原标题: 泉州超导可视打胎大概要多少钱泡泡网
An increase in the number of lawsuits lodged by foreigners has prompted China#39;s top court to consider how it might provide legal services in English. Such a move would help those filing disputes that typically involve commerce, property and marriage.随着诉讼案件涉及越来越多的外国人,中国最高法院准备提供英语法律务。此举有助于解决那些涉及经济、财产和婚姻纠纷的文件争议。Some courts in coastal areas have aly formed connections with translators to help foreigners file lawsuits, but more assistance is needed, said Jiang Qibo, chief judge of the Case-Filing Tribunal at the Supreme People#39;s Court. ;It is necessary to establish an English lawsuit service platform nationwide, and we are considering this,; Jiang said.姜启波是最高人民法院立案庭的庭长,他表示沿海地区的一些法庭一直以来就调用翻译人员来帮助外籍人员提起诉讼,但是这些还不够。“中国有必要设立英语诉讼平台,我们现在也正在考虑该方案。”姜启波说。Ada Jen, an administrator at a Beijing international school who comes from the ed States, said it is difficult to resolve disputes, ;because few resources about Chinese laws and legal procedures are translated into English;.阿达珍是一名美国人,是北京国际学校的一名行政助理。她说解决争议太难了,“因为中国的法律和法律程序很少有翻译成英文的。”;As I dealt with cases in China, I had to turn to educational institutions such as Peking University to interpret judicial documents,; said Jen, adding that she is looking forward to seeing the English platform set up.“当我在中国处理案件的时候,我不得不去像北京大学这样的教育体系寻求帮助,翻译法律文件。”珍说,她表示自己非常期待能够建立英语平台。Jiang said courts in the Pudong district of Shanghai and in Yiwu, Zhejiang province-two areas where foreign investment is increasing-have taken measures to better serve litigants in English.姜启波表示,现在上海浦东区和浙江义乌的外籍投资越来越多,这两个地区已经采取相应的英语诉讼务。;These courts have built up an interpreter database to serve and guide foreigners who file cases. Judicial documents in English can be supplied for foreigners. We#39;ll study examples of serving foreigners from these courts and try to establish a unified lawsuit service platform in English and extend it across the country to satisfy foreign litigants promptly.; Jiang said.“这些地区的法庭建立了翻译资料库,可以务和引导外国人起诉。同时可以向外国人提供英文的法律文件。我们要从这些向外国人提供英语务的案例中学习,创建英语务诉讼平台,将平台引入整个中国,更好地务外籍诉讼者。”姜启波说。Under Chinese laws, foreign litigants have the same rights as citizens in lawsuits if their disputes occur in China.在中国法律中,外籍诉讼人在中国出现纠纷后,享有同中国公民一样的权利。 /201512/416395Tadashi Maeda was visibly agitated. Addressing an investment forum in Kuala Lumpur, the senior managing director at Japan Bank for International Cooperation assured the packed hall that Japan would redouble its efforts to secure a contract to build the proposed 350km high-speed railway to link the Malaysian capital to Singapore, at an estimated cost of between .7bn and .5bn. 去年10月,在马来西亚首都吉隆坡的一个投资论坛上,日本国际协力(JBIC)执行董事前田匡史(Tadashi Maeda)向满场观众保日本将加倍努力获取马新高铁的建设合同。这条拟建的高铁全长350公里,将连接吉隆坡和新加坡,预估费用在97亿美元到145亿美元之间。前田匡史讲话时,可以明显看出他的不安。 Mr Maeda had good reason to be agitated. He was speaking last October, a month after the Indonesian government surprised many by awarding a .5bn, 150km Jakarta to Bandung high-speed railway contract not to Japan — which had spent five years on feasibility studies and pushing Jakarta to get the project going — but to China. It shocked the Japanese establishment , which had been certain of success. 他的不安是有充分理由的。就在那之前的一个月,印度尼西亚政府将投资55亿美元,全长150公里的雅加达—万隆高铁项目给了中国,而不是日本,令许多人感到惊讶。此前,日本已经花了五年时间对这个项目进行可行性研究,并推动印尼政府实施这个项目。这件事震惊了一直觉得自己胜券在握的日本当局。 Mr Maeda should brace himself again. FT Confidential Research, a unit of the Financial Times, believes China is the early favourite to win the Malaysian contract, too. 