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2019年09月22日 14:44:24|来源:国际在线|编辑:飞度健康
Just weeks after everyone seemed to agree that China#39;s renminbi will depreciate this year, it#39;s heading back up again.就在所有人似乎都认定人民币今年将会贬值的几周后,人民币汇率正再度回升。The currency has jumped half a per cent today — its biggest move since March 24, 2014 — to 6.199, its best valuation against the dollar since January 16.人民币兑美元汇率周四上涨0.5个百分点,至1美元兑6.199元人民币。这是自2014年5月24日以来的最高单日涨幅,让人民币汇率升至1月16日以来最高水平。China#39;s renminbi had its best day of 2015 on Wednesday, but policymakers appear to want to see the currency be worth even more.人民币汇率周三的表现为2015年来最佳,但决策者似乎希望看到人民币汇率上涨更多。;The volatility in USDCNY is impressive and speaks to the new trading regime that Chinese policymakers have been successful in encouraging,; said Sacha Tihanyi, currency strategist at Scotiabank.丰业资本(Scotiabank)外汇策略师萨沙#8226;泰汉伊(Sacha Tihanyi)表示:“人民币兑美元汇率的波动令人印象深刻,也明中国决策者一直鼓励的新的交易机制是成功的。”Beijing set the ;fix; — the mid-rate the around which the currency is allowed to trade — at 6.146 today, its lowest in three weeks. A lower fix means a higher renminbi and today it was lowered 16 basis points, the biggest downward move since February 6.中国央行周四将人民币汇率中间价定在6.146美元,为3周来最低。中间价下浮意味着人民币汇率上涨。The People#39;s Bank of China has been guiding the currency towards a higher valuation since the renminbi hit a 28-month low at the end of February.自人民币汇率2月底触及28个月低点以来,中国央行(PBoC)一直在引导汇率走高。The depreciation earlier in the year made intuitive sense: as the economy slows down and its exports are hurt by the surging US dollar (which the renminbi is pegged to), a devaluation in the currency would help with easing efforts.今年早些时候,由于中国经济放缓,同时出口受到美元汇率飙升的冲击,在北京出台宽松政策之际,人民币贬值将对经济有所助益。This was certainly the line of thinking common among analysts. As noted in the FT last week, a recent survey by Société Générale failed to find anyone who thought the renminbi would rise against the dollar in the coming 12 months, while 42 per cent of respondents believed the PBoC would ;actively seek depreciation; of the currency in response to declines in the yen and the euro.这也是分析人士此前的普遍看法。正如英国《金融时报》上周指出的那样,法国兴业(Société Générale)最近的一项调查发现,没有人认为未来12个月人民币兑美元汇率将上涨,而42%的受访者认为,中国央行将“积极寻求贬值”以应对日元和欧元汇率下跌。Instead, the currency is up 0.49 per cent today, following a 0.32 per cent climb yesterday and a 0.2 per cent move up on Tuesday. For many currencies those are tiny moves; for the tightly-controlled renminbi, they are huge (se chart).人民币兑美元汇率今日上涨0.49%,周三和周二分别上涨0.32%和0.2%。对于很多货币而言,这些波动浮动很小;但对于受到严格管制的人民币而言,这是巨幅波动(见下图)。Mr Tihanyi said today#39;s move simply shows the PBoC reacting to overnight gains in other currencies. The US dollar index slumped more than 2 per cent against a range of rivals, so the PBoC followed suit.泰汉伊表示,周四的举措只是表明央行正对其他货币汇率前一夜的上涨做出反应。美元兑其他一揽子货币指数前一夜下跌逾2%,因此中国央行也相应采取措施。;It#39;s very much about the dollar, it#39;s all driven by the Fed, he said.他表示:“这在很大程度上与美元有关,都是由美联储(Fed)推动的。”But more broadly, Beijing is still clamping down on speculative bets about the currency#39;s direction, to create more uncertainty, Mr Tihanyi said. The PBoC#39;s main goal is to increase flexibility in the forex market and normalise the currency.但泰汉伊表示,更广泛地来说,中国仍在打击押注人民币汇率走向以造成更多不确定性的投机活动。中国央行的主要目标是加大外汇市场的灵活性,让人民币汇率走向正常化。Last year, the PBoC deliberately pushed the renminbi lower in ;an engineered squeeze; to spook those who had made one-way bets on the currency, Mr Tihanyi said. This year the PBoC has stepped back, but with the consensus in recent weeks expecting the currency to fall, policymakers have been pushing it the other way.泰汉伊表示,去年,中国央行曾有意推低人民币汇率,以吓退那些单方面押注于人民币升值的投机者。今年,中国央行减少了干预,但在最近几周市场达成共识预测人民币将贬值时,中国决策者再次将人民币汇率推向相反方向。 /201503/365306

