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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年10月18日 15:37:00
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  The Philippines became the first Asian country on Tuesday to approve the sale of the world#39;s first-ever dengue vaccine.本周四,菲律宾宣布成为亚洲第一个批准全球首登革热疫苗销售的国家。Dengvaxia, manufactured by French pharmaceutical giant Sanofi, secured its first regulatory approval in Mexico a fortnight ago and is currently being reviewed by around 20 countries in Asia and Latin America.两周前,由法国制药巨头赛诺菲研发的Dengvaxia在墨西哥获得批准通过,并且在近期由20个亚洲和拉丁美洲国家审核。It is hoped the drug could eventually help prevent millions of deaths from dengue, the world#39;s fastest-growing mosquito-borne disease.人们希望这种药物最终能够帮助上百万人脱离登革热的死亡威胁。登革热是世界上扩散速度最快的蚊媒疾病。The World Health Organization says as many as 400 million people are infected worldwide every year, and two-thirds are in Asia.世界卫生组织表示,全球每年都有4亿人感染登革热,其中三分之二的患者是来自亚洲。;It#39;s a major step in the prevention of dengue and for public health,; Olivier Charmeil, head of Sanofi#39;s vaccines division, said in a statement.赛诺菲疫苗事业部的部长Olivier Charmeil在声明中写道:“这是预防登革热和维护公共健康的重要一步。”Scientists have long been stumped by dengue, which has four separate strains, forcing researchers to find a drug able to fight all of them at once.科学家们曾长期为登革热所困惑。登革热有四种分离的菌株,这迫使研究人员去寻找能够一次杀灭所有菌株的药物。Clinical tests -- carried out on 40,000 people from 15 countries -- have found Dengvaxia can immunise two-thirds of people aged nine years and older, rising to 93 percent for the more severe form of the disease, dengue haemorrhagic fever.来自15个国家的4万人参与的临床测试发现,Dengvaxia能够让三分之二九十岁甚至更年长的人对登革热免疫,使他们有93%的几率不会患上登革出血热。登革出血热是登革热中最严重的一种。 /201512/418209

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  The fierce striving for power within the court divided the rule of the Western Jin Court.西晋时期朝廷内的权力争夺激烈复杂。To gain the full control over the imperial country, Emperor Wu believed strong family connections and appointed his male relatives kings. Usually these kings had their own armies and served as governors of various states where they wielded far-reaching administrative power.晋武帝为了巩固皇权,大封宗室为王,以诸王统率兵马出镇一方,并拥有地方的军政权。The practice of Emperor Wu did change the situation prevailing in the kingdom of Wei, in which the various cesses were mere figurehead. However, Emperor Wu did not foresee that he also left the foreshadows for the future power struggle after his death.武帝的这些措施的确改变了魏时皇子没有实权的局面,但他却没有意识到这同时也给日后诸王争权埋下了祸根。In 290, Emperor Wu of Jin died and his second son Sima Zhong became the emperor later called Emperor Hui.太熙元年(290),晋武帝司马炎病故,由次子惠帝司马衷继位。Sima Zhong had been appointed Heir Apparent in 267, and in 272 he married the Lady Jia Nanfeng, daughter of the minister Jia Chong, an old supporter of the Sima family and had played a leading role in the fighting against Cao Mao in 260.惠帝于公元267年被封为太子,272年与贾充之女贾南风成婚。贾充曾帮助司马家族在争夺王位时打败曹髦。Hui Emperor was a retarded man. It is recorded that upon hearing that his subjects had even no thin porridge to eat and people died of starvation, Hui Di responded “So why not eat their meat!”惠帝本是愚痴之人,被立为太子只是为保持和贾家的联盟。史载他闻报天下慌乱,百姓饿死,竟说:“何不食肉糜? ”Sima Yan main-tained him as his heir in order to accept the alliance with the Jia family therefore although there was a general anxiety from increasing evidence, Sima Zhong was mentally disabled and unfit to rule and the power was handed over to Empress Jia. Jia thus was the another femme fatale in Chinese history after Empress Lu in the Han Dynasty.尽管当时形势危急,他却不能掌管朝政,于是大权逐渐落在皇后贾氏的手里。According to the records, “Jia Nanfeng was a short, dark-skinned and ugly woman with hot temper and her husband was afraid of her. ”据载,“惠帝后贾氏,名南风……其人丑且短黑,荒淫放恣,惠帝畏之”。Then the Emperor Hui’s mother’s family Yang and her father, Yang Jun took over state power by a joint scheme.因此,贾后继吕后等人之后,成了历史上另一有名的“祸水”女人。In 291, Empress Jia ganged up with the Prince of Chu, who was in charge of the army in the capital,killed Yang Jun,dethroned Empress Dowager Yang and appointed the Prince Runan as regent.