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江西南昌市同济医院激光脱毛多少钱周对话南昌大学第四附属医院激光祛斑多少钱

2019年10月18日 20:32:21    日报  参与评论()人

萍乡做鼻尖整形多少钱新余丰胸医院哪家好Say the words #39;therapy session#39; and many people will picture an hour spent on a couch dredging up unhappy childhood memories. A different approach suggests that redirecting the focus onto the present and future can make people happier, healthier and lead to better relationships.说起“心理治疗”这个词,很多人的脑海中会浮现出倚在长沙发上,花一小时来挖掘童年悲惨记忆的画面。而一种与之不同的治疗方法暗示,如果将关注的焦点转向现在和将来,会让人更快乐,更健康,建立更好的人际关系。The method, called Time Perspective Therapy, involves figuring out which of six different outlooks a person has: past-positive (you love the past); past-negative (you have regrets and bad things happened in your past -- or things that you now exaggerate as bad); present hedonism (you enjoy the present and like to reward yourself); present fatalism (you feel that events are beyond your control, so why bother?); goal-oriented future (you plan ahead and weigh the costs and benefits of any decision); transcendental future (you live a good life because you believe the reward is a heaven after death).这种方法被称为“时间观疗法”(Time Perspective Therapy),其中一项内容是判断一个人拥有以下六种不同观念中的哪一些,这六种观念分别是:过去积极时间观(你喜爱自己的过去);过去消极时间观 (你有遗憾或过去发生过不幸的事──或者你有现在被你夸大为不幸的事情);现在享受时间观(你享受当下,喜欢犒赏自己);现在宿命时间观(你感觉命运不受自己控制,那何必费心去控制呢?);目标导向未来时间观(你会事先计划,做任何决定都会权衡利弊);超验未来时间观(你过得很好,因为你相信奖赏是死后进天堂)。The best profile to have, says Philip Zimbardo, psychologist and professor emeritus at Stanford University, is a blend of a high level of past-positive, a moderately high level of future orientation and a moderate level of selected present hedonism. In other words, you like your past, work for the future -- but not so hard that you become a workaholic -- and choose when to seek pleasure in the present. Dr. Zimbardo, an influential thinker in this field who lectures widely, administers a 56-item questionnaire to determine a patient#39;s profile.斯坦福大学(Stanford University)的心理学家、名誉教授菲利普·津巴多(Philip Zimbardo)称,最好的状态是拥有高度“过去积极观”、较高“未来导向观”以及中度选择性“现在享受观”的混合。换句话说就是,你喜欢你的过去,为将来而努力(但也不是过分努力,变成了工作狂),并适时寻求当下的享受。作为该领域颇具影响的思想家,津巴多在许多地方做讲座,他通过一份由56个题项组成的问卷来确定一个人的时间观。The worst time-perspective profile to have is a high level of past-negative coupled with a high level of present fatalism. #39;These people are living in a negative past and think nothing they do can change it, #39; says Dr. Zimbardo, co-author of the book #39;The Time Cure.#39; They also score low on present hedonism and have a low future orientation. People who are clinically depressed or have Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder typically have this profile.最糟糕的时间观状态是高度“过去消极观”与高度“现在宿命观”并存。《时间疗法》(The Time Cure)一书的作者之一津巴多称:“这些人活在消极的过去,认为无论做什么都无济于事。”他们在现在享受及未来导向这两项中的得分也较低。在临床上被诊断为抑郁症以及患有创伤后压力心理障碍症(Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder)的人一般是这种情况。