眼下前田匡史应该再次做好心理准备。英国《金融时报》旗下“投资参考”(FT Confidential Research)认为,中国在争取马新高铁合同的竞争中也初步领先。 Japan was the favoured development partner for Malaysia under former premier Mahathir Mohamad in the 1980s and the 1990s. But under Najib Razak, prime minister since 2009, China has moved to the fore. 上世纪八九十年代,马来西亚前总理马哈蒂尔#8226;穆罕默德(Mahathir Mohamad)执政期间,日本曾是马来西亚所青睐的开发合作伙伴。但自现任总理纳吉布#8226;拉扎克(Najib Razak)2009年上台以来,中国跑到了前头。 Over the past five years, China-based companies have successfully participated in high-profile infrastructure projects. The .1bn Second Penang Bridge — partly financed by an 0m loan from the Chinese government — was built by the state-owned China Harbour Engineering Company (CHEC) together with Malaysia-based UEM Group. 过去5年里,中国企业已成功地参与了一些备受瞩目的基础设施项目。国有的中国港湾工程(CHEC)与马来西亚UEM Group一起建造了“槟城第二大桥”(Second Penang Bridge),这座桥投资11亿美元,部分资金来自中国政府提供的8亿美元贷款。 More significantly, in the rail sector about 80 per cent of Malaysian rolling stocks are Chinese made. The Malaysian rail business is so lucrative that China Railway Construction Corporation (CRCC) opened a m rolling stock manufacturing plant in the country in July 2015. 更值得注意的是,马来西亚铁路部门80%的列车是中国制造的。2015年7月,中国铁建(CRCC)在马来西亚投资9700万美元开设了一家铁路车辆制造厂,从中可以看出马来西亚铁路业务利润多么丰厚。 CRCC is part of the Chinese consortium led by freight transporter China Railway bidding for the Kuala Lumpur-Singapore line. The party also includes China Railway Signals amp; Communication and China Communications Construction (the parent company of CHEC). 中国铁建是竞标马新高铁的中国联合体成员之一,联合体由中国中铁(China Railway)牵头,其他成员还包括中国铁路通信信号(China Railway Signals amp; Communication)以及中国交通建设(China Communications Construction,中国港湾工程的母公司)。 China’s cause may have been helped by its support for 1MDB, the controversial state investment fund at the centre of corruption allegations bedevilling Mr Najib. The prime minister and 1MDB deny any wrongdoing over 0m that landed in his personal bank accounts from a mysterious foreign source. 中国在马来西亚的事业可能受益于其对马来西亚国家投资基金“1MDB”的持。该基金备受争议,处于困扰纳吉布的腐败指控的核心。对于纳吉布个人账户上来自海外不明来源的6.8亿美元巨款,纳吉布本人与1MDB都否认存在任何不法行为。 1MDB was at risk of default until China saved it in November and bought a set of power assets from the fund for .3bn. 1MDB also sold part of its stake in a large plot of prime land in Kuala Lumpur to China Railway, the same plot which the Najib government has designated as the Malaysian terminus of the planned high-speed line. 1MDB原本已面临违约风险,直至去年11月中国施以援手——以23亿美元购入该基金旗下电力资产。1MDB还将其在吉隆坡一大片黄金地块的部分股份卖给了中国中铁,纳吉布政府已将这一地块指定为规划中的马新高铁马来西亚段终点站。 Mohd Azharuddin Mat Sah, head of Malaysia’s Public Land Transport Commission, denies the land sale gives China an advantage in the race. He insists Malaysia and Singapore will award the contract through an open tender to be held this year, with 2023 as the target completion date. 马来西亚陆路公共交通委员会(Public Land Transport Commission)首席执行官阿扎鲁丁(Mohd Azharuddin Mat Sah)否认此笔土地出让会让中国在高铁竞标中获得优势。他坚称,马来西亚和新加坡将在今年通过举行公开招标决定合同归属,工程预定完工时间为2023年。 But the denial will be of little comfort to the Japanese consortium comprising East Japan Railway, Sumitomo, Hitachi and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. 但言辞上的否认并不能让由东日本旅客铁路(East Japan Railway)、住友(Sumitomo)、日立(Hitachi)及三菱重工(Mitsubishi Heavy Industries)组成的日本联合体感到安心。 /201603/431113

