mother has made me a successful woman. 我妈妈把我培养成了一位成功的女性。Are you going to make me your wife? 你打算娶我做你妻子吗?今天就学这么多,好吗?我们将在第22课继续讲授”make”的另外两种相当实用的用法。让我们一起学好英语吧!这里是Faith口语课堂-天天学,我是Faith老师,我收集的音乐品种是相当丰富的,今天介绍的这首歌风格迥然,Bonnie Tyler的Here she comes, 你真的会喜欢吗?Faith的Email:faithchen@163.com QQ空间:http://757973360.qzone.qq.com 内容来自: /201107/145353特别声明:该文章中的迷你对话精选自口语书籍,对话精讲为可可编辑编写。第一、迷你对话A: What is wrong with Peter? He sure looks unhappy.Peter怎么啦?他看起来很不高兴。B: His girlfriend dumped him, and he is tearing his heart out over her.他的女朋友甩了她,他正为之心碎。A: How foolish he is. The girl is inviting. She often makes a pass at boys.他太傻了,那个女孩可风骚了,总爱和男人调情。B: Love is blind, you know.你要知道,情人眼里出西施。第二、对话精讲1. 地道表达tear one’s heart out【解词释义】Tear的本义是“撕碎”,从字面上来看,该习语的意思是“将某人的心彻底撕碎”,意即“为之心碎”。要表示因为某人所做出某事让你伤心,可以在短语后面加上over这个介词,即:tear one’s heart out。【语法用法】该习语不用于进行时态中。【持范例】Please dont cry, dearest, youre tearing my heart out. 请不要哭了,我最亲爱的,你这样会让我心碎的。 When you asked me to give up, my heart was torn out. 当你说让我放手的那一刻,我的心碎了。Your article on the death of those students tore my heart out.你那篇关于学生死亡的文章让我心都碎了。第二、 词海拾贝makes a pass at sb.【双语释义】to flirt with or suggest sexual activity with someone 与某人调情,(异性之间)挑逗某人【持范例】If he ever makes a pass at you, Ill wring his neck. 如果他敢对你轻举妄动,我就拧断他的脖子。Can you believe it? Larry made a pass at me! No one ever makes a pass at me.你相信吗?Larry来勾引我,以前从来就没有人跟我调情过。第三、 谚语Love is blind.【语句译文】情人眼里出西施。【同类表达】Beauty is in the eye of the beholder。Beauty lies in the lover’s eyes.第四、 口语句型What is wrong with....?【使用语境】看到对方不对头,就询问对方发生什么事情了。还可以表示某事情存在什么问题。【典型范例】What is wrong with old age if the guy is healthy? 如果他身体还好好的,年纪大些又有什么关系?What is wrong with you today? You are so angry.你今天是怎么回事? 你今天火气这么大。 /201305/238064

夏天总是让人心烦气躁,闷热的天气、窗外的噪音、睡眠不足、工作压力等等都是让人烦心上火的原因,你有没有什么心烦的事呢?1. You got me all bent out of shape.你使我心烦。2. That gives me the hump.那事使我心烦。3. The news completely upset him.这条消息使他极为心烦。4. The childs screams jarred my nerves.那孩子的尖叫声让我心烦。5. That man really bugs me.那个人真让我心烦。6. Its getting on my nerves.真让人心烦。7. The noise was maddening.喧闹的声音让人心烦。8. His questions drove me to distraction.他问的那些问题使我心烦。9. The bad news bothered me.那个坏消息让我烦心了。10. I felt harassed by all the work at the office.办公室的工作让我烦躁不已。 /201211/209119Subject:The cake is that sweet and is as light as a feather. 迷你对话A: What do you think of my home-made cake?你觉得我自己做的蛋糕怎么样?B: The cake is that sweet and is as light as a feather. It is tasty.蛋糕不是太甜,非常清淡,非常好吃。 地道表达as slight as a feather 1. 解词释义As slight as a feather是俗语,light作为形容词时“轻”的意思,feather是“羽毛”的意思。因此,as slight as a feather顾名思义,就是说这个东西像羽毛一样轻盈。形容“食物”,就是“清淡”的意思。如果形容“人”的话,它还有形容人体重很轻的意思。 2. 拓展例句e.g. My mother is a very good baker, she is well known among our relatives and friends. Oh, you should have tasted the white chocolate cake she made last week. Its not that sweet and is as light as a feather. 我的母亲在烤蛋糕方面是个能手。我们的亲戚朋友都知道。哎呀,你真是应该尝尝上星期她做的白巧克力蛋糕。那蛋糕不是太甜,非常清淡。 e.g. While I was on my way to the law office at noon, the girl who was walking in front of me suddenly fainted because of the heat. Since she is as light as a feather, I had no problem in carrying her all the way to the hospital. 今天中午在我去律师事务所的路上,那个走在我前面的女孩子由于天太热而突然晕倒了。因为她的身体非常轻,所以我一口气就把她背到了医院,一点也不感到累。 /201404/289772

网罗天下新鲜、好玩、有趣、时尚的英语表达,尽在独家专栏节目;E聊吧;。本期节目的topic:非你莫属还记得小时候跟一些伙伴抢一些东西玩,对方会说:这东西是你的吗?上面呢有些你的名字吗?要是没有,那就不是你的。Have your name on it.非你莫属。【讲解】在口语中,这句话的意思不是;上面有你的名字;而是;某某是属于你的;。相当于;It belongs to you.;【情景一】逛街的时候,遇到一件不错的衣也是非常难得的,而且那还是非常适合自己的衣,就好像是为自己量身打造的一样。The dress looks great on you and has your name on it.这件裙子你穿上去看好极了,它非你莫属了。【情景二】有些小孩比较淘气,总爱抢别人的东西。Get my book back.It dosent have your name on it.把我的书还给我。又不是你的书。更多精内容尽在Ukki专属微薄:http://weibo.com/yoviw /201203/173268

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