Our individual time perspective is influenced by many things, including family and friends, culture, religion, education and life events. As very young children, we were all pretty much purely hedonistic -- focused on getting what we wanted when we wanted it. Some, but not all, of us become more future-oriented as we get older.个体的时间观受许多因素影响,包括家庭、朋友、文化、宗教、教育和生活事件。在幼儿时期,我们基本上都是纯粹的现在享受型,关注的是满足此时此刻的欲望。一些人(但不是所有人)会随着年龄的增长变得更加着眼于未来。In a famous study in the 1960s, psychologist Walter Mischel, now a professor at Columbia University, tested the ability of young children to resist temptation for a future goal. He placed one marshmallow in front of each child and explained that they could eat it right away if they wanted, but if they waited about 10 to 15 minutes, they could have a second one to eat. About half the children gobbled up the treat right away; the other half managed to hold out for a second marshmallow.现为哥伦比亚大学(Columbia University)教授的心理学家瓦尔特·米舍尔(Walter Mischel)在20世纪60年代一项著名的研究中测试了幼童为实现未来目标而抗拒诱惑的能力。他在每个孩子面前放了一块棉花糖,对他们解释说,如果想吃,可以马上就吃,但如果能等待10到15分钟左右,就可以吃到另外一块。约半数的孩子立马就狼吞虎咽地吃掉了棉花糖;另有半数的孩子成功地坚持等来了另一块棉花糖。The time perspective that the children had when they were young had a large impact on the way they behaved later in life. Dr. Mischel followed up with the children when they were teens, and then in middle age. The individuals who resisted the marshmallow at roughly ages 4 and 5 performed better in school, scored an average of about 250 points higher on their SATs and had happier family lives. Those who ate the marshmallow immediately had more emotional problems throughout their lives.孩子幼年的时间观对他们长大后的行为方式有很大影响。米舍尔对这些孩子青少年及中年时的状况进行了追踪研究。四五岁时拒绝棉花糖诱惑的孩子在学校里表现更优秀,在SAT考试中的平均分数高出250点左右,家庭生活也更幸福。而立即就把棉花糖吃掉的孩子一生中会面临更多的情绪问题。The good news, says Dr. Zimbardo: People can change their time perspective. Between 2004 and 2012, Time Perspective Therapy was administered by Dr. Zimbardo#39;s co-authors Rick and Rosemary Sword, therapists in Maui, to 32 veterans with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, all of whom had been through other therapies without positive results. All 32 saw a significant decrease in anxiety, depression and PTSD symptoms.津巴多称,好消息是人们可以改变自己的时间观。在2004至2012年期间,与津巴多共同撰写《时间疗法》一书的里克·索德(Rick Sword)和罗斯玛丽·索德(Rosemary Sword)(夏威夷毛伊(Maui)的心理咨询师)对32名患有创伤后压力心理障碍症的退伍老兵施行了时间观疗法,这些老兵都曾接受过其他治疗,但未能取得积极疗效。经过治疗,这32名老兵的焦虑、抑郁和创伤后压力心理障碍症的症状均显著减轻。A person can raise a past-positive score, Dr. Zimbardo says, by focusing on the good in your past: create photo albums, write letters of gratitude to people who inspired you, start an oral history of your family.津巴多称,人们可以通过关注过去的美好事物来提高过去积极项目得分:创建相册,给激励过你的人写感谢信,或开始一部家庭口述史。Your future orientation can get a boost by organizing your calendar or planning a family vacation, actions that get you to envision and plan for a positive future. And volunteering or becoming a mentor can help you see that your actions can have a positive impact.你的未来导向得分可以通过建立日程表或者规划家庭度假来提高,这些活动都能让你展望并规划积极的未来。