Chinese netizens call to strengthen emergency aid system in society after a man fell to sudden death in a subway station in Beijing during rush hour.近日,一名男子在上下班高峰时期猝死于北京一地铁站里,对此中国网民呼吁加强社会的急救系统。Jin Bo, the 34-year-old deputy editor-in-chief of a popular social networking site tianya.cn, passed away last Wednesday evening after he lost consciousness and fainted at a subway station in Beijing around 7 p.m.今年34岁的金波是天涯社区的副主编。上周三的时候他突然晕倒在北京一地铁站里,失去了意识,随后大约在晚上7点左右停止了心跳。Eyewitnesses said some fellow passengers tried to give Jin artificial respiration and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) including a foreign woman who claimed herself to be an emergency treatment doctor, while subway employees eased the crowds during the rush hour, Beijing Youth Daily reported.据《北京青年报》报道,现场目击者称,同行的乘客试图给金波做人工呼吸和心肺复苏术,其中还有一名自称是急救医生的外国女子,当时正是交通晚高峰时期,地铁工作人员正在疏散人群。Jin also received CPR from Beijing Red Cross Emergency Rescue Center (999) medical staff before he was sent to the hospital where he was certified dead.在被送到医院之前,北京红十字急救中心(999)的医护人员也对他进行了心肺复苏术,但是后来送到医院后还是不治身亡。Amid the mourning for the loss of a good reporter and introspection on overworking which could possibly lead to death, many netizens also pointed out the necessity to set up emergency aid system in the society, especially at public places.在哀痛失去了一名好记者和反省有可能致人死亡的过度工作之后,许多网民都指出了在全社会建立急救系统的必要性,尤其在公共场所。It reflected the inadequacy of emergency rescue at public places. All public places must be equipped with AED and all service staff should be trained with CPR. Those who offer help must not stop giving CPR to the patient until 999 medical staff arrive, wrote Yu Ying, a verified doctor at emergency department, on her Sina Weibo.这起事件反映出了公共场所急救的缺失。所有公共场所都必须配备自动体外除颤器(AED),并且所有的务人员都应当培训学习心肺复苏术。急诊医生余音在她的新浪微上写道,那些伸出援手的人在999医护人员抵达之前不能停止心肺复苏术。AED in Yu#39;s post referred to automated external defibrillator, a portable electronic device that can automatically diagnose some heart diseases. It is also able to treat the patient through electrical therapy. However, such life-saving devices are rarely seen in China. According to China Central Television (CCTV), AED can so far only be found at the Beijing Capital International Airport, some lines of the Shanghai subway and in a few Olympic stadiums in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou. The device is also unfamiliar to much of the public.AED是指自动体外除颤器,这种便携式电子设备能够自动诊断某些心脏疾病,也能够通过电击疗法来治疗病人。但是,这些救生设备在中国很少见。据CCTV报道,目前中国国内配备了AED的公共场所只有首都国际机场、上海地铁部分线路和北上广等地的一些奥运场馆。对许多公众来说,他们也不熟悉自动体外除颤器。 /201607/454231

BEIJING — General Motors’s main joint venture in China was fined million on Friday on charges that it suppressed competition by enforcing minimum sales prices for dealers. It is the latest in a string of penalties against non-Chinese auto brands under the country’s antimonopoly law.北京——通用汽车(General Motors)在中国的主要合资企业上周五被处以2900万美元的罚款,原因是对经销商设定最低限价,阻碍了竞争。这是中国依据反垄断法对非中国汽车品牌施以一连串惩罚的最新一起。Chinese regulators have punished companies in several industries, likemilk and medical devices, under the 2008 law in what appears to be an effort to force down consumer prices.这部反垄断法制定于2008年,其目的似乎是压低消费物价,中国的监管机构以它为依据,已经对乳业和医疗设备等几个行业的企业进行了惩处。G.M. had announced in August 2014 that Shanghai G.M., its joint venture with the state-owned Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation, was under investigation by antimonopoly regulators.通用汽车于2014年8月宣布,它与国有上海汽车的合资企业上汽通用公司正在接受反垄断监管机构的调查。The Shanghai Price Bureau said that Shanghai G.M. improperly hurt competition by enforcing minimum prices dealers were allowed to charge for Cadillac, Chevrolet and Buick models.