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浙江湖州市激光治疗痤疮价格湖州妇保医院去疤多少钱Music and shopping音乐与购物Beware of Beethoven谨防贝多芬What you hear affects what you buy online你所听到的会影响你在网上购物时的选择EVER since Muzak started serenading patrons of hotels and restaurants in the 1930s, piped-in music has been part of the consumer experience. Without the throb of a synthesiser or a guitars twang, shoppers would sense something missing as they tried on jeans or filled up trolleys. Specialists like Mood Media, which bought Muzak in 2011, devise audio programmes to influence the feel of shops and cater to customers tastes. The idea is to entertain, and thereby prolong the time shoppers spend in stores, says Claude Nahon, the firms international chief. Music by famous artists works better than the generic stuff that people associate with Muzak. The embarrassing brand name was dropped in 2013.自从19世纪30年代Muzak开始为酒店和餐厅提供背景音乐开始,耳边回荡着的音乐就成了消费者体验的一部分。消费者在试穿牛仔裤或往购物车里挑商品的时候,一旦没有混音器的震动作响或吉他的琴音,就会似乎觉得缺少了点什么。此类专业公司如Mood Media,设计音频方案以影响顾客对商店的感觉,迎合消费者的品味,且其在2011年收购了Muzak。该公司的国际业务总监Claude Nahon说这一创意是为了使消费者感到愉悦,并因此延长消费者留在商店里的时间。比起普通的音乐,著名艺术家的音乐能更好的使消费者与背景音乐建立联系。这一尴尬的品牌名称在2013年被放弃。Online shopping is an under-explored area of merchandising musicology. A new study commissioned by eBay, a shopping website, aims to correct that. Some 1,900 participants were asked to simulate online shopping while listening to different sounds. Some results were unsurprising. The noise of roadworks and crying babies soured shoppers views of the products on offer. Chirruping birds encouraged sales of barbecues but not blenders or board games.网上购物是销售音乐学有待开发的一个领域。由购物网站eBay委托进行的一项新研究就是为了完善它。约1900名参与者被要求在不同的背景声音下模拟网上购物。一些结果并不让人意外。道路施工的噪音以及婴儿的哭声让顾客对所提供的商品感到失望。鸟的叽喳声有利于烧烤工具的销售而不利于搅拌机或棋盘类游戏的销售。Sounds associated with quality and luxury seemed to be hazardous for shoppers wallets. The study found classical music and restaurant buzz caused them to overestimate the quality of goods on offer and to pay more than they should. That backs up earlier research which found that shoppers exposed to classical music in a wine store bought more expensive bottles than those hearing pop.与品质和奢华相联系的声音似乎可以使顾客的钱包大出血。研究发现古典音乐和餐厅的杂音可以使顾客高估所提供的商品的质量,并使他们的花销比本应该的更多。这一点持了一个早期研究发现:在酒行里,暴露在古典音乐中的顾客会比听着流行乐的顾客购买更贵的酒。EBay wants consumers to avoid such unhealthy influences when shopping online. It has blended birdsong, dreamy music and the sound of a rolling train—thought to be pleasant but not overly seductive—to help them buy more sensibly. Retailers could presumably counter by cranking up the Chopin. “Classical music does seem to be the way to go” if your only interest is the narrow one of squeezing as much money as possible from your clientele, says the studys author, Patrick Fagan, a lecturer at Goldsmiths, part of the University of London.EBay希望消费者在网购时能够避免这些不健康的影响。混合了鸟鸣、梦幻般的音乐以及火车转轮声的音频—被认为是令人愉悦的,但不过于诱人的音乐—使得顾客购保持理智的同时又购买更多的商品。零售商们想必会通过把播放着肖邦音乐的音箱声音调大来彼此竞争。Patrick Fagan,伦敦大学分部—金史密斯学院的讲师,该研究报告的作者称:“古典音乐似乎就是正确的选择”,如果你唯一的兴趣就是狭隘的想要从你的客户身上榨取尽可能多的钱。