Last year will long be remembered as the year when cyber attacks became front page news. No institution was spared — public companies, government agencies or non-profits. Heading into 2015, we have just reached the first mile of a race without a finish line, and time is of the essence when it comes to understanding the sophistication and complexity of cyber attacks.2014年将因屡屡登上头条新闻的网络攻击事件而被人们长期铭记。无论是上市公司、政府机构还是非营利组织,没有哪类机构能够幸免于难。进入2015年,我们只是在维护网络安全这条永无止境的征途上前进了一小步。我们亟需理解网络攻击的复杂性,时不我待。Most cyber attacks fall into one of three main threat types:大多数网络攻击都可归类于以下三种主要的威胁类型:oattacks on a network’s confidentiality, causing theft or release of secure information such as credit card or Social Security numbers;o针对网络机密性的攻击,导致信用卡号或社会保险号等安全信息遭窃或泄露;oattacks on a network’s availability by overwhelming it with so many requests that it renders the site inoperable, or by injecting code that redirects traffic away from the site; ando针对网络可用性的攻击,通过发送大量请求导致网站无法访问,或插入代码改变访问页面的路径;oattacks on a network’s physical integrity which alters or destroys computer code causing damage to the network’s infrastructure.o针对网络物理完整性的攻击,改变或破坏计算机代码,以损毁网络基础设施。In 2015, here are seven resolutions to help protect your company against cyber threats:2015年,你的公司应该在免受网络威胁方面立下7项新年决心:1. Tighten Your Vendor Network1、管理好你的供应商网络If there is one key takeaway from the cyber attacks of 2014 it’s that passwords are dead. Hackers gained access to Fortune 100 companies by stealing passwords and log-in credentials of smaller vendors, including air conditioning and food delivery companies. Replace your single passwords with two-factor authentication or “2FA.” A good example of 2FA is withdrawing money from an ATM – it requires two authentications — your bankcard and your password. Another example is signing on to a Bloomberg terminal, which requires a password and then, using biometrics, requires a fingerprint swipe for a second form of authentication that cannot easily be stolen. You should require 2FA of all vendors or employees who log on to your networks remotely.要从2014年的网络攻击中总结出一个要点,那就是密码被破。黑客通过窃取空调和食品配送公司等小型供货商的密码和书,进入了《财富》100强的公司网络。请修改你的简单密码,采用双重认(2FA)的方式。双重认的一个典型例子就是用卡从自动取款机上取钱——它需要双重认:你的卡和你的密码。另一个例子是登录彭社终端,首先你需要输入密码,然后采用生物测定学技术的系统还会要求你刷指纹进行二次认。想要偷走指纹可不容易。你应该对所有远程进入公司网络的供应商和员工采用双重认方式。2. Detonate Malware2、引爆恶意软件“Spear Phishing” is an easy and effective way to attack a network. Hackers obtain names of your friends from your public social media accounts and then send you a personal note that appears to come from someone you know and trust. When you click on the attachment or link, the email installs “malware” on your network. A solution for malware is “detonation” software. Once an email with malware is opened but before it can leave your network with critical information, it is detonated in a “sandbox” to test whether it is being routed to an inappropriate site.“网络钓鱼”是一种发动网络攻击的简单而有效的方式。