上海市物价局称,该公司设定经销商销售凯迪拉克、雪佛兰和别克一些车型的最低价格,阻碍了竞争。That “disrupted the normal order of market competition,” said a statement by the price bureau.物价局表示,这种做法“扰乱了正常的市场竞争秩序”。Setting minimum retail prices is a common practice in many markets, but lawyers say Chinese regulators appear to regard it as an improper restraint on competition.设定最低销售价格的做法在很多市场都是惯例,但律师们表示,中国监管机构似乎认为这是对竞争的不当约束。The price bureau’s statement said the penalty was set at 4 percent of Shanghai G.M.’s annual sales, or 201 million yuan, about million.物价局的声明称,对该公司处以上一年销售额4%的罚款,共计人民币2.01亿元。G.M. vies with Volkswagen for the status of the top-selling vehicle brand in China.通用正在和大众争夺中国最畅销汽车品牌的地位。Sales of G.M. vehicles in China are up 8.5 percent so far this year, to 3.4 million.通用汽车今年在中国的销量到目前为止增长了8.5%,达340万辆。“G.M. fully respects local laws and regulations wherever we operate,” the company said in a statement. “We will provide full support to our joint venture in China to ensure that all responsive and appropriate actions are taken with respect to this matter.”“通用汽车完全尊重营业所在地的法规,”公司在一份声明中表示。“我们将对在华合资企业提供全力持,以确保合资企业针对此事采取相应的适当举措。”President-elect Donald J. Trump has criticized Chinese trade practices, but there was no indication the case was linked to that.候任总统唐纳德#8226;J#8226;特朗普(Donald J. Trump)批评过中国在贸易上的做法,但没有迹象表明这个案件与其有关。Audi, Volkswagen’s luxury unit, was fined .5 million, and Fiat Chrysler Automobiles’ Chrysler brand received a smaller penalty in 2014 on similar charges of enforcing minimum sales prices.大众汽车的豪华品牌奥迪被罚款4050万美元,菲亚特克莱斯勒汽车公司(Fiat Chrysler Automobiles)的克莱斯勒品牌曾因限制最低销售价格,在2014年遭受了类似处罚,不过罚款金额较少。State media cited an official saying Daimler Benz’s Mercedes unit was guilty of violations, but no penalty was announced. Toyota Motor Corporation said its Lexus unit was under scrutiny, but no results have been announced.官方媒体引用一个官员的说法,称戴姆勒奔驰(Daimler Benz)的奔驰品牌也有违规,但没有宣布具体惩罚措施。丰田汽车公司(Toyota Motor Corporation)表示,其雷克萨斯品牌正在接受审查,但尚未宣布结果。The industrywide investigation began in 2014 after complaints of foreign auto brands abusing their control over supplies of spare parts to overcharge consumers. In the case of Mercedes, regulators said purchasing the spare parts needed to assemble one car would cost as much as 12 new vehicles.2014年,中国开始进行全行业的调查,之前有投诉称外国汽车品牌利用它们对配件供应的控制权,向消费者收取过高费用。监管机构表示,更换某款奔驰轿车所有配件的花费可购买12辆新车。 /201612/485716HONG KONG — Australian officials have responded to criticism from animal rights activists and celebrities, including the former actress Brigitte Bardot and the singer Morrissey, that a government plan to protect threatened species by killing millions of feral cats is unnecessarily cruel.香港——一群动物权益维护者和名人,包括息影演员碧姬·芭铎(Brigitte Bardot)和歌手莫里西(Morrissey),批评澳大利亚政府打算捕杀数百万只野猫以保护濒危物种的计划是不必要的残忍之举。就此,澳大利亚官员做出了回应。Gregory Andrews, Australia’s threatened species commissioner, has written open letters to Ms. Bardot and Morrissey saying that feral cats prey on more than 100 of the country’s threatened species and that they were a “major contributor” to the extinction of at least 27 mammal species in the country over the past 200 years.澳大利亚濒危物种委员格雷戈里·安德鲁斯(Gregory Andrews)给芭铎和莫里西写了公开信,文中表示,野猫会捕食澳大利亚的逾百个濒危物种,在过去200年里,它是导致澳大利亚起码27种哺乳动物灭绝的“元凶”。He called some of the extinct species, such as the lesser bilby, desert bandicoot, crescent nailtail wallaby and big-eared hopping, “delightful creatures, rich in importance in Australian Indigenous culture, and formerly playing important roles in the ecology of our country. We don’t want to lose any more species like these.”