Few traditional shops are likely to use that tactic. Hamp;M, a clothes retailer, airs “trendy, up-tempo” music from new artists, while Nespressos coffee boutiques go for “lounge-y” sounds, says Mr Nahon. Grocery stores, with a broad following, play top 40 hits. The tempo tends to be slower in the mornings, when shoppers are sparser and older, and becomes more allegro as the day goes on.很少有传统商店会使用这一策略。Nahon先生说,装零售商Hamp;M会播放来自新兴艺术家的“新潮,快节奏”的音乐,而雀巢咖啡精品店会选择“lounge-y”这类懒洋洋的音乐。有着广泛顾客群的杂货商店会播放排行榜前40名的单曲。早上,顾客比较稀少且多为老年人时,就播放节奏舒缓的音乐,而随后逐渐变快。Using the classics to set tills ringing may not be an option, but audio architects are thinking up new tricks for bricks-and-mortar stores. Mood Media is experimenting with an inaudible “digital tag”, attached to in-store soundtracks, which activates an app on shoppers phones. The app can tempt them with discounts or provide more information about products. With luck, this will trigger more sales than a blast of Beethoven.使用传统方式把收银机设置收银扫描时会响的模式可能不是一个好的选择,但是音频架构师正为实体店铺构思新策略。Mood Media正在试验一种无声数字标签,其与店内背景音乐联系在一起,且其可激活顾客手机上的一个应用程序。此应用程序可以提供折扣吸引顾客购买或为顾客提供更多产品信息。幸运的话,这将比贝多芬一段激荡的音乐引发更高的销售量。 /201408/324202湖州德清县减肥医院哪家好 Science and technology科学技术Medical technology医学技术Skin deep肌肤之下A better way to diagnose skin cancers诊断皮肤癌的更好方法DERMATOLOGISTS are good at spotting unusual bits of skin that might or might not be cancers.皮肤病医学家擅长发现一小块异常皮肤是否有患癌症的可能性。Testing whether they actually are, though, is quite literally a bloody pain.但是,要检查出是否真患癌症的确会让人感到出血之痛。For a piece of skin to be identified as malignant or benign it must be cut out and sent to a laboratory for examination under a microscope.因为要鉴定一块皮肤是恶性还是良性,就必须剪下来,然后送到实验室的显微镜下检验。But a team of researchers led by Rainer Leitgeb, a physicist at the Medical University of Vienna, hope to change that.但是,由维也纳医科大学物理学家Rainer Leitgeb带领的研究小组希望改变这个现状。As they describe in Biomedical Optics Express, Dr Leitgeb and his colleagues are exploring a technique called optical coherence tomography, which they think will allow skin cancer to be diagnosed in situ.正如他们在《生物医学快报》上所描述的那样,Leitgeb士和他的同事正在探寻光学相干断层成像术。在他们看来,使用这种技术能在原皮肤上进行皮肤癌诊断。OCT is a form of optical echolocation. It works by sending infra-red light into tissues and analysing what bounces back.OCT的原理是光学回声定位,先向身体组织发射红外线,The behaviour of the reflected rays yields information on the structures that they collided with.然后再分析反射回来的红外线。That, Dr Leitgeb hoped, could be used to generate a map of features just beneath the surface of the skin.Leitgeb士希望,这能用来绘制显示皮肤表面下特征的地图。Similar technology has been employed for nearly two decades by eye doctors and Dr Leitgeb felt that, with a bit of tinkering, it should work for skin as well.相似的技术应用于眼科已有将近二十年的历史。Leitgeb士认为,经过小小的改进,也能用于皮肤科。The OCT systems operated by ophthalmologists use low-power lasers which produce light with a wavelength of 850 nanometres.眼科医生操作的OCT系统使用的是低功率激光器,能够发出850纳米波长的光线,这刚好超出了眼睛视杆视锥层可感光的范围。That is just beyond the range detectable by the rods and cones of the eye, and is thus ideal for probing that organ without discomforting the patient.因此,既能够完成眼睛检查而又不给病人带来不适感,用这种激光再合适不过了。Skin, however, is insufficiently transparent at this wavelength, so one thing Dr Leitgeb had to do was change it.