黑客从你的社交媒体公共账户获得了你朋友的名字,并伪装成你认识且信任的人给你发私信。当你点开附件或链接,邮件就会把恶意软件装进你的网络。一种应对恶意软件的方法是安装“引爆”软件。一旦带有恶意软件的电子邮件被打开,在它把你的重要信息带走之前,这种软件会先将它扔进“沙盒”中进行引爆测试,看它是否指向了一个不正常的网站。3. Guard Your “Crown Jewels”3、保护你的“王冠”What information matters the most to you? Is it a secret formula, proprietary IP, Social Security or credit card numbers, sensitive health care data or non-public financial information? Once you determine your company’s most important and sensitive information, compartmentalize it from the rest of your technology and network operations.对你来说,什么信息最重要?是秘密配方、专有知识产权、社会保险号、信用卡号、敏感的卫生保健数据,还是非公开的财务信息?一旦你确定了公司最重要和敏感的信息,就把它与其他的技术和网络操作分离开来。4. Develop a Cyber Attack Response Plan – Now4、现在就准备好网络攻击应急计划Develop a plan and practice it regularly. As part of your plan, hire a forensic investigatory firm to review your network and your response plan.准备好应急计划并定期演练。作为计划的一部分,你应当雇佣取调查公司来检查你的网络和应急计划。5. Conduct “Penetration” Tests5、进行“渗透”测试Engage a third-party firm to conduct “penetration tests” to identify weaknesses in your company’s IT network and infrastructure. Based on the findings, make the necessary security improvements and comply with disclosure requirements. For example, the SEC has published guidance regarding the responsibilities of public companies to inform investors about cybersecurity vulnerabilities.邀请一家第三方公司来进行“渗透测试”,找出公司信息技术网络和基础设施中的缺陷。根据结果来进行必要的安全性改进,同时遵守资料公开的要求。比如,根据美国券交易委员会的规定,上市公司有义务告知投资者公司内部存在的网络安全漏洞,该委员会还专门就此发表了一份指南。6. Embrace the Government6、寻求政府的帮助When it comes to cyber attacks, the famous saying that “we are from the government and we are here to help” couldn’t be more true. The U.S. government has been far out front of the business community in understanding the significance of cyber threats. Current and former cabinet officials have warned for years about the risk of a “cyber Pearl Harbor” or “cyber 9/11.” The Secret Service and FBI have repeatedly alerted unaware public companies that their systems were breached — even though neither agency was under any obligation to do so. Don’t wait until after an attack to build relationships with key officials at the FBI, the Department of Homeland Security and the Department of Justice.在网络攻击领域,那句著名的“我们来自政府,我们将施以援手”简直是再正确不过。在理解网络威胁的严重性方面,美国政府要远远领先于商界。现任和前任内阁官员多年来一直警告称,美国有可能遭遇“网络珍珠港”或“网络9o11”袭击。美国特勤局和联邦调查局也在不断提醒毫无觉察的上市公司,他们的系统被攻破了——尽管这些机构并没有这种义务。不要等到自己被攻击之后,才开始同联邦调查局、国土安全部和司法部的核心官员搞好关系。7. Kick the Tires in Mamp;A7、从事并购交易时要审查网络安全Traditionally, the biggest security risk in a merger or acquisition transaction was confidentiality. Increasingly, cyber risk is becoming a critical, and often overlooked, factor. Heed the Department of Homeland Security’s recent warning about cyber risks in companies that you may consider buying or investing in and conduct cyber audits as part of routine due diligence.传统上,并购交易的最大安全隐患在于保密工作。而网络风险正日益成为其中一个重要却被忽视的因素。请注意国土安全部最近发出的网络风险警告,其中也许就包括你正考虑购买或投资的公司。请将网络安全审查作为常规尽职调查的组成部分。In 2014, the focus of many cyber attacks was stolen credit cards and financial crime. In the future, the threat will likely escalate to physical damage of technology networks and infrastructure.在2014年,许多网络攻击的目标都是盗窃信用卡,进行金融犯罪。在未来,这种威胁可能会逐步升级为对技术网络和基础设施的物理性破坏。During the 2014 December holiday season, the German government reported a cyber attack that caused “massive damage” to an iron plant. Utilizing a spear phishing attack, hackers disabled the electronic controls that turned off the plant’s furnaces, causing damage to the entire plant.