当时因杨太后及其父杨骏专揽朝政,贾后乃於元康元年(291) 密召都督荆州军事的楚王玮人京,利用禁军的力量杀掉杨骏,废杨太后,改由汝南王亮辅政。Shortly afterwards, on Empress Jia’a order, Prince Runan was murdered by Prince Chu whom, in his turn, was put to death by the Empress. Finally Empress Jia#39;s family took the reign alone.同年,贾后利用楚王玮杀汝南王亮,后又因玮矫杀亮并不能治理国家,最终贾后专政。All the twenty-seven royal kings and families in the localities, built up by Emperor Wu of Jin, who were supposed to be a reliable force to shore up the court, could not serve the court effectively with each coveting the throne.晋武帝立国后,分封了27个同姓王,以屏藩皇室,孰料竟造成外重内轻、难以调动之局势。During the reign of Emperor Hui, various kings unhappy with Empress Jia ’ s rule over the court alone andbecame embroiled in court intrigue, which instigated a large-scale internecine. From 291 onwards, the eight kings, namely, Liang (King of Runan), Wei (King of Chu), Lun (King of Zhao), Jiong (King of Qi), Ying (King of Chengdu), Yi ( King of Changsha), Yong ( King of Hejian), and Yue (King of the Eastern Sea), fought against each other for the throne in the area a-round Luoyang.司马氏诸王不满于朝中贾氏专权,纷纷想杀贾氏而独掌大权,因而相互残杀,于是便爆发了历时16年之久的“八王之乱”,其中八王全部是晋皇室宗亲,分别是:汝南王亮、楚王玮、齐王冏、赵王伦、成都王颖、长沙王义、河间王颗、东海王越。公元291年开始在今洛阳一带杀戮不断。In 299, the Princess Zhao, Sima Lun killed Empress Jia and her supporters and took the control of the imperial court.公元299年,赵王伦杀贾后及其党羽,独揽大权。Sima Lun’s deposing Emperor Hui in 301 and claiming himself the emperor marked the beginning of the later called “Disturbances of the Eight Princes”,which ended up with Emperor Hui#39;s death in 306. After poisoned Emperor Hui to death, Sima Yue, Prince Donghai put Sima Zhi, the twenty-fifty son of Emperor Wu, whom to throne later known as Emperor Huai of Jin. The victory of Sima Yue finished the civil war, but it had ended in exhaustion and despair.其后,又于永宁元年(301)废惠帝自立为帝,是为“八王之乱”之始。直至公元306年,东海王越毒死惠帝,拥立武帝司马炎第二十五子怀帝司马炽继位,至此“八王之乱”结束。Sixteen years of turmoil had produced a ferocious, meaningless record of treachery, murder and war, which further aggraviated the underdeveloped economic situation in the early years of the Western Jin. The credit of the government and the imperial family were ruined,the greater part of the imperial armies had been destroyed in the internecine fighting, and there was no authority that might restore the state or reestablish a position against the forces threatening from the northern minorities.“八王之乱”虽告结束,这一场祸乱长达16年之久,其间无数的杀伐和内战带来的只是灾难,使西晋初年并不十分发达的经济,受到更为严重的破坏,耗尽了西晋的国力和兵力,削弱了皇室家族的势力和晋朝的统治,以致后来无法抵御来自北方少数民族的进犯。 /201512/415731During the period of the Eastern Han, transmarine transport expanded, which led to a close relation with other countries.东汉时期海外交通进一步发展。The Han court received a Japanese goodwill envoy in 57 to whom Emperor Guangwu gave a seal inscribed with a title of honor.建武中元二年(57),倭国派使臣来赠送方物,刘秀赐以印绶。Later, Han iron and bronze wares and silk goods found their way to Japan.此后东汉的铁器、铜器和丝织品便源源不断地输往倭国。It is said that in 64, Mingdi sent his official Cai Yin to Central Asia to learn more about Buddhism after a vision of a golden figure appeared to him in a dream, who a minister told him was Buddha.相传,汉明帝在梦里见到一个金人,大臣告诉他那是佛。于是公元64年,明帝遣郎中蔡愔等出使天竺(印度)求其道。In 67, Cai Yin returned and brought back with him not only the images of Buddha and Buddhist scriptures but also two Buddhist monks Kasyapamatanga and Dharmaranya, who came to Luoyang at the invitation of the Han emissary, which marked the beginning of the sp of Buddhism in China. Emperor Ming ordered the White Horse Monastery built in their honor and asked them to translate Buddhist sutras into Chinese.蔡愔于公元67年回洛阳,带来佛像和一些佛经,并邀请沙门摄腾和竺法兰一起回国。次年,明帝在洛阳建白马寺,供摄腾、竺法兰居住,并翻译《四十二章经》,为中土佛教之始。They were followed by the Parthian monk An Shigao, who came to China in 148 and stayed for more than years.公元148年帕提亚僧人安世高来到中国,居住了20年。He became a well-known translator, rendering into Chinese 95 Buddhist works comprising 115 juan during his stay.在此期间,他翻译了115卷95部佛经,成为著名的译者。