但是,皮肤在这种波长下还不够透明,因此Leitgeb士所要做的就是进行改变。Another thing which had to change was the speed at which the laser operates. In the ophthalmological system, images are built up from a series of pulses.除此之外,还需要改变激光器发射的速度。眼科用的是脉冲成像的方法。The more of these the laser sends in, the more light returns to the device and the higher the resolution of the resulting image.激光器发射进去的激光越多,反射出来的光线也就越多,所成像的分辨率也就越高。However, that image must be built up quickly, otherwise movement of the tissue being illuminated will blur it.但是,必须迅速建构图像,否则受到照射的组织就会运动,使图像变得模糊不清。For eyes, between 20,000 and 60,000 bursts a second is enough.用于眼镜检查的脉冲每秒2万至6万就足够了。But to photograph blood vessels inside skin Dr Leitgeb knew more would be needed. In the end, he commissioned a group of researchers at Ludwig-Maximilians University in Germany to design an instrument which produces light with a wavelength of 1,300 nanometres and has the ability to fire 440,000 pulses a second.士最终委托德国慕尼黑大学的一个研究小组设计了能够每秒产生1300纳米波长、44万脉冲的激光器。 With their new laser in hand, Dr Leitgeb and his colleagues set up an experiment that let them test the system on a range of skin conditions, including a healthy human palm, allergy-induced eczema on the forearm, inflammation of the forehead, and two previously diagnosed cases of basal-cell carcinoma.有了新的激光器,Leitgeb士和他的同事就开始进行实验,在不同状况的皮肤上测试人的器官系统,包括无任何疾病的手掌,前臂上过敏引起的湿疹皮肤,前额上有炎症的皮肤以及之前诊断过的两例基底细胞癌。They expected to see normal blood vessels in the healthy palm, increased perfusion caused by dilated and altered vessels in the eczema and the inflammation, and a chaotic jumble of vessels feeding the cancers.他们期待看到的结果是:无疾病手掌下的血管是正常的;前臂上的湿疹和有炎症的前额下的血管由于扩张和形变造成了灌注量的增加;而为癌细胞供血的血管乱七八糟扭成一团。And that is exactly what they did see.他们所看到的结果也正是如此。Moreover, the images of the vessels supplying blood to the tumours were good enough to allow them to calculate blood-flow rates.此外,供血给肿瘤的血管的图像十分清晰,他们还能计算出血流流速。That, Dr Leitgeb suggests, could also help treatment by allowing doctors to identify the times during their development when tumours are most vulnerable to starvation by having their blood supply cut off.士认为,这对治疗也有帮助:医生能通过该方式鉴定肿瘤发展中最易因切断血液供给而饿死的阶段。 /201401/274241湖州曙光整形美容医院做隆鼻手术好吗

湖州那里做做双眼皮好湖州祛眼袋要多少钱 Business商业报道Consultancy firms咨询公司Strategic moves战略举措Big consulting and accounting firms are making a risky move into strategy work大型的咨询和财务公司正在战略上铤而走险OPERATIONS consultants sit at the front of the classroom, says a partner at a strategy consultancy. Strategy consultants stay in the back, not paying attention, throwing paper airplanes.一家战略咨询公司的合伙人说:运营顾问坐在教室的前排,战略顾问坐在教室的后排投掷纸飞机,But they still get the girls and get rich. Like so many caricatures, this one is cruel but contains a grain of truth.尽管没人搭理,可是他们仍然能金钱美女双收。和众多的讽刺漫画一样,尽管残忍,它却道出了事实。Operations consultants—the fine-detail guys who tinker with businesses internal processes to make them run better.运营顾问是一些细节家伙们,他们对贸易的内部流程进行粗略的处理,以使其运行更流畅。generally do not enjoy the same glamour or financial rewards as strategy specialists, whose job is to advise firms on make-or-break deals, adopting new business models and other big stuff.一般来说他们不如战略专家抢手,也没有他们赚钱多。