在2014年12月的假日季,德国政府报道了一起导致钢铁厂“严重损毁”的网络攻击事件。黑客利用网络钓鱼攻击,使得负责关闭熔炉的电子控制系统陷于瘫痪,最终造成整个工厂严重受损。What new forms of cyber attacks will 2015 bring? Don’t wait to find out. Start 2015 off right by implementing these resolutions to help protect your company from ever-present cyber threats.2015年将会有什么新型的网络攻击?不要再被动地等待了。即刻实施这些新年决心,保护你的公司在2015年免受无处不在的网络威胁吧。(财富中文网)Peter J. Beshar is Executive Vice President and amp; General Counsel of Marsh amp; McLennan.本文作者彼得oJ.o贝沙尔是Marsh amp; McLennan公司执行副总裁兼法律总顾问。 /201501/354390

HONG KONG — China is Volkswagen’s single-largest market, and the company vies with General Motors as the country’s biggest automaker. But Volkswagen’s diesel scandal is unlikely to have many repercussions in China.香港——中国是大众汽车(Volkswagen)的最大市场,此外它还在和通用汽车(General Motors)争夺该国最大汽车制造商的地位。但它的柴油丑闻可能不会在这里产生太大影响。That is because Volkswagen sells almost no diesel cars in China — fewer than 1,000 of the three million or so the company sells each year in the country, where gasoline engines reign.这是因为大众在中国销售的车型中几乎没有柴油车——公司每年在中国销售300万辆车,其中不到1000辆是柴油动力;汽油动力汽车是在中国占据绝对优势。It is not for lack of trying on Volkswagen’s part.这并不是因为大众没有尝试过销售柴油车。The company, hoping to replicate its success elsewhere as a diesel leader, lobbied Beijing for the better part of a decade to let it build diesel-powered cars in China. But regulators in China, which imports more than half of its oil, have repeatedly rebuffed those pleas — partly over environmental concerns and partly because the government has preferred to reserve relatively scarce diesel fuel for trucks and farm tractors.为了把作为柴油动力领先者的成功复制到中国来,大众在北京游说了好几年,希望能在中国生产柴油动力车。但在中国,一半以上的石油都是进口的,大众的恳求在监管部门那里屡屡碰壁——部分是环境问题,部分是因为政府想把相对稀缺的柴油留给卡车和农用拖拉机使用。As a result, the only diesel-powered cars Volkswagen sells in China are imported from Europe and are sold mainly to taxi fleets.因此,大众在中国销售的柴油动力车全部都从欧洲进口,主要出售给出租车公司。The environmental concerns have been raised by Chinese regulators who were in frequent contact with American experts, notably at the International Council on Clean Transportation, a nonprofit research group. The council is the same group that documented the performance shortfalls of Volkswagen diesels in the ed States and brought the matter to the Environmental Protection Agency.中国监管部门对柴油动力车相关的环境问题很关心,他们与美国专家频繁接触,尤其是国际清洁交通委员会(International Council on Clean Transportation)的专家。这是一个非营利性的研究机构,正是他们将大众汽车柴油发动机性能不足的问题记录下来,报告给了美国国家环境保护局(Environmental Protection Agency)。American researchers have long been more worried than European experts that diesel emissions might be carcinogenic. In addition, diesel exhaust tends to have more particulates than gasoline engine emissions. Particulates are a big health concern in dusty northern China, and they add to the notoriously bad air pollution in Beijing itself.与欧洲的专家们相比,美国研究人员长期以来更担心的是柴油车排放物致癌的可能性。此外,柴油机废气中的颗粒物通常多于汽油发动机。而在中国北方尘沙天气中,颗粒物是一大健康问题,导致了北京本身就严重的空气污染进一步恶化。Making matters worse is that, until fairly recently, many Chinese refineries lacked the technology to remove much of the naturally occurring sulfur contaminants when they produced diesel from crude oil. The resulting high pollution when diesel was burned as truck fuel made regulators wary of allowing the nation’s fast-growing car fleet to burn diesel as well.