During the reign of Emperor Zhang and Emperor He, with China’s prosperity came another attempt at westward expansion.章帝、和帝时,国力强盛,朝廷意图向西拓展疆域。In 73, for the purpose of building good relationship with western region tribes, a military officer, Ban Chao, younger brother of Ban Gu, went westward on a diplomatic mission with a delegation of thirty-six men.公元73年,为建立与西域各国的友好关系,班超(班固的弟弟)带领36名军士,奉命出使西域。He finally made those desert tribes tributaries of the Eastern Han Empire, which ensured the long peace and smoothness along the Silk Road.他成功说各国向东汉称臣,确保了丝绸之路的安全畅通。Furthermore, Ban Chao once remained in the Western Regions for 31 years, suppressing rebellions and establishing diplomatic relations with over 50 states there.班固在西域长达31年之久,不但多次镇压叛乱,还与50多个国家建立了外交关系。In 97, the Eastern Han court dispatched an emissary, Gan Ying to Daqin(the Roman Empire).公元97年,东汉朝廷派甘英出使大秦(罗马帝国)。He traveled westward, passing Tiaozhi(modern Iraq) and Anxi (modern Iran), and finally arrived at the west border of Anxi (the Persian Gulf), but returned without crossing the sea.Though failed to reach Daqin, he brought home a wealth of information about west Asia.甘英西经条(今伊拉克)、安息(今伊朗)诸国,至安息西界(波斯湾),未过海而还,带回了大量有关西亚地区的信息。As the most famous envoy after Zhang Qian, Gan Ying made great contribution to open a route connecting Asia with Europe.甘英是继张骞之后到达西亚的使节,为开辟欧亚通道做出了重要贡献。 /201512/413044

  Emperor Guangwu Revitalizes the Han光武中兴War continued after Liu Xiu, Emperor Guangwu, claimed the throne.光武帝刘秀登基后战争仍不断发生。Over the next dozen years Liu Xiu wiped out the Lulin and Red-brow armies and other local forces.在接下来的十几年间,刘秀平定了绿林军和赤眉军以及其他的一些地方势力。The country became united again in A.D.36.国家与公元36年再次获得统一。Liu Xiu was one of the few Chinese emperors with talent for handling both military and civil affairs.刘秀是中国的帝王中极少同时具有军事和国家大事天赋的人之一。In war he was able to achieve victory using the strategy of surprise even when the enemy outnumbered his troops.作战中就算对手的兵力比他充足,他也能够出奇制胜。He appointed people to appropriate positions based on their different abilities, instead of their relationship with him.他根据人们不同的才能而不是与自己的关系派遣给他们合适的职务。For instance, he promoted many commoners and ordinary soldiers to become generals.例如,他任许多平民或普通士兵为大将。He even gave an important position to Zhu Wei, a man who had been involved in the conspiracy to murder his elder brother.他还重用曾密谋杀害他大哥有牵连的朱鲔。After reuniting the country, Emperor Guangwu devoted most of his time attending to state affairs, rather than resting on his laurels.重新统一全国后,光武帝将更多的时间投入到了国家大事之中而不是享受着自己的美名。According to historical records, he went to the imperial court early every morning, where he would discuss important matters with his ministers until sunset.据史料记载,他每日早早上朝,与他的大臣们商议大事直到太阳西下。Often the meetings would last until as late as midnight.大多数时候会议会持续到午夜时分。Emperor Guangwu’s dedication led to the implementation of many wise policies.光武帝的奉献为国家增添了更多的英明决策。For example, while taking measures to strengthen the power of the imperial family, he made a point of simplifying state organization and reducing surplus personnel.比如,当采取措施加强王室的权力时,他强调要简化国家机构,裁减冗官。He personally took the lead in reversing the extravagant trends of the late Western Han government.他以身作则带头扭转西汉末期的奢靡之风。Growing up among the common people, Emperor Guangwu knew their hard lot and thus promulgated lenient laws and low taxes to help the people recover.因为自己也是长于普通人之家,他充分了解人民的疾苦,所以颁布了仁慈的法律和低廉的税收来帮助人民恢复。He described such policies as “running the country with kindness” thus steering the Eastern Han toward a good beginning.他称这些法令为“温和执政”并因此引导东汉走向一个良好的开端。His reign indeed came to be acclaimed as “Gangwu Revitalizing the Han.”他掌权的时期因此被称为“光武中兴”。Before his death in A.D. 57, Emperor Guangwu decreed a simple funeral for himself because he had been “of little use to the people.”在他于公元前57年驾崩之前,光武帝为自己办了一个简单的葬礼,因为他认为自己“对人民无用”。By then the population of the country had reached 21 million, almost twice the figure at the beginning of the Eastern Han.在他之后,国家的人口达到了21000000,几乎是东汉开始时的两倍。 /201510/397356A Malaysian woman whose husband was on the missing Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 is seeking .6m in damages from the airline and the government.近日,失联的马航MH370客机上一名乘客的妻子要求马来西亚航空公司和马来西亚政府赔偿760万美元。Her lawsuit also names Malaysia#39;s civil aviation authority and air force for losing track of the plane with 239 people on board on 8 March 2014.她的这一诉讼还提及马来西亚民航和空军未能掌握该航班的飞行路线。2014年3月8日的这架航班上共有乘客和机组人员239人Many more similar lawsuits are expected before a two-year filing deadline set by a global aviation agreement.在国际航空协议规定的两年索赔期限到期之前,预计还将有更多乘客家属提出索赔。In the lawsuit, Ms Devi - together with her two sons and parents-in-law - alleges wrongful death of her husband, S Puspanathan, due to negligence and breach of contract by Malaysia Airlines and the Malaysian government authorities.在本诉讼中,德维夫人与两个儿子及公公婆婆联名发起诉讼称,德维的丈夫普斯帕纳桑是由于马来西亚航空公司和政府当局的渎职和违约而意外死亡的。;They were waiting for some development in the search for the plane but nothing has been forthcoming so far. Everyone is hoping for some answers through the court,; her lawyer, Shailender Bhar, told the Associated Press news agency.她的代表律师沙伊伦德·巴尔接受美联社采访时表示:“他们一直在等待搜寻工作能够取得一些进展,但是至今成果甚微。每个人都希望法庭能做出答复。”Several other relatives of some of the passengers on board MH370 have either aly filed or are preparing to file similar claims in other countries, reports say.据报道,马航MH370客机上其他部分乘客的家属也已在其他国家提出了诉讼,或者正在准备提出诉讼。The 1999 Montreal Convention allows each next-of-kin of an air crash victim to claim up to 113,100 special drawing rights (SDR), a mix of currency values established by the International Monetary Fund. The value - which changes regularly - currently equals to about 7,000. However, a plaintiff filing a lawsuit can seek more.根据1999年蒙特利尔公约规定,空难受害者的每名直系亲属可以要求最高113100 SDR特别提款权的赔偿。特别提款权是由国际货币基金组织根据多国货币价值所定的,它会定期改动,根据目前的标准,约相当于约15.7万美元。不过,如果家属以原告身分向法庭诉讼,则可以要求更多赔偿。Based on satellite communications data, the plane is thought to have crashed in the Indian Ocean, but only one piece of debris from the aircraft has ever been found, on the French island of Reunion.根据卫星通讯记录显示,该航班已经坠毁在印度洋,但是迄今未止,只在法属留尼旺岛上发现了一块属于这架客机的残骸。 /201603/429093

  

  Some speeches are so memorable we can e them at will. But few of them are commencement speeches. How many of us can recall the commencement speech at our college graduation?一些令人难忘的演讲我们都能如数家珍,但其中只有少数是毕业演讲。多少人还能回想起那些年自己在毕业典礼上听过的演讲呢?What if a commencement speech was not something to be endured, but to be treasured? And what if, instead of the same tired sentiments to ;go forward and seize the day,; the 20-minute address dispensed a glimpse of humanity#39;s higher self? Thankfully, some of those exist. But it#39;s not all rainbows and butterflies. Many memorable speeches have a touch of the macabre that foreshadow the underbelly of adulthood. After ing dozens of transcripts and viewing hours of footage, we#39;ve distilled 10 famous commencement speeches to their essence. Some speeches are memorable because of their time in history or because millions watched it online. Some were later published as books. At least one became a hit song. Here they are, in chronological order.假如一场演讲不会让人昏昏欲睡而是被人津津乐道,假如没有无病呻吟,而是与时俱进,把20分钟演讲的关注点放在“如何提升自我”上面,这样的毕业演讲是不是会让你毕生难忘呢?还好,这样的演讲还是存在的,而且它们也不全是镜花水月。许多令人难忘的演讲一针见血地指出了成人世界的软肋。在翻阅了成打的手抄文本、观看了大量的影像带后,我们精心挑选了10个著名的演讲并提取了他们演讲中的精华。一些演讲因其所处的历史时期亦或是过高的点击量而令人难忘,一些后来还被收录在相关书籍中。每一个演讲在当时都掀起了思想的浪潮。下面就为你一一呈现!10.President John F. Kennedy at American University, 196310.1963年,约翰·F·肯尼迪总统于美利坚大学;Our most basic common link is that we all inhabit this small planet. We all breathe the same air. We all cherish our children#39;s futures. And we are all mortal.;“我们都居住在这个小小的星球上,这是你我之间最基本的连接纽带。我们呼吸着同样的空气,我们都珍视子女们的未来,我们最终都会离开这个世界”。