战略专家则是负责建议公司做孤注一掷的交易,采用新的商业模式或者其他大型事务。Although in practice their work overlaps, the two have until now remained distinct businesses.尽管在实际中他们的工作有重叠的部分,可是这两者至今仍泾渭分明。Strategy firms like McKinsey, Bain and the Boston Consulting Group hire from the top universities, are packed with highly paid partners and whisper their counsel in CEOs ears.战略公司,比如麦肯锡,贝恩和波士顿咨询公司,他们从顶尖大学雇佣大量的高薪员工,专门给总裁出谋划策。In contrast, operations specialists such as IBM, Accenture and the Big Four accounting firms employ armies of lower-paid grunts; and tend to answer to the client firms finance or tech chiefs.相反的,譬如IBM、埃森哲咨询公司和四大会计师事务所这样的操作专家则雇佣低薪大军,往往他们却做上了客户公司的财务或技术主管。This year, however, that line has begun to blur.然而今年,他们的界限就变得模糊了。In January Deloitte became the largest of the Big Four by scooping up the assets of Monitor, a strategy firm that had gone bust.一月,德勤公司通过收购破产的战略公司莫尼托成了四大会计师事务所之一。And on October 30th its closest rival, PwC, said it would buy another strategy firm, Booz amp; Company, for a reported billion.十月三十号它最有力的竞争者普华永道会计师事务所宣称将斥资十亿美元收购另外一家战略公司斯公司。If Boozs partners approve the deal, it will vault PwC back into first place.如果斯的合伙人批准了这笔交易,这将会帮助普华永道重登第一宝座。The accountancies push into strategy has been a decade in the making.会计师们推进战略的形成已经十个年头了。During the late-1990s technology bubble they beefed up their IT-consulting arms.20世纪90年代末期,科技的进步使得他们不得不加强他们的IT咨询武器。But in 2001 Enron, an energy-trading firm, went bust and took its auditor, Arthur Andersen, down with it.但是2001年一家能源交易公司安然破产了,它的审计员也被拖下水了。In response, Americas Congress passed the Sarbanes-Oxley corporate-governance reform, which banned firms from doing systems consulting for companies they audited.于是,美国国会通过了萨班斯-奥克斯利公司监管改革法案,该法案禁止企业为他们审计的公司做系统的咨询。As a consolation prize, the Big Four made a fortune helping clients comply with the new law.作为安慰奖,四大会计师事务所通过帮助顾客遵守新的法律而大发横财。Their advisory businesses, full of potential for conflicts of interest with their auditing side, by now seemed dispensable.他们的咨询业务与他们的审计方面充满了潜在的利益冲突,现在看来也是可有可无了。All but Deloitte had sold off those divisions by 2003.除了德勤其他会计师事务所都在2003年前处理掉了这些部门。Just as the workload from Sarbanes-Oxley began to dwindle, the 2008-09 financial crisis hit, causing consulting revenues to dip.正如萨班斯-奥克斯利法案的出台减少了工作量,2008年到年的金融危机的冲击造成了咨询工资的减少。But once the economy recovered, the climate for the Big Four started to resemble the 1990s.而一旦经济复苏,四大会计师事务所又会像20世纪90年代那样如日中天。They began to rush back into consultancy, encouraged by its high margins and double-digit annual growth rates at a time when revenue growth from auditing and tax work had slowed.当审计和税收工作的工资增长缓慢而咨询的工资年翻一番时,受高利润的诱惑,他们又开始重操旧业。In particular, Deloitte and PwC began gobbling up operations consultancies as they sparred for the top spot.尤其是德勤和普华永道,在坐上头把交椅的过程中,他们狼吞虎咽一般并购咨询公司。For years the strategy firms remained beyond the Big Fours grasp.几年里战略公司都不被四大巨头看重。During the 2000s they had mostly prospered on their own, and their partners shuddered at the thought of being subsumed into giant bureaucracies.2000年里它们自己昌盛了,他们的合伙人想到要卷入复杂的官僚政治就战战兢兢。After the financial crisis, however, midsized strategy consultants hit hard times.然而金融危机之后,中型战略咨询公司遇上了寒冬。