此外,从事志愿活动或者成为指导者可以让你看到自己的行动能产生积极影响。And you can increase your present hedonism -- selectively! -- by doing something to balance your mood, such as exercise or a nature walk. Also, reward your hard work with an activity you enjoy: dinner with a friend, a massage, an afternoon playing your favorite sport.你还可以通过一些有助于平衡情绪的活动(比如锻炼或在大自然中散步)来增加现在享受(有选择性的!)。另外,用你喜欢的活动来犒赏自己的辛勤努力:和朋友一起吃饭,,用一下午时间做你最喜欢的体育运动。To lower your past-negative scores you can work to silence your pessimistic inner critic by meditating or to keeping an ongoing list of all the good things in your life right now. #39;It#39;s thinking about what#39;s good in your life now, rather than what was bad in your life then, #39; says Dr. Zimbardo.要降低过去消极得分,你可以进行冥想或者不断记录当前生活中的所有美好事物,让你内心中那个悲观的批评家静音。津巴多称:“要想想你现在生活中的美好事物,而不是过去生活中悲惨的东西。”And you can reduce your future fatalistic perspective by learning a new skill or hobby that allows you to see your change, and doing it with a partner -- it#39;s less isolating and the other person can give you positive feedback.另外,要降低未来宿命时间观得分,可以学习能让你看到自己变化的新技能或者爱好,可以和伴侣共同来做──这样就不会那么孤独,对方也能给你积极的反馈。Dominic Monahan not surprisingly had a negative perspective after he was laid off from his job as a project manager at a printing press manufacturer in 2009, and moved into his mother#39;s suburban Chicago basement. He sent out hundreds of resumes -- and landed no interviews. #39;I had no hope and was living in the past, #39; says the 42-year-old. #39;I was y to give up.#39;多米尼克·莫纳汉(Dominic Monahan)曾在一家印刷机生产商担任项目经理,2009年他遭遇了裁员,搬进他母亲位于芝加哥市郊居所的地下室,受这些变故打击,他带有一种消极观念也不足为奇。莫纳汉投了数百份简历──但一次面试机会也没有。42岁的莫纳汉说:“我完全丧失了希望,我生活在过去,我准备放弃了。”Mr. Monahan admits he was always pretty focused on present gratification. He preferred to ride his mountain bike, run, hunt, #39;or do anything#39; instead of studying. He dropped out of college, joined the Navy and held a series of technician jobs after he got out. He says he tried college several more times without graduating.莫纳汉承认,他一直都是相当重视眼前的满足。与学习相比,他更喜欢骑山地车、跑步、打猎,或者“做任何事情”。他大学时中途辍学,加入海军,退役后从事过一系列技术员工作。他说,后来他又试着上过几次大学,但都没有毕业。He tried psychotherapy after he lost his job, but quit because he felt it was just paying someone to listen to him complain. While he didn#39;t try Time Perspective Therapy specifically, his experience shows how the method can help a person recover from a downward spiral.失业后他曾尝试过心理治疗,但后来放弃了治疗,因为他觉得自己只是在付钱给别人听他发牢骚。尽管他没有专门尝试过时间观疗法,但他的经历却显示出这种方法是如何让人摆脱恶性循环的。He eventually gained 60 pounds (eating peanut butter by the spoonful) and began sleeping 18 hours a day. When he outgrew his sweatpants, he says, he decided to turn his life around. He signed up for an online finance degree, and the condensed classes helped him to feel he was making progress. He recently graduated. He also got a temporary consulting job at a company that uses new technology to purify wastewater.莫纳汉最终重了60磅(他一勺一勺地吃花生酱),他开始一天睡18个小时。他说,当他的运动裤穿不下时,他决定彻底改变一下自己的生活。他报名参加一个网上金融学位培训,密集型课程让他感觉到自己在取得进步。