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楼主:医苑社区 时间:2020年01月18日 04:07:40 点击:0 回复:0
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There is clearly a range of materials that constitute healthy food.一个健康的饮食方式中有许多不同食物But theres nevertheless a clear distinction between food and poison.但从没有人会把食物和毒物搞错The fact that there are many right answers to the question, ;What is food?;当我们问“什么是食物?”的时候,有许多正确does not tempt us to say that there are no truths to be known about human nutrition.并不会阻止我们去研究营养学,找出更多事实Many people worry that a universal morality would require moral precepts that admit of no exceptions.许多人担心普世道德必须有一种严厉的基本教义,不允许例外So, for instance, if its really wrong to lie, it must always be wrong to lie,比如说,说谎是错误的,说谎永远是错误的and if you can find an exception, well then theres no such thing as moral truth.如果你能找到例外的话,这就不是真正的道德Why would we think this? Consider, by analogy, the game of chess.为什么我们会这样想?让我们以国际象棋为例Now, if youre going to play good chess, a principle like, ;Dont lose your Queen,; is very good to follow.如果你想玩一盘漂亮的国际象棋,“别失去你的皇后”是一个很好的原则But it clearly admits some exceptions.但它也有例外There are moments when losing your Queen is a brilliant thing to do.在某些时候牺牲皇后是一种很漂亮的打法There are moments when it is the only good thing you can do.在某些必要时刻,那是你唯一能做的And yet, chess is a domain of perfect objectivity.但国际象棋是一个绝对客观的游戏The fact that there are exceptions here does not change that at all.就算在棋局中允许例外,也不会改变这个事实Now, this brings us to the sorts of moves that people are apt to make in the moral sphere.在这个道德的场域里,有些事是我们应该做的Consider the great problem of womens bodies: What to do about them?想想女性身体政治,我们该怎么做?Well this is one thing you can do about them: You can cover them up.有个方法是,你可以把它们盖起来201609/464125Good morning and welcome: welcome to my colleagues here on stage, to the family members who have joined us today, and – especially – to the Yale College Class of 2020.2020 – 2020 is a term that inevitably brings to mind perfect eyesight. And now that all of you are wearing 2020 as your class label in Yale College, I am confident your intuition and your mental acuity will develop here to an equivalent level of strength. The admissions office assures me that everything possible has been done to guarantee this outcome.Nonetheless, Id like to reflect on your ;first day of school; about what might impede your insight and what might advance it in the course of your education here.For many years, I taught introductory psychology to a large number of freshmen. In the part of the course devoted to social psychology, I would ask my students to consider what we know about helping others in various kinds of social situations. Specifically, why is it that we offer assistance, or fail to offer assistance, in emergencies?I would begin with the tragic and well-known case of Kitty Genovese, a twenty-nine-year-old woman who lived in Kew Gardens, Queens, and was murdered there in 1964. Her case received enormous attention and commentary, and you have probably heard some version of her story. As reported in the New York Times, thirty-eight individuals watched the murder from their apartment windows, but only one called the police, and by then it was too late.Over the years, I have described this shocking incident many times. So have other social psychologists teaching similar courses, and so did the social scientists who sought to explain how witnesses could exhibit such callous indifference to a horrific crime taking place before their eyes.Heres the trouble: the standard account of the Kitty Genovese case is wrong in some of its crucial details.Kittys brother, Bill Genovese, produced a film last year, maybe some of you have seen it, called The Witness. In it, he documents that some bystanders were not