他把小兔耳袋狸、荒漠袋狸、新月甲尾袋鼠和大耳弹鼠等已灭绝的物种称作“可爱的生物”,指它们“在澳大利亚土著文化中极为重要,以前在我国的生态环境里也扮演了重要的角色。我们不希望再失去这样的物种。”The Australian Department of the Environment says that feral cats are the biggest threat to the country’s mammals, ahead of foxes and habitat loss. The government plan would use poison and traps to kill the cats.澳大利亚环境保护部称,野猫是该国哺乳动物物种的最大威胁,比狐狸和失去生境造成的威胁更大。政府计划用毒药和诱捕装置来杀野猫。In announcing the plan in July, Greg Hunt, the environment minister, said that he wanted to see two million feral cats culled by 2020. Australia has an estimated 20 million feral cats, which are an invasive species brought by European settlers. Calls to exterminate the cats have been floated before, including one in the 1990s that called for killing all feral cats by 2020.环境保护部长格雷格·亨特(Greg Hunt)在今年7月公布这项计划时说,希望到了2020年的时候捕杀的野猫数量可达两百万。澳大利亚目前估算存在两千万只野猫,是以前欧洲移民引入的入侵物种。根除野猫的倡议以前就一直有,其中包括90年代的那次呼吁在2020年前杀光所有野猫的提议。When the current plan was announced, Ms. Bardot, 81, the French actress well known for her work in animal rights campaigns, wrote that the plan was “a scandal, a shame.”81岁的法国演员芭铎以热心投入动物权益保护活动而闻名。当政府宣布目前的计划时,她撰文指计划是“丑闻和耻辱”。“This animal genocide is inhuman and ridiculous,” she said, arguing that Australia should neuter feral cats rather than kill them.“这样的动物大屠杀是非人道和荒谬的,”她说道,并认为澳大利亚政府应该替野猫绝育,而不是捕杀。Morrissey, an English pop star, called the Australian government “a committee of sheep-farmers who have zero concerns about animal welfare or animal respect.” He said the cats that would be killed are “2 million smaller versions of Cecil The Lion,” a reference to the controversial killing of a lion in Zimbabwe in July by an American dentist.英国流行歌星莫里西称澳大利亚政府为“毫不关心动物福祉或尊严的牧羊农户组成的委员会”。7月份时,津巴布韦的明星狮子西塞尔被一名美国牙医猎杀,引起争议。莫里西说,被捕杀的野猫将会是“两百万只小型版的西塞尔”。Mr. Andrews’s response did not say why the Australian authorities were choosing to kill the cats over neutering them. He did say the government’s plan was supported by “the overwhelming majority of key environmental nongovernment organizations,” including the World Wildlife Fund and the Nature Conservancy.在回应中,安德鲁斯没有提及澳大利亚政府为何选择捕杀野猫而非替其绝育。但他说,“绝大多数重要的非政府环保组织”持政府的计划,其中包括世界自然基金会(World Wildlife Fund)和大自然保护协会(Nature Conservancy)。“The greatest impact of feral cats occurs across Australia’s vast deserts, rugged mountains, forests and savannas: remote and often inaccessible landscapes that are home to our native wildlife,” he added.他还说:“野猫对澳大利亚广袤的沙漠、崎岖的山脉、森林和热带草原都有巨大的影响。而这些人类通常难以抵达的偏远地方正是本土野生动物的栖息地。” /201510/403814

Personal information of over 200,000 children in Jinan, East China#39;s Shandong Province, including the cellphone number and home address of their parents have been leaked, triggering widesp concerns on the possible consequences if criminals get hold of the data.近日,位于中国东部的山东省济南市的20万名儿童的个人信息,包括他们父母的手机号码和家庭住址被泄露,这一事件引发了广泛关注,并对如果犯罪分子得到这些信息后导致的可能性后果表示担心。The data was offered for 32,000 yuan (,900) from hospitals where the children were vaccinated, Shandong-based Qilu Evening News reported last Wednesday.据山东省《齐鲁晚报》上周三报道,这些信息是为儿童接种疫苗的医院接受32000元后放出的。Over 60 percent of the data of a sampling list of 29 children, aged from 1 to 5, acquired by the newspaper#39;s reporter are accurate after the reporter called and checked everyone, the report said.该报道指出,晚报的记者随机抽查了60名年龄1至5岁的儿童名单,并一一打电话核对,其中60%的信息准确无误。