最近他毕业了。他还在一家运用新技术 化污水的公司找到了一份临时性顾问工作。He started to exercise and took up the martial art Tae Kwan Do. His instructor, who is also a psychologist, taught him to talk back to his negative inner voice. Now, when he starts ruminating on mistakes he#39;s made in the past, or tells himself there is no hope, he says out loud: #39;Stop . . . This behavior is not going to move us in a positive direction or make us happy.#39;他开始锻炼身体,还开始练跆拳道。他的教练(也是一位心理学家)教他反驳内心的消极声音。现在,当他开始琢磨过去犯下的错误,或者告诉自己没有希望时,他都会大声说:“停……这种行为不会让我们迈向积极的方向,也不会让我们快乐。”Mr. Monahan still lives with his mom. He has lost 35 pounds and says his hunt for a financial analyst position and his goal of achieving more Tae Kwan Do belts keep him focused on the future.莫纳汉仍然和他母亲住在一起。他已经减轻了35磅,他说,他在寻找金融分析师职位,还计划获得更高的跆拳道级别,这些目标使他将注意力集中于未来。The small steps he took all added up and #39;helped me get out of the negative past, be in the present and plan for the future, #39; he says. #39;Over time they started to change my subconscious into believing there is hope.#39;他说,他迈出的每一小步都累积起来,“帮助我摆脱了消极的过去,让我能够活在当下,筹划将来。它们渐渐开始改变我的潜意识,让我相信希望。”A Path to Happiness通往快乐之路To determine what steps people should take to boost their happiness, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory questionnaire asks people to rate 56 statements, including the seven below, as very true, true, neutral, false or very false. For the full quiz, visit www.thetimeparadox.com为确定人们应该采取何种措施来获得更多快乐,津巴多时间观问卷让人们用“极为符合”、“符合”、“中间状态”、“不符合”和“极不符合”来评定对56项陈述(其中包括以下七项陈述)的同意程度。访问网站www.thetimeparadox.com可看到整个问卷。 /201310/262485萍乡祛除胎记要多少钱 你和老外闹过笑话或者误会吗?中西文化差异会造成两方人对某些事情的态度和做法的不同。加强沟通,理解万岁。为了让你和老外轻松相处,我们总结出经常发生的10种误会及其解决方法。 Top 10 赞美 西方人乐于赞美别人,同时也乐于接受别人的赞美。而中国人为了显示谦恭,常常会“拒绝”他人的赞美。这种“拒绝”会让老外觉得莫明其妙,好像你不领他的情似的。 还有,中国人出于礼貌,或者想跟人套近乎,总是愿意说些关心人的话。为了献殷勤,我们常喜欢对客人说;You must be tired? Have a good rest.;。然而,普通的问候之语却有可能让西方人误解为你对她的身体状况表示担忧。他们很喜欢别人夸他们年轻、强壮,如果你质疑他们的身体健康,他们甚至会发怒的。 Top 9 致谢 中国人认为对家里人或者好朋友的帮助是one#39;s own obligation, no need to thank or be thanked,彼此根本不必说谢谢,说了反而显得关系生分。而老外对家人或者朋友的帮忙都习惯说谢谢,他们期待polite expression_rs like ;please;, ;thank you;, etc.。所以,和老外相处,千万不要吝啬“谢谢”两个字。“谢”少了只会让老外觉得你羞涩且不懂礼貌。 Top 8 出游 中国人结伴出游的时候,如果买什么东西,花钱的那个人一般都会先统计有几个人,然后按照人头购买东西,即便有人之前客气地说不要,中国人还是会给他买上一份。When a Chinese offers refreshments or drinks to his colleague, his colleague often declines the offer politely, because he doesn#39;t want to trouble the person who offers and it also shows his politeness. Normally the person who offers still prepares or buys refreshments or drinks, and this will be expected by his colleague. Sharing food and drink when going out together is common among colleagues and friends。 然而和老外结伴出游,如果你客气地推说不需要某样东西,那么对方真的就不会给你买。他们觉得不给你买是尊重你的决定。Respect one#39;s own decision, ;yes; means one wants it, ;no; means one doesn#39;t, politeness is usually shown by the expression_r #39;thank you#39; or ;please;。所以,想要什么东西,就直接说出来吧,事后真诚地说声谢谢才是他们眼中的礼貌做法。 Top 7 称呼 当外国人听到中国人称呼他们为“老外”的时候,他们心里是不高兴的,因为他们觉得自己并不老,且很健康。