indifferent: one witness shouted out the window at the attacker, another witness held Kitty in her arms as she died, and several called the police during the attack.So what does it mean that social scientists have been retelling an incorrect version of this story for over fifty years as a paradigmatic example of extreme bystander indifference? Well, among other things, it means that inadvertently we have been perpetuating what could rightly be called a false narrative – a version of events that, while partly true, had been shaped, in this case by a newspaper report, to elicit strong negative emotions like anger, like fear, like disgust.201609/466885Read that again. This is what we hear when you mourn over our existence.听仔细了,当你们抱怨我们的存在,我们听到的就是这个意思。This is what we hear when you pray for a cure-that your fondest wish for us is that someday we will cease to be and strangers you can love will move in behind our faces.你们祈祷奇迹出现的时候,我们听到的是你们衷心希望,总有一天我们将不复存在。和我们长着相同面孔的陌生人将会取代我们,得到你们所有的爱。Its a very extreme point of view,这是一个非常极端的观点,but it points to the reality that people engage with the life they have and they dont want to be cured or changed or eliminated.但它指出了一个现实,人们有自己的生活,他们不想要被治愈或改变或消灭。They want to be whoever it is that theyve come to be.他们希望,不管是谁,都能保有与生俱来的天性。One of the families I interviewed for this project was the family of Dylan Klebold who was one of the perpetrators of the Columbine massacre.为了这个项目我采访了迪伦科莱柏德的家庭,迪伦柯莱柏德是哥伦拜恩校园惨案的罪犯之一。It took a long time to persuade them to talk to me,and once they agreed, they were so full of their story that they couldnt stop telling it.我花了很长的时间说他们跟我对话,他们同意了,有太多的故事,一开口就无法停下来。And the first weekend I spent with them-the first of many-I recorded more than 20 hours of conversation.我第一次和他们共度周末,后来还有许多次,我录了20 多个小时的谈话内容。And on Sunday night, we were all exhausted.到了周日晚上,大家都精疲力竭。We were sitting in the kitchen. Sue Klebold was fixing dinner.我们坐在厨房里,苏在做晚饭。And I said, If Dylan were here now,我说,如果现在,迪伦还在这里,do you have a sense of what youd want to ask him?你们想要问他些什么?And his father said, I sure do.他的父亲说,当然。Id want to ask him what the hell he thought he was doing.我想问问他,究竟为什么这样做。And Sue looked at the floor, and she thought for a minute.苏望着地板,思考了一会儿。And then she looked back up and said,I would ask him to forgive me for being his mother and never knowing what was going on inside his head.然后抬起头来说,我会请他原谅。我不是合格的好母亲,从来不知道他的脑袋里想的是些什么。When I had dinner with her a couple of years later-one of many dinners that we had together-she said, You know, when it first happened,几年后,我再度与她吃晚餐,那是我们曾经许多共同的晚餐之一她说,你知道,当事情发生的时候,I used to wish that I had never married, that I had never had children.我曾经希望我没有结过婚,也没有孩子。201603/434268VOA流行美语 106: racket/That does it今天Larry和李华在学校的书店里买书。李华会学到两个常用语:racket和That does it!(Bookstore SFX)LH: Hey, Larry, 你不是想买下学期的课本吗?那还不趁我们在书店赶紧买了?LL: I want to buy them, but these prices are ridiculous! The textbook business is such a racket!LH: 你想买书,可是又嫌这些书太贵呀?你还说出版课本的行业怎么啦?什么是a racket?LL: That's right. I said the textbook business is a racket. A "racket" is an unfair criminal business that makes lots of money, like gambling or extortion.LH: Oh, racket这个词在这里的意思是“牟取暴利”,就好比和诈骗一样的非法行为。Larry,你的意思是这些课本定价过高,就象是在敲诈勒索,有那么严重吗?LL: Absolutely! Look at this! This history book costs ?! The publishers know we have no choice but to buy the book, so the prices are really high. What a racket!LH: 哎哟,还真是的。这本历史书要卖九十美元,是够贵的。那些出版商明明知道我们没别的办法,只能买这些书,所以把价钱定这么高。这真是像敲诈勒索。那Larry, 你觉得还有什么是racket呢?LL: I think that cable TV is a racket. There's only one company in town; they are always raising prices, and all the channels worth watching cost extra. It's a racket!LH: 对呀,我们这儿只有一家提供有线电视的公司。他们老是涨价。可是Larry, 看不看电视问题不大。你知道吗 - 有的医院还趁人之危,敲诈勒索妇呢!LL: Really? What do you mean exactly?LH: 比方说,我听说有的医院让妇做一些不必要的检查,收的钱还非常多,那些妇不懂,只能听医生的。