This commencement address had a higher purpose. Just months after the Cuban missile crisis with the Soviet Union, when nuclear war was still a real threat, President John. F. Kennedy used the occasion to deliver a peace-laced talk to the entire world. The speech, which took a month to craft, was written in secret because he feared Pentagon officials would oppose its conciliatory tone. Kennedy asked Americans to consider their attitudes: ;Too many of us think is impossible. Too many think it is unreal. But that is a dangerous, defeatist belief. It leads to the conclusion that war is inevitable ... We need not accept that view ... Among the many traits the peoples of our two countries have in common, none is stronger than our mutual abhorrence of war.; Kennedy then announced that he, Nikita Khrushchev and Britain#39;s Harold Macmillan would be entering talks about a comprehensive test ban treaty and that the U.S. wouldn#39;t conduct further nuclear tests as long as no other country did either.这篇毕业演讲因其所处的时代背景而影响深远。就在几个月前,美国虽然结束了与苏联的“古巴导弹危机”,然而核战争还是一个真实存在的威胁。肯尼迪总统选择在这样的场合用演讲向全世界传递了一个和平的信号。肯尼迪为这篇演讲苦心构思了一个月,因担心自己安抚性的语调会遭到国防部的反对,他决定秘密地完成这篇演讲。肯尼迪恳请美国人反思自己的态度:“我们中的许多人认为‘和平’是不可能的、是不现实的。然而,这是一种危险的失败主义观念。这种观念得出的结论是,战争不可避免…我们并非一定要接受这种观点…在我们两国人民的诸多共性中,最显著的莫过于我们对战争的共同憎恶。”之后肯尼迪宣布,他将同苏联最高领导人赫鲁晓夫、英国首相哈罗德·麦克米兰进行关于“全面禁止核试验条约”的商讨与谈话。他将承诺:只要他国不先进行进一步核试验,美国也决不会做核试验第一国。演讲后不过几天,华盛顿和克里姆林宫架设了一次专线。在演讲结束后的两个月,也就是1963年8月5日,三国领导人共同签署了《受限制核试验公约》。这是在全面裁军后的又一重大利好。9.Hillary Rodham at Wellesley, 19699.1969年,希拉里·罗德姆于威尔斯利学院;Every protest, every dissent, whether it#39;s an individual academic paper, Founder#39;s parking lot demonstration, is unabashedly an attempt to forge an identity in this particular age.;“每一次抗议,每一次反对,哪怕是一篇学术论文,甚至是一个停车场的说明,都是为这个特殊的时代烙上印迹的大胆尝试”。It was her first big speech, but there would be many more to follow. At her graduation from Wellesley College in 1969, Hillary Rodham became the first student in the college#39;s history to deliver a commencement address. She was president of student government at the time. Before beginning her prepared remarks, though, she criticized the event#39;s previous speaker, Sen. Edward Brooke. In his speech, he had urged graduates to reject ;coercive protest,; which was a polite euphemism for near-riotous student demonstrations. It was an idea at which Rodham pointedly aimed when she took the podium. He was, it seemed to Rodham, too complacent. So she set aside her prepared speech and embarked on an elegantly efficient, impromptu response. ;What does it mean to hear that 13.3 percent of the people in this country are below the poverty line? That#39;s a percentage. We#39;re not interested in social reconstruction; it#39;s human reconstruction,; she said. Rodham got a standing ovation that lasted several minutes. And she was only getting started. As Hillary Clinton, she went on to scale great heights as first lady of the ed States, a senator, secretary of state and a 2016 presidential candidate.这是希拉里·罗德姆生平第一次在大场面上演讲,但还是有很多值得说道的地方。1969年希拉里·罗德姆从威尔斯利学院毕业,她成为了学院历史上第一位发表毕业演讲的学生,同时她也是当时的学生会主席。然而在开始准备多时的演讲前,她先慷慨激昂地驳斥了上一位演讲者——名叫爱德华·布鲁克的参议员。他在演讲中怂恿学生们抵制“强制性抗议”(对学生暴乱游行的委婉表达),这也是她演讲的中心思想。在罗德姆看来,布鲁克太狂妄,于是她把准备好的演讲稿暂时放在一旁,开始一通优雅但犀利的即兴回击。她犀利地指出:“当听到13.3%的人民生活在国家贫困线以下时意味着什么?它说明我们对社会重建不够重视,说明我们对人类复兴无动于衷,这不仅仅是一个百分比,更是抽我们脸的皮鞭!”演讲结束后,罗德姆得到了全场起立鼓掌数分钟的肯定。然而这才只是她崭露头角的开始,当她变成希拉里·克林顿后,这位女强人在政坛上更加混得风声水起,成为了美国第一夫人、参议员,还曾担任美国国务卿,现在是2016年的总统候选人。8.Kurt Vonnegut#39;s Fictional Speech at MIT, 19978.1997年,库尔特·冯内古特于麻省理工学院;Wear sunscreen ... The long-term benefits of sunscreen have been proved by scientists, whereas the rest of my advice has no basis more reliable than my own meandering experience.;“防晒霜……科学家已经明了长期涂防晒霜是有好处的,然而接下来我要给你们的意见却没有什么科学论,只是基于我个人的经验。”So begins one of the most popular commencement addresses in recent history, which also included such gems as ;Keep your old love letters. Throw away your old bank statements. Get to know your parents. Travel;. Famed American novelist Kurt Vonnegut sure had a way with words, didn#39;t he? Within days, the sage-but-simple advice he supposedly offered to Massachusetts Institute of Technology graduates in June 1997 was racing across international borders via forwarded e-mails. Except Vonnegut didn#39;t write the commencement address. Or share it from the podium during MIT#39;s graduation ceremony. In fact, MIT#39;s 1997 graduation speaker was actually