他们dislike being labelled as ;old;, being young valued above being old。 而当他们听到中国人管外国小孩也叫“老外”的时候,他们才明白“老”其实是对某个人的尊称,比如老张,老王。;Lao; is a commonly used term by Chinese people to address someone who is older than the speaker to show his politeness, respect and closeness. The term does not necessarily mean old age. ;Lao Wai; is a colloquial term of address for foreigners。 Top 6 送别 中国人表达情感的方式相对内敛。送别的时候,他们强忍泪水,吝于拥抱,种种“冷淡”表现让老外深感诧异。所以,如果你和老外送别,举止不妨洒脱奔放一些,可别让他们觉得你是“冷血动物”。 Like everyone else we are affectionate to our friends and relatives, but perhaps we show our affection in public less than other peoples. Maybe the whole family as well as some friends will go to the railway station or the airport to see a person off, no matter whether he/she goes abroad to study or to another province for work. This may well strike many Westerners as very moving, yet they might be puzzled when they see that nobody will hug or kiss when the time comes for saying goodbye. Friends may shake hands with the person who is leaving and parents may hold his/her hand for a long time with tears in their eyes, but with no other physical contact. In fact hugging and kissing are seldom seen in public in China, no matter what the occasion is。 Top 5 鼓掌 当众发言的时候,如果别人给自己鼓掌,为了表达谢意,中国人通常都会暂停发言,而后随着听众一起鼓掌。 In this way he expresses his thanks to the audience. 可是老外就不理解为何要自己给自己鼓掌。自己给自己鼓掌,多不谦虚啊。Of course, when a Chinese speaker claps his hands as the audience is applauding, he is not applauding himself, but expressing his thanks to his audience. As noted earlier, Westerners feel puzzled when watching such a scene, since they think the speaker or the performer is applauding himself.所以,以后老外在场,发言的人不妨用鞠躬或者挥手代替鼓掌。当然,微笑站立也是一种选择。 Top 4 眼神 许多中国人在和别人说话,或者当众发言的时候,羞于和听众进行眼神的交流。Some of them, perhaps because of nervousness, like to bury their nose in their manuscript to their speech all the time. 这种做法其实是不礼貌的。 与人交流的时候,老外expects eye contact, though this does not have to be constant. 当众发言的时候,老外look at his audience now and then. 他们是不会把脑袋埋在稿子里面说话的。 Speaking in public is also a kind of two-way communication, which needs eye contact from both sides. The speaker will certainly feel embarrassed when he sees that his audience do not look at him. But if he doesn#39;t look at his audience now and then, his audience also has the right not to listen to what he is saying. 如果你发言的时候没有勇气看听众,那么你也无权要求你的听众会和你形成良好的互动。 Top 3 送礼 中国人送礼喜欢成双,比如说两瓶酒,两条烟。一是为了显示自己不是小气人,二是为了讨个吉利数字。去朋友或者亲戚家做客,拎点水果是非常普遍的情况。但是,在西方,人们送酒的时候都是只送一瓶。One is quite enough, two are of course welcome but unusual and not expected. 因为他们吃饭的时候要喝客人带来的酒,如果客人拿了两瓶,似乎表明客人是个酒鬼,主人恐怕一瓶酒不够喝。去朋友家做客一般也不送水果。水果一般是作为看望病人时候的礼物。看完此文,希望大家能避开误解的雷区,沟通无极限,交友无国界。而且,中国人接到别人的礼物,为了显示自己不是个贪财之人,习惯于把礼物悄悄放在一旁,然后等客人离开后再拆开包装;而老外则希望你当着他的面打开礼物,并对他的礼物赞美一番。 