Cost-conscious companies with globalising businesses wanted either to hire boutiques with deep knowledge of their industries, or to benefit from the scale of generalist firms with offices everywhere.注重节约成本的全球化企业要么雇佣有着丰富行业知识的精品店,要么就从到处都有办公室的多面手公司的规模上受益。Too big for some clients and too small for others, Monitor went under, and Booz—a spin-off from Booz Allen Hamilton, which now focuses on operations work for governments—went on the block.像莫尼托这样不大不小的公司倒闭了,而现在将重心放在操作工作上的斯艾伦的子公司斯则继续步履维艰。Both Booz and PwC say that the two sides of consulting are converging, and that more clients want a one-stop shop that can both devise a strategy and execute it.斯和普华永道都表示双方正在合并中,而且更多的客户都表示想要既能出谋划策又能去实行策略的一站式商店。Deloitte and Monitor claim their integration is aly bearing fruit.德勤和莫尼托则宣称他们的合并已经初见成效,Theres been a very healthy two-way cross-selling opportunity, says Mike Canning of Deloitte.德勤的迈克坎宁说:双方有着非常良好的交叉销售的机遇。Nonetheless, Boozs leadership still faces a hard sell to get the deal passed.尽管如此,斯的领导地位仍面临一笔艰难的交易的完成。In 2010 the companys partners voted down a proposed merger with AT Kearney, another midsized strategy firm. This marriage involves far more risks.2010年,斯的合作伙伴投票否决了合并另一家中型战略公司科尼尔的决议。A significant number of Boozs clients would immediately be in doubt because PwC audits them—strategy consulting for audit clients is banned in many countries, and even where it is legal it is frowned upon.这桩联姻的风险大得多。相当一部分斯的客户立马就会犹疑,因为普华永道审计他们,在很多国家替审计客户作战略咨询是明令禁止的,即使合法也是令人不悦的。Since the Big Four are structured as associations of national partnerships, Boozs staff would probably end up being divided by country, hindering the global co-operation that many big clients seek.由于四大巨头是国家合作伙伴组织,斯的员工最终可能被国家分开,阻碍许多大客户寻觅的全球合作商机。Most important, each of Boozs 300 partners would have to trade meaningful sway over the direction of a highly profitable firm for a minuscule stake in a diversified, lower-margin empire.最重要的是,为了从高盈利的公司转化成一个极小的股权多元的、低利润的帝国,斯的300个合作伙伴每一个都要作有意义的贸易。If the sale is approved, the test of its success will come in a few years, after Boozs partners receive their full payout and can head off.如果销售被批准了,斯的合作伙伴收到了全额付并能转移方向后,接下来的几年里对它成功与否的考验将会到来。An exodus would leave PwC empty-handed.大批合作伙伴的离去将会使得普华永道一无所获。The Big Four are also running a risk far greater than the cost of their purchases.四大巨头也在运行风险,比他们所购物花销要大得多的风险。A decade ago they placated regulators by retreating from advisory work.10年前他们退出咨询工作稳住监管者。High-profile deals like the Booz-PwC tie-up put the conflict of interest between auditing and consulting back in the spotlight:诸如斯和普华永道的结合这样高调的交易使审计和咨询的利益冲突再度成为人们关注的焦点:after it was announced, Arthur Levitt, a former head of Americas Securities and Exchange Commission, warned that the firms were slipping back towards old, bad habits.消息传出后,美国券交易委员会前任掌门人亚瑟莱维特警告说该公司正在向陈旧和恶劣的习性倒退。Any gains from pushing into strategy work might end up being outweighed by the cost of another regulatory crackdown.推行战略工作的任何收益也将被用在监管镇压的开销而抵消。 /201311/264581湖州曙光整形美容医院褐青色痣怎么样