Parents also complained that they have received many fraudulent calls, guessing that their information might have be leaked when their children were vaccinated at local hospitals. What worries them more, they said, is the possible danger they might face if criminals get hold of the data, who might extort money or even kidnap their children.家长还抱怨称,他们收到了许多欺诈性电话,并猜测他们的信息可能是在当地医院接种疫苗的之后被泄露的。他们更加担心的是,若让罪犯分子得到这些数据,可能会向他们勒索钱财,甚至绑架他们的孩子。The data of newborn babies in Beijing, including 40,000 babies born since 2016, could be bought for 0.2 yuan per baby, according to a seller reached by the Global Times on last Thursday.据《环球时报》上周四联系到的一位卖家表示,北京的新生儿,其中包括自2016年出生的4万名婴儿的信息,可以以0.2元每个婴儿的价格出售。Such data gathered from hospitals and different cities in China, mostly first- and second-tier cities, could be offered, said those sellers.该卖家表示,可以提供的信息主要来自中国不同城市的医院,大多是一、二线城市。Though those who illegally sell personal information could face a maximum of seven years in prison based on Article 253 of China#39;s Criminal Law, sellers are willing to take the risk as the chances of getting caught are slim, said Zhu Wei, deputy director of the Communications Law Research Center at the China University of Political Science and Law.中国政法大学通信法律研究中心副主任朱伟表示,虽然根据中国刑法第253条的规定,那些非法出售个人信息的人可能会面临七年的监禁,但因为被抓到的几率很小,所以出卖信息的人愿意承担风险。;There#39;s very little supervision on the protection of personal information from the government, including the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology and Cyberspace Administration of China,; he added.他补充说道:“包括中国工业科技信息部和网络管理部等相关政府部门对个人信息的保护很少有监督”。Sellers can gain as much as 300 yuan by selling a person#39;s ;more specific information,; such as a pregnant woman#39;s cellphone number, the hospital and bed number, and her surgery date, Nandu Daily reported in March.据《南都日报》三月份的报道,卖家可以通过出售一个人的“更具体的信息”赚取300元钱,例如“妇的手机号码,医院,床位号和手术日期”。That#39;s partially why such a business is thriving and has not been curbed, Zhu said.朱伟主任表示,这就是为什么这样的业务能够蓬勃发展,而且并没有得到遏制的部分原因。 /201604/438844Archaeologists have unearthed a pyramid-shaped tomb under a construction site in central China.考古学家在中国中部一建筑工地下出土了一个金字塔形的坟墓。Residents are amazed after the unusual ancient burial site was discovered in Zhengzhou, Henan Province, with one calling it #39;magical#39;.这个独特古墓的发现让郑州市民感到惊奇,有人大呼“神奇”。Further analysis is yet to be carried out to identify how old the tomb is, who the owner was and why it was built in this particular shape.这个古墓的年代,主人以及结构成因还需进一步的分析才能知道。Chinese media have dubbed the tomb the #39;pyramid of Zhengzhou#39;, though the structure is much smaller in size compared to the real pyramids in Egypt.中国媒体将这个坟墓称为“郑州金字塔”,虽然大小完全不及埃及金字塔。 /201703/498780

The oceans are rising faster than at any point in the last 28 centuries, and human emissions of greenhouse gases are primarily responsible, scientists reported Monday.科学家本周一表示,海平面目前上升的速度比过去28个世纪中的任何时候都要快,而罪魁祸首就是人类排放的温室气体。They added that the flooding that is starting to make life miserable in many coastal towns — like Miami Beach; Norfolk, Va.; and Charleston, S.C. — was largely a consequence of those emissions, and that it is likely to grow worse in coming years.他们还表示,洪水正在让很多沿海城镇的生活苦不堪言——比如迈阿密海滩、弗吉尼亚州的诺福克,还有南卡罗来纳州的查尔斯顿——这主要是人为排放导致的,而且情况很可能在未来的年份里恶化。The scientists confirmed previous estimates, but with a larger data set, that if global emissions continue at a high rate over the next few decades, the ocean could rise as much as three or four feet by 2100, as ocean water expands and the great ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica begin to collapse.