Kofi Annan, then-secretary-general of the ed Nations, who encouraged graduates to pursue multilateral diplomacy rather than save old love letters. Turns out the commencement address wasn#39;t an address at all, but a column penned by Mary Schmich that was published in the Chicago Tribune. ;It was witty,; Vonnegut later said, ;but it wasn#39;t my wittiness.; Of course, this didn#39;t stop the prose from becoming nearly as famous as its mistaken author. Within a year, ;Wear Sunscreen; had even been adapted into a hit single in Australia that rose to No. 1 in the U.K and No. 45 in the U.S. on the Billboard Hot 100. Schmich made a book out of it, too.这段演讲竟成为近来历史上最受欢迎的毕业演讲之一,而且这段演讲还包含了许多金玉良言,如“保留你的旧情书,扔掉你的过期账单,多了解你的父母,多去旅行”等。那么著名的美国小说家库尔特. 冯内古特真的有说过这样的话吗?1997年6月,麻省理工学院毕业典礼上的这些简单却很有道理的话在接下来的那段日子里被世界各地的人们以电子邮件的方式广为转发。不过冯内古特并没有写过这段演讲,并且他也没有站在麻省理工学院的毕业典礼的颁奖台上分享他的这段话。事实上,这段话的演讲人是联合国前秘书长科菲.安南,他想通过这段演讲,鼓励毕业生去寻求一种多边的外交方式而不是鼓励他们保留自己的旧情书。最后实,这段毕业演讲并不是一段真正的演讲,只是发表在《芝加哥论坛报》上、由玛丽.修米西撰写的一篇专栏而已。冯内古特随后回应道:“这篇专栏报道内涵丰富,但却不是我的创作。”不过就算是这样,也挡不住这篇演讲和库尔特.冯内古特一样出名,广为人知。在这篇专栏发表后的一年内,“涂防晒霜”这一热词被写进澳大利亚的一首单曲中,并在英国和美国的“广播台100首最热单曲”排行榜中分列第一及第四十五名。修米西也为此出了一本书。7.Maria Shriver at College of the Holy Cross, 19987.1998年,玛利亚.施莱佛于圣十字学院;Don#39;t expect anyone else to support you financially.;“不要期盼任何人给你经济上的持。”When Maria Shriver, N news anchor and third-generation Kennedy, addressed 1998 graduates at College of the Holy Cross, her remarks received national attention. Shriver mentioned that she#39;d gotten a lot of advice on what she should say but decided to share her ;top-ten list of things I wish someone had told me when I was sitting, like you, at my graduation.; (Among them: ;Pinpoint your passion.; ;No job is beneath you.; And, ;Superwoman is dead;. Shriver backed up her advice with personal stories from her career and parenting adventures, and took a humorous approach to life#39;s toughest moments. The well-received speech formed the basis of ;Ten Things I Wish I#39;d Known—Before I Went Out into the Real World,; a book that became an instant hit in the graduation gift category. In 2012, Shriver followed up with a second powerful commencement speech, ;The Power of the Pause.; Delivered at the University of Southern California on the occasion of her daughter#39;s graduation, Shriver asked the new grads to pause before making judgments or decisions.N的新闻主播、肯尼迪家族的第三代成员——玛利亚.施莱佛,当她1998年在圣十字学院发表这篇毕业演讲时,当时她说的那些话引起了全国广泛的关注。施莱佛提到,在演讲前,她得到了很多“关于到底在毕业典礼上说什么”的建议。不过最终她还是决定分享一些她自己的想法:如果她是在座的毕业生,那么她希望别人告诉她的十件事情是什么?(这十件事情包括“找到你的”,“不要让工作束缚你”以及“女超人已经死了”等)在演讲中,施莱佛回顾了她个人的工作经历以及育儿的一些小故事,提出了自己的一些意见,并且以一种豁达的态度去对待生活中最艰辛的时刻。在这篇好评如潮的演讲稿的基础上,她又撰写了《在我进入到真正的社会前我希望知道的十件事》一书,后来这本书成为了轰动一时的毕业送别礼物。在2012年的时候,施莱佛又发表了她的第二篇十分轰动的毕业演讲——“停顿的力量”。她在南加利福尼亚大学的一次毕业典礼(凑巧是女儿毕业的那一届)上发表了这段讲话。在演讲中,施莱佛建议应届生在做判断及决定前,一定要记得思考。6.Steve Jobs at Stanford, 20056.2005年,史蒂夫·乔布斯在斯坦福大学;Your time is limited, so don#39;t waste it living someone else#39;s life.;“生命有限,所以要活出自我风采。”Even if you#39;re not a Mac, you should listen to Steve Jobs#39; understated commencement address at Stanford University in 2005. Jobs, who quipped that the address was the closest he#39;d ever come to a college graduation, shared three stories that connected the dots of his life -- and could possibly serve as a roadmap for others. He outlined his decision to drop out of college, how it had loosed a hunger for learning and eventually inspired the launch of Apple computers. Next, Jobs chronicled being fired from the company he#39;d built and how the painful and embarrassing split had led to greater things, including NeXT (which Apple later purchased because of its proprietary technology). But it was Jobs#39; recollection of being diagnosed with cancer that really stood out. For one day, he lived with the prognosis that he had three to six months before a rare form of pancreatic cancer would take his life. Then a biopsy revealed he had a rarer form still, one that could be surgically removed. (Sadly, the cancer would return and Jobs died in 2011). ;Don#39;t be trapped by dogma -- which is living with the results of other people#39;s thinking,; Jobs advised. ;Don#39;t let the noise of others#39; opinions drown out your own inner voice. And most important, have the courage to follow your heart and intuition. They somehow aly know what you truly want to become;.