湖州曙光整形医院做丰胸手术多少钱Business商业报道Motivating workers激励员工Ranked and yanked评级与封杀Firms that keep grading their staff ruthlessly may not get the best from them.那些总是无情地把员工分个三六九等的公司或许并不能得到最好的效果。Mayer: whos for the chop next?Mayer:谁是下一个要开除的?IT IS a brutal management technique in which bosses grade their employees performance along a vitality curve and sack those who fall into the lowest category.老板们对雇员们的表现按照活力曲线来评定,然后把最差的一些炒掉鱿鱼的管理方法实在非常残酷。Known as ranking and yanking, it had its heyday in the 1980s and 1990s.这个被称为评级与封杀的做法在19世纪80和90年代达到了全盛期。In America its popularity faded somewhat after it was seen to have contributed to the fall of Enron.在美国,实施该策略的公司因其被认为促成了安然公司的破产曾大量减少,Now it is back in the headlines.不过现在这个字眼又重新见诸报端。On November 8th All Things D, a tech-industry website, reported that Yahoo staff are increasingly unhappy about a quarterly performance review introduced last year by the new boss, Marissa Mayer.在11月8日,技术产业网站All Things D报道说,雅虎的员工们对于新老板Marissa Mayer去年引入的季度表现评估正日渐不满。The grading exercise is said to have cost 600 of them their jobs in recent weeks.据说,这种评估行为导致几周内就有600人没了工作。Four days later, Microsoft announced that its own, equally unpopular system was being scrapped.四天以后,微软宣布废除它自己同样不受欢迎的评价系统。In a memo, Lisa Brummel, Microsofts head of human resources, said there would be no more ratings and no more curve.在一份备忘录上,微软人力资源主管Lisa Brummel说道,再也不会有打分和曲线了。The firm would implement a fundamentally new approach, designed to encourage teamwork and collaboration.微软将会启用一个用来鼓励团结合作的崭新的方法。Many firms, from Amazon to PwC, still use some version of what management theorists also call stack ranking to sort the sheep from the goats in their workforce.从亚马逊到普华永道的许多公司依然在使用许多管理理论家称作员工排序的方法来挑选出不够格的员工。However, many of them enforce it more flexibly than seems to have been the case at Microsoft or Yahoo.然而,其中大多数的公司在实行时要比微软和雅虎这些公司有弹性的多。Even General Electric, which pioneered the technique during the uncompromising reign of Neutron Jack Welch, has since softened its approach.甚至在中子弹杰克韦尔奇治下首先采用这种管理方法的通用电气近年来也软化了实行方法。The reason such gradings have not died out entirely is because employers still need to find ways to fairly evaluate their employees and have a basis for compensation differences, says Robert Kaplan of Harvard Business School.这种评分策略没有完全消失的原因在于老板们仍然需要找到公平评估雇员的方法并据此确定报酬差异。This is especially true when there is a wide gap between the remuneration of top performers and the rest.当顶级员工的工资和其他人差的很多的时候,这尤其显得很重要。To avoid lawsuits claiming unfair discrimination, firms need to be able to show they have a clear basis for decisions on pay and bonuses.这话来自于哈佛商学院的Robert Kaplan。为了避免不公待遇和员工歧视的诉讼,公司在决定酬劳和福利的时候需要有明确的根据。Ranking and yanking is more logical in investment banks, law and accountancy firms and big consultancies:评级和封杀在投资、法律和会计公司以及大型咨询公司这些行业中要更合理一些:their business model is, in a sense, built on recruiting large numbers of junior staff and motivating them with the prospect of becoming a partner, even though in practice only a few of them can ever make it.他们的业务形式在某种程度上就是建立在招收大量新员工然后用成为合作人的目标激励他们努力工作,虽然实际上只有极少数人能够做到。In other types of business, the evidence suggests that it may work at first, if a firm needs to cut away dead wood.但在其他行业中,有据显示这个方法在公司想要除去公司的赘余部分时还是能管用一段时间的。