科学家们实了先前的估算,但现在他们采用了一个更大的数据库。这种估算认为,如果全球温室气体排放的速率继续在未来的几十年中保持在较高水平,那么随着海水膨胀、格陵兰岛和南极洲的巨大冰盖崩塌,海平面可能会到2100年上升多达3到4英尺。Experts say the situation will grow far worse in the 22nd century and beyond, likely requiring the abandonment of many of the world’s coastal cities.专家们称,这种情况将自22世纪起严重恶化,世界各地的人们可能会被迫放弃很多沿海城市。“I think we can definitely be confident that sea-level rise is going to continue to accelerate if there’s further warming, which inevitably there will be,” said Stefan Rahmstorf, a professor of ocean physics at the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research in Germany and co-author of a paper released Monday by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.“我认为,我们绝对可以相信,如果出现进一步升温,海平面上升的速率将会继续加快,而进一步升温在所难免,”德国波茨坦气候影响研究所(Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research)的海洋物理学教授斯特凡·拉姆斯托夫(Stefan Rahmstorf)说。他是《美国国家科学院院刊》(The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)本周刊登的一篇相关论文的合著者。“Ice simply melts faster when the temperatures get higher,” Dr. Rahmstorf added. “That’s just basic physics.”“随着温度的升高,冰融化的速度就会加快,”拉姆斯托夫士说。“这是简单的物理现象。”In a report issued at the same time as the scientific paper, a climate research and communications organization in Princeton, N.J., Climate Central, used the new findings to calculate that roughly three-quarters of the tidal floods now occurring in towns along the American East Coast would not be happening in the absence of sea-level rise caused by human emissions.这篇科学论文问世的同时,新泽西州普林斯顿的气候研究与沟通机构气候中心(Climate Central)也发表了一篇报告。文中使用这些新的结论来计算潮汐洪水,发现如果没有人为排放造成的海平面上升,美国东海岸城镇目前的潮汐洪水中,大约有四分之三都不会发生。The lead author of that report, Benjamin H. Strauss, said the same was likely to be true on a global scale, in any coastal community that has seen an increase of saltwater flooding in recent decades.该报告的第一作者本杰明·H·施特劳斯(Benjamin H. Strauss)表示,在全球范围内,情况很可能也是一样的,很多海岸社区近几十年经历了潮汐洪水的增多。Local factors do come into play, though: Communities on land that is sinking, as in the Chesapeake Bay region of the ed States, are being hit especially hard by the rising sea level.不过,其中也有局地因素在起作用:一些陆地区域正在下沉,比如在美国的切萨皮克湾地区,对于他们来说,海平面上升的打击尤为严重。Tidal floods are occurring more frequently, and are becoming a strain in many towns by killing lawns and trees, polluting supplies of fresh water, blocking streets in the middle of sunny afternoons and sometimes stranding entire island communities for hours by covering the roads to the mainland.潮汐洪水出现得更加频繁,正在成为很多城镇的心腹之患。它们危害草坪和树木,污染淡水供应,在阳光明媚的下午造成街道阻塞,海水漫过陆上道路,有时会让整个岛屿社区瘫痪好几个小时。“I think we need a new way to think about most coastal flooding,” Dr. Strauss said in an interview. “It’s not the tide. It’s not the wind. It’s us. That’s true for most of the coastal floods we now experience.”“我认为,对于多数的沿海洪水,我们需要采取新的思考方式,”斯特劳斯士在接受采访时说。“原因不是海潮,也不是风,而是我们。对于目前的大多数沿海洪水来说,这就是事实。”The new research was led by Robert E. Kopp, an earth scientist at Rutgers University who has won respect from his colleagues by bringing elaborate statistical techniques to bear on longstanding problems, like understanding the history of global sea level.这项新的研究由罗格斯大学(Rutgers University)的地球科学家罗伯特·E·科普(Robert E. Kopp)牵头进行。他将精密的统计学技术应用于一些长期存在的问题,比如怎样了解全球海平面的历史,赢得了同行的敬重。Scientists aly knew that the sea level rose drastically at the end of the last ice age, by almost 400 feet, causing shorelines to retreat by up to 100 miles in places. They also knew that the sea level had basically stabilized, like the rest of the climate, over the past several thousand years, the period when human civilization arose and sp across the earth.