即使你不是Mac粉,你也应该听听乔布斯2005年在斯坦福大学毕业典礼上所做的朴实无华的演讲。乔布斯打趣道,这次演讲是他离大学毕业最近的时刻,并分享了三个转变他人生轨迹的故事——这些都可以作为别人的成功指南。他概括了自己辍学的决心,辍学如何激发出学习欲望,及最终灵感涌现、推出苹果电脑的故事。在接下来的演讲中,乔布斯讲述了他被自己一手创建的苹果公司抛弃,如何在内心痛苦和尴尬分歧境遇下,建设诸如NeXT公司的成功故事(NeXT公司后来凭借专利技术,被苹果公司收购)。但演讲的精华,是乔布斯述说自己被诊断出患有癌症的部分。有一天,乔布斯被告知自己的生命只剩3到6个月,因为他被诊断出患有罕见而致命的胰腺癌。接下来的胰岛穿刺活检组织病理结果显示,他的癌虽更罕见,但可以通过手术切除。(不幸的是,癌症会复发。乔布斯于2011年逝世。)乔布斯建议,“不要受教条束缚,因为那意味着你的生活就像拾人牙慧。不要因其他人喧嚣的观点而忽略自己内心的声音。最重要的是,拿出勇气,听从内心所想、直觉所示,因为它们能在某种程度上反映出你的真实想法。”审校:围巾 编辑:listen 来源:前十网 /201603/429589。

  What if the cappuccino you had this morning was not, in fact, a cappuccino? Scary. More worrisome still: What if your flat white was?如果你今天早上喝的那杯卡布奇诺,其实不是卡布奇诺,那可怎么办?太可怕了。而更吓人的是:如果你的小白咖啡(flat white)才是地道卡布奇诺呢?There was a time when cappuccino was easy to identify. It was a shot of espresso with steamed milk and a meringue-like milk foam on top. But now the onetime king of specialty coffee drinks is having a bit of an identity crisis.曾几何时,卡布奇诺是很容易鉴别的。一份浓缩咖啡,加上热牛奶,最上面盖一层蛋白霜似的奶泡。然而,这个曾经的特种咖啡饮品之王,如今正遭遇一场身份危机。Even among experts, there is considerable disagreement concerning what exactly a cappuccino is, with some of those in the know focusing on the size of the drink as its distinguishing characteristic.卡布奇诺到底是什么,即使在专家中间也存在不小的争议,在行的都把重点放在咖啡的大小上,认为这是区分彼此的特征。“In the U.S., cappuccino are small, medium and large, and that actually doesn’t exist,” the food and coffee writer Oliver Strand said. “Cappuccino is basically a four-ounce drink.”“在美国,卡布奇诺有小杯、中杯、大杯,这其实是生造出来的,”美食和咖啡作家奥列佛·斯特兰德(Oliver Strand)说。“卡布奇诺基本上就是一种4盎司的饮品。”Todd Carmichael, a founder of La Colombe, a coffee roasting company with cafes in New York and other cities, is not so hung up on the ounce factor. “We’ve made the cappuccino mobile,” he said. “With 8 to 10 ounces, the flavors do not go away. They’re just less intense.”在纽约等地开有咖啡馆的咖啡烘焙公司La Colombe创始人托德·卡尔米切尔(Todd Carmichael)认为,不应该死盯着份量这一个因素。“我们让卡布奇诺灵活起来了,”他说。“8到10盎司的情况下,它的风味并没有消失。只是没那么浓烈了。”Others cling to old-school notions of what makes a cappuccino, with the layering of ingredients as the main thing. “The goal is to serve three distinct layers: caffè, hot milk and frothy (not dense) foam,” the chef and writer Mario Batali wrote in an email. “But to drink it Italian style, it will be stirred so that the three stratum come together as one.”还有人坚守着对卡布奇诺的老派定义,几种成分的分层是重点。“目标是三个不同的层:咖啡、热牛奶和有泡泡(不细密)的奶泡,”厨师、作家马里奥·巴塔里(Mario Batali)在邮件中说。“但是要按意大利人的喝法,必须要搅拌,让三层混合在一起。”With the stirring of the drink, one may see the distinctive red-brown color similar to that of the habits worn by men belonging to the Order of Capuchin Friars Minor, a resemblance believed by some to have given the beverage its name.搅拌后咖啡呈现一种特别的红棕色,跟方济嘉布遣会(Order of Capuchin Friars Minor)修士身上的道颜色接近,有人因此认为饮品的名字就是由此而来。Joe, a cafe with 13 locations in New York and Philadelphia, serves a cappuccino that is not layered, with no bubbly foam on top. “The consistency should be the same from the first sip to the last,” said Jonathan Rubenstein, one of Joe’s founders.Joe在纽约和费城有13家分店,它的卡布奇诺是不分层的,最上面也没有看得见泡泡的奶泡。“从第一口到最后一口,口感应该是一样的,”Joe创始人之一乔纳森·鲁本斯坦(Jonathan Rubenstein)说。The Joe version would seem to violate the cappuccino standards put forth by the Specialty Coffee Association of America (S.C.A.A.) and its Barista Guild, which advocate a one-centimeter layer, minimum, of milky foam.Joe的版本似乎违背了美国特种咖啡协会(Specialty Coffee Association of America,简称SCAA)及其下属咖啡师行会(Barista Guild)推行的卡布奇诺标准,该标准主张最少要有一厘米厚的奶泡。Only one centimeter? Sounds dangerously close to a latte. But who would know better than the S.C.A.A.? “It’s kind of ridiculous,” said David Schomer, the founder of Espresso Vivace in Seattle.才一厘米?感觉一不留神就要成拿铁了。但这可是堂堂SCAA的标准。“有点荒谬,”西雅图Espresso Vivace创始人戴维·舒默(David Schomer)说。