更糟糕的是,直至最近,中国的很多炼油厂在从原油中提取柴油时,缺少将自然产生的硫污染物除去的技术。结果便是柴油作为卡车燃料燃烧时产生大量污染,导致监管机构不敢轻易让全国增长最快的小汽车也使用柴油。Another predicament in China for Volkswagen involves Chinese consumers. The car-buying public has long been skeptical of diesels, associating them with tractors and viewing them as unsophisticated. Company executives had long expressed confidence, though, that they could change these perceptions with an energetic advertising and public relations effort — if only they could win permission to mass-produce diesels in China.在中国,大众面临的另一个困难涉及中国消费者。购车者长期对柴油持怀疑态度,会把它和拖拉机联系起来,认为这种车比较低级。但大众的高管一直表示,只要能获准在中国大量生产柴油车,他们有信心通过有力的广告和公关活动来改变这些观念。Diesels have long offered a trade off — higher air pollution, even with cleanly refined diesel, but also better fuel economy. Europe is a market that highly prizes fuel economy, with some of the world’s most stringent gas mileage standards. China and the ed States have somewhat less stringent mileage standards, although they can still be hard for automakers to meet if they produce a lot of big cars and sport utility vehicles. As a European automaker, Volkswagen developed a lot of expertise in building fuel-efficient diesels and started its Chinese diesel lobbying efforts around 2000.很长一段时间以来,柴油车一直是一种权衡的产物。它带来的空气污染更严重,哪怕用的是清洁提炼的柴油,但它的燃油效率也更高。欧洲市场高度重视节燃油经济性,部分油效标准是全世界最严格的。中国和美国的油效标准多少没那么严格,但既便如此,对大量生产大型车辆和运动型多功能车的汽车生产商来说,要达到这些标准也还是有困难的。作为一家欧洲汽车生产商,大众积累了大量生产节能柴油车的专业知识,并在2000年前后开始在中国展开游说行动。Since 2008 or so, though, Volkswagen executives have pushed less hard for Chinese diesels. That may be because they began manufacturing expensive but fuel-efficient models of gasoline engines in China. This enabled the company to meet Chinese fuel-economy standards without needing to resort to diesel engines.但从2008年左右以来,大众高管在中国推销柴油车的力度减弱了。这可能是因为它们开始在中国生产昂贵但却节能的汽油发动机车辆。这让该公司能够不用求助于柴油发动机便达到中国的节油标准。And those three million cars a year it sells in China indicate that the company is still finding buyers, even with the more expensive engines.在中国年销量达300万辆的事实表明,该公司的产品依然有买主,尽管用的是更昂贵的发动机。“After 2008, they did not have a strong motive to promote diesel,” said Yale Zhang, the managing director of Automotive Foresight, a Shanghai consulting firm.“2008年以后,他们已经没有特别强烈的理由去推销柴油车了,”上海咨询公司“汽车市场预测”总监张豫说。 /201509/400280

Thirty years ago, before software began “eating the world,” much of the information in industry was stored on spinning disks—those relatively slow but inexpensive devices reminiscent of record players. A handful of manufacturers competed in that business. The business of relational databases—the software typically used to structure the data as they were stored—was largely dominated by Oracle.30年前,也就是软件还没有“蚕食这个世界”的时候,大量的行业信息都被储存在所谓的“旋转式磁盘”之中。这种存储速度相对较慢,但比较便宜的存储设备,很容易让人回忆起唱片机。在这个领域里竞争的制造商也为数不多。关系数据库(也就是用来构建存储数据的软件)产业,当时基本上是甲骨文公司的天下。Industry hummed along that way for many years. Then it all changed, quickly.整个行业沿着这个方向发展了很多年,但很快一切都变了。First, Apple’s late CEO Steve Jobs refused to continue using spinning drives in the company’s iPod portable music player, choosing instead lighter, more energy-efficient solid-state drives. Given the tremendous volumes of the iPod that were sold at the time, the decision helped drive a movement toward flash memory in consumer devices, says John Vrionis, a partner at Lightspeed Venture Partners. Prices for flash began to fall dramatically. Large businesses and their data centers soon followed.