这真是和诈骗一样。LL: Wow, now that's a real racket.******LL: Oh man, look at this! for a book of old essays on U.S. Politics? That does it! I'm buying my textbooks online.LH: 这本美国政治论文集要卖85美元?你说 - "That does it"? 这是什么意思?LL: Well, when someone says "That does it", he means that he is so upset that he is no longer willing to accept something.LH: 噢,"That does it"就是一个人对某件事非常生气,以致到了宁可放弃的地步。 哎,那不就相当于中文所说的“得了,算了吧”?Larry, 你是说这些课本要价太高,所以你干脆不在这儿买,到因特网上去买了?LL: That's right! If a situation gets so bad that you cannot stand it, you can yell "that does it!", and then do something about the problem.LH: Hmm... 要是你实在觉得忍无可忍,你就可以大声说:That does it!哎,Larry, 我好象明白这个用法了,可是你能不能再给我举个例子呢?LL: Well, for example, if an employee always comes to work late, one day the boss might say "You're late again? That does it! You're fired!"LH: Ah. 这正是我对我表说的话。她每天上班都迟到。我对她说总有一天他老板会觉得忍无可忍。你的老板会说:“得了,你今后别来上班了。”原来在英文里就可以说:"That does it! You're fired!"LL: Now you know how to use "That does it!" Why don't you give me an example.LH: 有了,Larry,有一天你会在照镜子的时候对自己说, "That does it! 我一定要减肥了!"LL: (Angry) That does it, Li Hua! I told you to stop making fun of my weight.LH: Hey! 别生气,Larry! 我是跟你开玩笑呢!而且我发现你最近好像瘦了。你是不是在吃什么减肥食品啊?LL: A special diet? No way! All those diet books and special foods are a racket. I just decided to exercise regularly and eat less junk food.LH: 这话我同意,那些减肥书和减肥食品都很贵,主要是为了骗钱,其实最重要的是锻炼身体,少吃零食。Good for you, Larry!今天李华从Larry那儿学到了两个常用语。一个是racket, 意思是价格太高,就象敲诈勒索一样。另一个常用语是That does it! 中文里可以说“得了,不干了!” /200602/3326

This is the Ministry of Justice.这是司法部。Behind that door is the National Judicial Archives.那扇门后是国家司法档案馆。The fellow in the door, Andre Filitrault --门旁站着的是安德烈·菲利亚特罗,whos the director of the Center for Interdisciplinary Earthquake Engineering Research at the University of Buffalo --他是布法罗大学跨学科地震工程研究中心的负责人,was examining it to see if it was safe to recover the archives.他正在检查这栋建筑,以确认是否可以安全的重建档案馆。Andre told me,安德烈告诉我,after seeing these buildings fail again and again in the same way, that there is no new research here.在看到这些建筑不断的以同种方式倒下后,这儿没什么新的发现了。There is nothing here that we dont know.没什么我们不知道的了。The failure points were the same:问题的根源是相同的--walls and slabs not tied properly into columns --墙和楼板之间没有用柱子正确的连接起来--thats a roof slab hanging off the building -- cantilevered structures,这是挂在建筑上的天台楼板--悬臂式结构,or structures that were asymmetric,或是非对称结构,that shook violently and came down,剧烈摇晃并垮塌,poor building materials, not enough concrete,低劣的建筑材料,没有足够的混凝土,not enough compression in the blocks, rebar that was smooth,块与块之间没有足够的压缩空间,螺纹钢表面光滑,rebar that was exposed to the weather and had rusted away.螺纹钢暴露在空气中并已经生锈了。Now theres a solution to all these problems.现在对所有这些问题有个解决方案。And we know how to build properly.我们知道如何进行适当的建设。The proof of this came in Chile, almost a month later,明来自智利,大约一个月后,when 8.8 magnitude earthquake hit Chile.当时8.8级的地震袭击了智利。That is 500 times the power of the 7.0 that hit Port-au-Prince --五百倍与7.0级地震的力量袭击了太子港--500 times the power, yet only under a thousand casualties.五百倍的能量,然而只造成了低于一千的伤亡。Adjusted for population density,考虑到人口密度,that is less than one percent of the impact of the Haitian quake.这次地震造成的影响小于海地地震的百分之一。What was the difference between Chile and Haiti?智利与海地之间有什么不同?Seismic standards and confined masonry,抗震标准和砖石结构,where the building acts as a whole --建筑物作为一个整体--walls and columns and roofs and slabs tied together to support each other --墙、柱子、屋顶和楼板连接在一起,相互撑,instead of breaking off into separate members and failing.以免断裂成块,坠落下来。If you look at this building in Chile,你看看智利的这栋建筑,its ripped in half, but its not a pile of rubble.它裂成两半,但并没有变成一堆瓦砾。Chileans have been building with confined masonry for decades.智利人用砖混结构建筑房屋已经有几十年了。201605/444924

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