In the West , it is regarded as polite to open gifts as soon as they are given to express appreciation. In China, the situation is quite the reverse. Normally we Chinese feel that if you open the gift as soon as it is given, you might embarrass the person who gives the gift and you might be thought greedy. So Chinese people tend to open the gifts after the visitors have left. What is more, many people send gifts without wrapping them, and if they wrap them, they usually tell the receiver what is inside, and the receiver will thank the sender and put the gift aside without unwrapping them since they aly know what is inside. However, when we receive gifts from an English native speaker, in order to avoid misunderstanding, we may follow their custom by opening the gifts in front of him or her and express our appreciation。 Top 2 做客 中国人去别人家串门的时候都喜欢随处逛,到处看。可老外是怎么看待这些行为的呢?;I#39;m often taken aback by the way visitors come round to my flat and seem to feel free to take the place over, putting on the telly, pulling down books from my shelves, even peering at letters I#39;ve left lying around on the desk.; 虽说让客人感到宾至如归是好的待客之道,但老外还是忌讳你在做客的时候在他家里东逛西逛,甚至偷窥他的隐私。同样的,涉及到薪资、年龄等隐私问题我们也不要张口就问。 Top 1 吃饭 “人是铁,饭是钢。一顿不吃饿得慌。”我们和老外的交往许多时候都发生在饭桌上。中国人请老外去家里吃饭,可能会准备8-10道菜。你最好让老外有个心理准备,要么他们很可能根本没有肚子去吃后面的菜了。他们可能会觉得中国人hospitable, if anything too hospitable。 如果你去老外家吃饭,也许桌上仅仅就准备了一道菜!而且他们也喜欢说;The dishes are quite good; these dishes are quite famous;,绝对不像中国人喜欢说:“准备不周,凑合吃点吧。” 还有,中国人为了显示热情,喜欢给别人夹菜。但是老外却不喜欢要别人给自己夹菜。;I don#39;t think I#39;ll ever get used to the eating habits out here. You know, the way people put things on your plate...; 老外乐于让人自主选择喜欢的食物。They think to help yourself is the best way. Foreigners give guests the chance to choose what is their favourite。 和老外吃饭,中国人千万不要谦虚含蓄。;Chinese never seem hungry when they come round to my place. Whenever I ask callers if they#39;d like a bite to eat they always say no.; 大多数老外都是实在人。当他们问你要不要吃点什么的时候,如果你谢绝了,他们会尊重你的决定,真的不给你东西吃哦。所以说,饿了就喊出来吧。 一句话,外国人的表达及处世方式更为直接,而中国人则更显圆滑。Foreigners never pretend to be modest. They just tell others what they think. If a Chinese person is faced with the same situation, maybe he or she would say, ;I#39;m sorry. The restaurant is a little bit small and the dishes are just so so, but I hope you#39;ll enjoy yourself.;10大误会盘点完毕。希望今后你和老外相处的时候,能够避开雷区。沟通无极限,交流无国界。 /201312/269602南昌大学中医院开双眼皮手术多少钱

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抚州临川区南城县黎川县蓝光祛痘多少钱DURING its rise in the 17th century, Amsterdam was animportant haven for religious dissidents. It was also the publishing centre forthe racyphilosophical tracts that were too hot to be printed in France or England. The city’s economicfortunes were born of its embrace of international trade and of financialinnovation. And the highly profitable Dutch East IndiaCompany was the world’s first joint-stock company, leading in time to theworld’s first stock and options markets.在17世纪崛起期间,阿姆斯特丹是宗教异议分子的重要避难所,也是激进哲学册子的出版中心,因为这些册子过于惹火而不能在法国和英国出版。国际贸易和金融创新为这座城市带来了经济财富。荷兰东印度公司作为世界上首家股份公司,有着很高的盈利水平,它开创了世界上首个股票和期权市场。