首先是苹果已故CEO史蒂夫o乔布斯不愿继续在iPod便携式音乐播放器中使用旋转式磁盘,转而使用质量更轻,也更节能的固态硬盘。光速创投合伙人约翰o弗里奥尼斯指出,由于当时iPod的销量极大,这项决定推动了闪存在消费电子设备中的使用。闪存的价格也开始显著下降。各大企业和他们的数据中心也很快跟上了这一潮流。“Flash performs like memory, which is 100 times faster than spinning disks, but it’s almost as cheap as disk,” Vrionis says. “You get all the performance benefits of memory, but it costs almost the same as disk.”弗里奥尼斯表示:“闪存的性能与内存相似,但它比旋转式磁盘快100倍,而价格却像硬盘一样便宜。你可以既享受到内存的性能优势,同时享受到几乎像硬盘一样低廉的价格。”Another contributing factor was a gigantic leap in the amount of data that average users were accessing on a given day, supported by the rapid rise of the Internet-connected mobile device. On a consumer level, anyone with a smartphone can relate to the trend; for businesses, the volumes began to get so big as to fall into the territory now known as “big data.”另外一个推动因素,则是普通用户平均每天存取的数据量出现了巨大飞跃,而这主要归功于联网移动设备的快速兴起。在消费者层面上,任何人只要有一部智能手机,都与这种趋势相关。在企业界,数据量开始迅速增大,由此催生了一个现在被称为“大数据”的新兴领域。A final factor was the storage industry’s move to software-defined storage, a kind of storage technique that uses cheap, distributed hardware (rather than massive, centralized boxes) to scale with demand easily and inexpensively. “Just as you want to buy whatever PC you want and then choose the operating system separately, people want to buy hardware and then get the storage software separately,” Vrionis says.最后一个因素是存储行业开始转向软件定义存储,这种存储技术使用了廉价、分散的硬件(而不是集中的大型箱式机)实现了规模效益,可以轻易地并且低成本地满足需求。弗里奥尼斯表示:“就像你可以买任何一台你喜欢的电脑,然后再单独选择操作系统一样,人们也想先买硬件,然后再单独买存储软件。”Put it all together, and what do you get? A storage market ripe for change and a boatload of startups vying to make it happen. “Huge tailwinds are giving all these startups a chance,” Vrionis says. “They’re unstoppable now.”将所有这些趋势聚集在一起,你能得到什么结论?那就是存储市场已经发展到变革的边缘,很多创业公司争相使之发生。弗里奥尼斯认为:“一股巨大的推动力正在给予所有这些创业公司一个机会,他们现在几乎是不可阻挡的。” billion per year每年10亿美元Vrionis’s firm is just one of many that have been betting heavily on enterprise storage startups—including contenders such as DataStax and PernixData, which recently drew fresh funding of 6 million and million, respectively. (Vrionis himself serves on DataStax’s board of directors.)在企业存储领域下了重注的风投还有很多,弗里奥尼斯的公司只是其中之一。在这个领域中竞争的创业公司有DataStax和PernixData等,这两家公司最近刚刚分别拉到了1.06亿美金和3500万美元的投资。(弗里奥尼斯自己就是DataStax公司的董事会成员。)A few other examples that have drawn investment attention in the past few months: Primary Data, which took in million in Series B funding in February; Tintri, which garnered million in Series E funding that same month; Pure Storage, which closed a 5 million Series F round in April; Nutanix, with a 0 million Series E in August; Amplidata, with a million Series E round in September; Formation Data Systems, with a .2 million Series A that month; SolidFire, which closed an million Series D round in October; SwiftStack, whose million Series B round also took place that month; IzumoBase, which raised .4 million in November; Kaminario, whose million Series E took place earlier this month; and DataGravity, which this month closed a million Series C round.除此之外,还有几家公司在过去几个月也吸引了大量投资。