But the benefit can disappear and turn into a cost if the ranking and yanking is done repeatedly, says Denise Rousseau of Carnegie Mellon University.但是如果重复进行下去,就会由使公司收益变为带来损失。卡耐基梅隆大学的Denise Rousseau如此说道。You can quickly end up with the people in the bottom quartile being average performers rather than poor performers, she notes.很快,处在评估表底部的人就会是一般员工而非业务糟糕者她解释道,There is nothing wrong with being average in an above-average workforce.在一群极其优秀的员工中成为普通一员可没什么不对的。A lot of good work is done by average people.众多的优秀工作都是由普通人做成的。If a large proportion of the workforce doubt the fairness of the grading system, and fear being among an arbitrarily imposed a of underperformers, many may try to jump before they are pushed:如果员工中较大一部分人怀疑评价体系的公正性,并且担心被随机地划分为不合格员工,其中不少就会尝试在被开除之前跳槽:staff turnover may thus be higher than is desirable.人员流动程度就会比期望的更大。Worse, employees may look for ways to game the system, as happened at Enron, where workers conspired to inflate their results to secure their bonuses or escape the axe.更糟的是,雇员会想法设法利用体系的规则,正如安然事件中发生的那样,员工们串通起来夸大自己的成果来保自己的奖励或是避免被开除。That is not the sort of teamwork and collaboration that is wanted.这可不是我们想要的那种团结合作。 /201311/265975 Woodpeckers puncture the bark of dead or dying trees,also known as snags, to find the wood-boring insects that makeup their diet, and some species also excavate cavities in thesetrees for their nests.啄木鸟啄破死树或垂死的树的树皮,觅得吃木头的昆虫为食。有些物种也会在这些树上筑巢。So where does the fungus come in?那么真菌是从哪来的呢?Well, scientists observed that the snags woodpeckersexcavate generally contain decayed wood, which is caused by wood-decay fungi.恩,科学家们观察到啄木鸟啄洞的断枝通常包含由木腐菌造成的蛀木。Right. And thisled them to wonder whether woodpeckers are attracted to certain types of decay, or if theyrethe ones actually sping the fungus that causes the decay.是的。而且这引起观察家们思考:是某些类型的腐烂吸引了啄木鸟,还是说啄木鸟实际上传播了引起腐烂的真菌呢?So what did come first?那么到底哪个在先?Well, it turns out that the relationship between the two is pretty complex.恩,事实明两者关系相当复杂。When woodpeckers puncture bark, they provide a way for airborne fungal spores to infect the wood.当啄木鸟啄树皮时,它们为空气传播的真菌孢子感染树木提供了方便,They also act as vectors, unintentionally picking up fungal spores and other microbes from onesnag and carrying them in their beaks to another.它们同时也是带菌者,无意中携带了真菌孢子和来自某根断枝的其他细菌,它们的喙载着这些细菌再传播给其他树木。And not surprisingly, species of woodpeckersthat nest in cavities carry a significantly larger number of these, which is synergistic, because the decay makes it easier for them to excavate.毫不奇怪的是,那些在树洞里筑巢的啄木鸟携带着更大量的真菌,它们是协同作用着的,因为腐烂使得啄木鸟啄洞更容易了。So even though we still dont know which came first, this also isnt merely an intellectual exercise.因此,即使我们不知道先有哪个,这也不仅仅是一种智力测验。Woodpeckers are pretty important ecologically because the sites they excavate are used forforaging, roosting, and nesting by many other species as well.从生态学的观点看,啄木鸟的角色相当重要,因为啄木鸟挖掘的树洞可以用于觅食,栖息,还可以被其他物种用来筑巢。And now that theres debate overwhether snags contribute to forest fires and should be removed, its especially important to studypotential ramifications.既然人们关于断枝是否会导致森林火灾而应该被移除争论不休,那么研究一下可能出现的后果就特别重要了。 201405/296982湖州南浔区耳部整形多少钱湖州吴兴区光子美白多少钱

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