Some coffee specialists pointed to “latte art creep” as responsible for the small amount of foam in the modern-day cappuccino, noting that it is easier for baristas to make intricate designs with less froth in a time of Instagram-y food and drink.有咖啡专家认为,都是那些“拿铁艺术婊”导致现代卡布奇诺的奶泡如此之少,他们说,在这个无Instagram不成炊的年代,较少的泡沫有利于咖啡师做出繁复的花式。Given the changes in what constitutes a cappuccino, some people may find themselves with an attachment to an incarnation of the drink that was in style when they came of coffee-drinking age. “Back in 1985, the best cappuccino was the one with five-inch mounds of froth sprinkled with cinnamon,” the restaurateur Daniel Meyer wrote by email. “We gave up on foam in 2006.”鉴于卡布奇诺的定义在变,有些人也许会对自己开始喝咖啡的那个年代时兴的版本特别有感情。“1985年的时候,最好的卡布奇诺是有一座五英寸的奶泡山的,上面撒肉桂,”餐馆业主丹尼尔·梅耶尔(Daniel Meyer)在邮件中写道。“我们在2006年告别了奶泡。”Mr. Carmichael of La Colombe recalled the cappuccino at an influential cafe in Seattle, Torrefazione Italia, long before specialty coffee drinks were common. “Cappuccino was coffee with really thick meringue-type foam,” he said. “You could set an olive on it and it wouldn’t sink.”在影响深远的西雅图咖啡馆Torrefazione Italia,La Colombe的卡尔米切尔回忆起特种咖啡远未普及的年代,卡布奇诺是什么样子。“所谓卡布奇诺就是有非常厚的、蛋白霜式的奶泡,”他说。“在上面放一颗橄榄不会沉下去。”Kenneth Nye, who founded the East Village cafe Ninth Street Espresso in 2001, grew so sick of customers’ insistence on what they believed to be a “real” cappuccino that he removed all the drink names from his s. “All it says is ‘espresso with milk,’ ” Mr. Nye said. “We stopped with the names because it’s all silly.”肯尼思·奈(Kenneth Nye)2001年在纽约东村开了第九街意式咖啡馆(Ninth Street Espresso),他不堪忍受那些深信自己知道什么是“正宗”卡布奇诺的顾客,去掉了菜单上所有饮品的名称。“全都是‘意式浓缩加牛奶’,”奈说。“我们不再用名称是因为,所有名字都很傻。”The new enthusiasm for the flat white, a drink made of espresso and milk that seems to have originated in Australia or New Zealand, is particularly nettlesome to Mr. Nye. “You put 10 people in a room who claim to be an authority on the flat white, you’re going to get at least five different opinions on what it should be,” he said. “People are trying to make the whole process intimidating to the consumer.”新近走红的小白咖啡让奈格外恼火,这种用意式浓缩咖啡和牛奶制成的饮品,似乎是澳大利亚或新西兰传来的。“你去找10个自称的小白咖啡权威来,问他们什么是小白咖啡,至少能得到五种说法,”他说。“这是要让顾客对整个制作过程心生敬畏。”Not everyone who cares about such matters has adopted Mr. Nye’s heck-with-it attitude toward coffee taxonomy. The Instituto Nazionale Espresso Italian, for one, calls for “25 ml espresso and 100 ml steam-foamed milk.” Coffee lovers in Italy believe so strongly in the idea of an authentic cappuccino that in 2007, the head of the nation’s commission on agriculture, Marco Lion, proposed government certification for cafes that make the drink the right way. (The government was dissolved before any action could be taken.)并非所有关心这类问题的人都像奈这样,对咖啡分类学不屑一顾。比如国立意大利浓缩咖啡研究所(Instituto Nazionale Espresso Italian)就呼吁使用“25毫升浓缩咖啡和100毫升蒸汽搅打奶泡”。意大利咖啡爱好者对地道卡布奇诺的理念是十分坚持的,以至于该国农业委员会主席马可·里翁(Marco Lion)在2007年提出,政府应向使用正确制作方法的咖啡馆颁发书。(那届政府还没来得及采取任何举措就解散了。)But the notion of an Italian ideal is dismissed by others. “Even in Italy, it varies,” Mr. Nye said. “The one commonality was that it was small and considered a morning drink.”但有人对所谓意大利完美标准也不以为然。“即使在意大利也是多样的,”奈说。“唯一的共通之处是份量较小,被认为是一种早晨的饮品。”The drink’s origins are likely Austrian, said Andy Smith, a culinary historian at the New School. It went mainstream with the rise of Starbucks, which Howard Schultz bought and began expanding (along with the sizing of cappuccino) in the late 1980s. “They should be given some credit,” Mr. Smith said.新学院(New School)烹饪史学家安迪·史密斯(Andy Smith)说,卡布奇诺可能起源于奥地利。是随着星巴克的崛起而普及起来的,霍华德· 舒尔茨(Howard Schultz)在1980年代末收购了这个品牌,而后越做越大(随之变大的还有卡布奇诺的份量)。“应该是有他们一份功劳的,”史密斯说。Perhaps the best cappuccino is made without the fancy barista work or other trappings. “For perfection,” Mr. Batali said, “see the Italian roadside version of fast food, the Autogrill.”也许最好的卡布奇诺不需要花哨的咖啡师技法或其他装饰。“什么叫完美追求,”巴塔里说。“去看看意大利路边摊版快餐Autogrill。” /201510/402724

  

  

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