比如Primary Data公司在二月的B轮融资中融得1000万美元;Tintri公司也于二月在E轮融资中募得7500万美元;Pure Storage公司四月在F轮融资中筹得2.25亿美元;Nutanix公司在八月份的E轮融资中筹得1.4亿美元;Amplidata公司在九月份的E轮融资中筹得1000万美元;Formation Data Systems公司也于同月在A轮融资中筹得2420万美元;SolidFire公司在十月份的D轮融资中筹得8200万美元;SwiftStack公司在同月的B轮融资中筹得1600万美元;IzumoBase公司在11月融资140万美元;Kaminario公司在本月初的E轮融资中筹得5300万美元;DataGravity公司刚刚在本月的C轮融资中筹得5000万美元。In all, disclosed investment in enterprise-storage startups has amounted to about a billion dollars per year in each of the last few years, says Simon Robinson, a research vice president for storage and information management with 451 Research, which has been covering the space since 2000.451 Research公司自从2000年起就开始关注企业存储领域,该公司的存储与信息管理研究副总裁西蒙o罗宾逊指出,总体来看,在过去几年里,向企业存储类创业公司已披露的投资,基本上每年都能达到10亿美元左右。“You get these waves of startups,” Robinson says. “As soon as you think the industry is done with storage, along comes another wave. It’s been a constant cycle of innovation in the last decade.”罗宾逊表示:“这类初创公司层出不穷,你刚觉得行业的这一波存储潮结束了,马上就会迎来另一波。过去十年,这个领域基本上一直都处于创新期。”Typically, those waves of innovation have each focused on a particular feature, spawning numerous startups playing to a similar theme. “Some wouldn’t last; a couple would be acquired; one or two would do really well and go public,” Robinson says. “Then usually one of the big guys would step in and pay a substantial premium to acquire them.”每一波的创新浪潮基本上都集中于某一特定功能,大量创业公司都在围绕一个类似的主题。罗宾逊指出:“有些创业公司不会持久,有一些会被收购,有一两家公司会做得非常出色,然后上市。然后某家大公司就会踏足进来,花高价收购它们。”Data Domain, for instance, was acquired in 2009 by EMC EMC 1.00% , which snatched up Isilon the following year. Hewlett-Packard HPQ -0.25% bought 3PAR in 2010; Dell acquired Compellent Technologies in 2011. The list goes on.比如Data Domain公司就于2009年被EMC公司收购,就在第二年,EMC又收购了一家名叫Isilon的创业公司。惠普(Hewlett-Packard)则于2010年买下了3PAR公司;戴尔(Dell)于2011年收购了Compellent Technologies公司。类似的收购还有很多。“The thing to bear in mind is that you have five or six big vendors, virtually nobody in middle, and then a whole bunch of startups,” Robinson says. “We haven’t seen a major change in the cast of characters in the last decade.”罗宾逊指出:“需要注意的是,这个领域大约有五六家大厂商,基本上没有人在中游,然后就是一大堆创业公司。在过去10年里,这张‘演员表’基本上没怎么大变。”Dave Wright, SolidFire‘s founder and CEO, says his company grew 700% year over year in 2013 and 50% quarter over quarter this year. He attributes much of that to two “huge waves of change” affecting the industry.SolidFire公司创始人兼CEO戴夫o莱特表示,他的公司2013年的年增率达到700%,而每个季度都比上一季度增长50%。他认为,这主要归功于影响行业的两个“重大的变革浪潮”。The shift to flash and solid-state storage is one of those. “That’s very disruptive—a huge chunk of the storage market is going to move to flash over the next few years,” he says. (SolidFire offers all-flash systems with a focus on scale-out storage for data centers.)首先是向闪存和固态硬盘的转变。他表示:“它非常有颠覆性,在未来几年,存储市场将有相当一部分向闪存转型。”(SolidFire主要提供全闪存系统,同时重点提供数据中心的扩展存储。)At the same time, though, Wright downplays that trend as “a fairly short-term disruptive shift—everybody is doing that,” he says.不过与此同时,莱特也看低这股趋势,认为它只是“一种较为短期的颠覆式转型——人人都在做它。”More interesting from Wright’s perspective is a second major shift: the transition within enterprises from traditional, so-called siloed data infrastructures to cloud-based ones. It’s a change that is affecting the entire industry, but one that “a lot of other startups in the storage space are not really attuned to,” he says. ‘That’s what we think is going to make us more successful in the long term: SolidFire is the only infrastructure purpose-built for this wave of cloud.”