In the late 20th century the Dutch capitalwas famous for its tolerance of marijuana cafés and prostitution. But Amsterdam’s liberalheritage has become a battleground. The murder by an Islamist fanatic of Theovan Gogh, a controversial film-maker, in 2004 sparked clashes over relationswith the city’s Muslim minority. City planners have shifted from a socialistvision of liberalism to a yuppified one, rooting out squatters and shrinkingthe red-light district while courting multinational corporations withfavourable tax conditions.20世纪末,阿姆斯特丹因容许咖啡馆出售大麻和卖淫现象的存在而著名。但是阿姆斯特丹的自由主义传统已经使这里演变成了战场。2004年,伊斯兰狂热分子、饱受争议的电影制作人特奥·梵高制造的谋杀案引发了(伊斯兰)同穆斯林少数民族之间的冲突。城市规划师的视角已经从社会主义者的自由主义过渡到雅皮化,在根除棚户区和缩小红灯区的同时,用优惠的税收条件吸引跨国公司的到来。Mr Shorto, an American who has lived in theDutch capital for six years, sprinkles the book with personal anecdotes thatillustrate how history suffuses the present. While studying the journal of anAugustinian prior who had fled to the city to escape the religious violence ofthe Netherlands’war of independence, the author realises that the diary was written, in 1572,next door to his flat. To illustrate a later episode of religious conflict, heintroduces the er to a Holocaust survivor, a childhood acquaintance of Anne Frank. His account of Amsterdam’s physical growth is just asengrossing. The ring of canals, which visitors nowadays think of as quaint,were a marvel of engineering when they were built in the 1600s, a testament tothe city’s status as Europe’s premier trading entrepot.索托先生(Mr Shorto)是一位已在荷兰首都生活了6个年头的美国人,他的书中都是阐明现时阿姆斯特丹弥漫着历史印记的个人轶事。在研究先前一名逃离到阿姆斯特丹躲避荷兰独立战争宗教暴力的奥古斯丁修会会士写的日记时,索托先生发现该日记写于1572年,记录地点就位于他公寓的隔壁。为了阐述下一场宗教冲突,他向读者介绍了大屠杀中的一名幸存者、安妮·弗兰克(Anne Frank)的童年朋友。他记录的阿姆斯特丹有形发展也同样引人入胜。如今让游客们觉得怪异的运河回荡声,是17世纪建造它们的设计师们创造的工程奇迹,这明了阿姆斯特丹作为欧洲最早的贸易中心的地位。But Mr Shorto’s main ambition is to showhow the liberal idea was born in Amsterdam.He leans here on the recent work of Jonathan Israel, a British-born professorof modern European history at Princeton, whose influential three-volumerethinking of the Enlightenment gives a central place to Amsterdam’s most famous philosopher, BaruchSpinoza. For Mr Israel,Spinoza was the progenitor of the “radical” Enlightenment, those thinkers whorefused any accommodation with religion or traditional authority. It isinteresting to consider Amsterdam’s currenttensions in the light of the struggles Spinoza witnessed between tolerantrationalism and religious nationalism, which ended with the lynching in 1672 ofhis political heroes, the De Witt brothers, and the end of Holland’s Golden Age.但是索托先生主要的目的在于告诉人们自由主义思想是如何在阿姆斯特丹诞生的。在书中,他借助了出生于英国的普林斯顿大学欧洲现代史教授乔纳森·伊斯雷尔最近发表的作品,伊斯雷尔具有影响力的启蒙运动反思三大卷奠定了阿姆斯特丹最负盛名的哲学家巴鲁赫·斯宾诺莎的中心地位。对于伊斯雷尔先生来说,斯宾诺莎是“激进”启蒙运动的先驱,这些思想家们与宗教或传统权威不可相容。从斯宾诺莎目睹的宽容理性主义和宗教民族主义之间斗争的角度来看阿姆斯特丹当前的紧张局势是很有趣的,两者的斗争以他的政治英雄德威特兄弟在1672年被处以私刑以及荷兰黄金时代的终结而告终。 /201312/270972 南昌妇保医院双眼皮多少钱鹰潭双眼皮多少钱

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