从莱特的观点看,更有意思的则是第二个重大转型,也就是企业从传统的所谓孤立式数据架构向云架构的转变。这种转变正在影响整个行业,但是“很多存储类创业公司并没有真正适应这种转变。”他还表示:“这就是我们为什么认为我们在长期会更加成功,因为SolidFire是目前唯一专门为云计算浪潮构建的专用架构。”‘Looking for simplicity’寻找简单性Part of the challenge for storage startups today is to simplify what has become an inordinately complex and fragmented landscape, Robinson says. It’s the result of a lot of feature-focused research and development over the last decade.罗宾逊认为,如今存储类创业公司面临的挑战之一,是要简化过去那种非常复杂和碎片化的格局。它正是过去十年很多以功能为重点的研发所造成的结果。“Big companies have lots of storage systems, each of which serves a particular purpose,” he says. “The challenge that organizations are having now is not just the data growth, but managing that environment, which may consist of seven or eight storage silos with huge complexity.”他表示:“大公司有很多存储系统,其中每个系统都务于一个特定的用途。企业所面临的挑战不仅仅是数据量的增长,还有如何管理这种环境,因为这些系统可能包括了七八个独立的存储系统,极其复杂。”Simplicity is a new goal, in other words. The trend has led to an industry preference for more all-encompassing approaches. “Converged” (which combines storage and compute in a single device) and “hyper-converged” (which combines storage, compute, networking, and virtualization in a single device) models reflect the shift. Robinson points to Nutanix and Formation Data Systems as notable contenders.换句话说,简单性是一个新的目标。这种趋势使得整个行业开始青睐那些“万金油”式的方案。所谓的“融合”模式(将存储和计算整合到一台设备上)和“高度融度”模式(将存储、计算、网络和虚拟化整合到同一台设备上)的流行也反映了这种转变。罗宾逊指出,Nutanix和Formation Data Systems公司是这方面的两个值得注意的竞争者。Meanwhile, the flood of apps—internal and customer-facing, and often mobile—continues unabated, increasing pressure on businesses to achieve better performance and speed from the databases and storage systems that underpin those applications.与此同时,应用软件的热潮(包括内部应用、面向顾客的应用,往往还有移动应用)依然没有减退,这也加大了企业的压力,迫使它们不得不提高数据库和存储系统的性能和速度。“Every second of latency can cost you 10 percent of conversions, and it’s getting worse on mobile, where the network has its own built-in latency,” says Matt Murphy, a general partner at Kleiner Perkins Caufield amp; Byers. (KPCB invested in both DataStax and PernixData; Murphy serves on PernixData’s board.) “If you can cut off a second or half a second, there’s millions or hundred of millions of dollars in opportunity there in play. At all layers—storage, compute, network—everyone is trying to figure out how to get that extra edge.”Kleiner Perkins Caufield amp; Byers公司(该公司是DataStax和PernixData公司的投资方,其合伙人墨菲也是PernixData的董事会成员)的合伙人马特o墨菲指出:“每一秒钟的延迟都可能让你损失10%的客户,在移动端则更严重,因为移动网络本来就有延迟。如果你可以把延迟减少一秒或半秒,就拥有了可能赚几百万甚至上亿美元的机会。在存储、计算和网络等所有层面上,每家公司都在想方设法地获得这种额外优势。”The question is which technologies and vendors will best deliver that edge. Lightspeed’sVrionis contends that newcomers to the scene have an advantage over incumbents, which are still “staring at yesterday’s problems and not able to take a blank sheet of canvas.” (One of those incumbents, Oracle, did not respond to Fortune‘s request for comment.)现在的问题是:哪些技术和哪些厂商能够最好地将这种优势带给客户?光速创投公司的弗里奥尼斯也认为,这个领域的新进者其实比守成者更有优势,因为“守成者们仍然盯着昨天的问题,不能毅然扬帆前进。”(其中的一个“守成者”甲骨文公司并没有回复《财富》的请求。)Henry Baltazar, a senior analyst with Forrester Research, agrees. “The big guys are finally catching up, but they left the door open for too long,” he says. “Now it’s a battle.”福雷斯特研究公司的高级分析师亨利o巴尔塔扎尔也表示:“大公司最终会赶上来,但是他们给创业公司留了太长时间的空子。现在,战争开始了。”(财富中文网) /201501/351915

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