科学家们已经知道,海平面在最后一个冰河时代结束时大幅上升了近400英尺(约合120米),造成有些地方的海岸线向陆地推进了至多100英里(约合160公里)。他们也知道,在过去几千年中,海平面就像其他气候元素一样,基本趋于稳定。人类文明在这期间崛起,蔓延到地球各处。There were small variations of climate and sea level over that period, and several recent papers have tried to clarify these. The new paper confirms a central finding of the earlier research, that the sharp increase of sea level in the 20th century was unprecedented over thousands of years, but does so with a larger data set that may add to the confidence scientists place in the results.在此期间,气候和海平面出现过一些微小的变化,最近刊出的几篇论文试图在这些方面做出清晰的解释。这篇新的论文实了早前研究的一个核心发现,即海平面在20世纪的急剧上升是几千年来前所未有的,但是文中采用了一个更大的数据库来实这个发现,可能会增加科学家给这一结论的置信度。The paper confirms that the ocean is exquisitely sensitive to small variations in the earth’s temperature — a portentous finding, given that human emissions are inducing a large temperature rise.该论文确认,海洋对地球温度的微小变化非常敏感——鉴于人类排放在导致温度大幅上升,这个发现令人担忧。The researchers found that when the average global temperature fell by a third of a degree Fahrenheit in the Middle Ages, for instance, ice started to build up on land, and the volume of ocean water contracted, causing the average surface of the ocean to fall by about three inches over 400 years. When the climate warmed slightly, that trend reversed.例如,研究人员得出结论,在中世纪,全球平均气温下降了0.2摄氏度,陆冰开始增加,海水总量减少,导致海平面在400年的时间里平均下降了大约8厘米。当气候略微转暖时,这一趋势便出现逆转。“Physics tells us that sea-level change and temperature change should go hand in hand,” Dr. Kopp said. “This new geological record confirms it.”“物理学告诉我们,海平面变化和温度变化是同进同退的,”科普士说。“新的地质记录实了这个说法。”In the 19th century, as the Industrial Revolution took hold, the oceans began to rise, and have gone up by about eight inches since 1880. That may sound small, but the increase has caused extensive erosion worldwide, and governments are spending billions of dollars to try to shore up beaches and other coastal defenses.19世纪工业革命开始兴起,海平面也开始上升,自1880年以来已经上升了约20厘米。这个幅度听上去可能不大,但却在世界各地引发了广泛侵蚀,各国政府花费了数以亿计的资金来加固海滩,强化其他沿海防御措施。Largely because of human emissions, global temperatures have jumped by about 1.8 degrees Fahrenheit since the 19th century. Land ice has started to melt all over the planet, and seawater is expanding as it absorbs heat. The seas are rising at what appears to be an accelerating pace, lately reaching a rate of about a foot per century.自19世纪以来,全球气温大幅上升了约1摄氏度,这主要是人为排放造成的。全球各地的陆冰开始融化,海水吸收热量后膨胀。海平面日益上升,而且节奏似乎正在不断加快,近期达到了每世纪约30厘米的速度。One of the authors of the new paper, Dr. Rahmstorf, had previously published estimates suggesting the seas could rise as much as five or six feet by 2100. But with the improved calculations from the new paper, his latest upper estimate is three to four feet.这篇新论文的作者之一拉姆斯托夫之前曾发表估算文章,其中表示,到2100年时,海平面会上涨至多五六英尺,但依据这篇新的论文,他估计上限会在三到四英尺之间。That means Dr. Rahmstorf’s estimate is now more consistent with calculations issued in 2013 by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, a ed Nations body that periodically reviews and summarizes climate research. The panel found that continued high emissions might produce a sea rise of 1.7 to 3.2 feet over the 21st century.这意味着,拉姆斯托夫现在的估计和政府间气候变化专门委员会( Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change,简称IPCC)2013年发布的计算结果更趋一致。IPCC是联合国机构,定期回顾和总结气候研究。它发现,持续的高排放可能会导致海平面在21世纪上升53厘米到92厘米。Dr. Rahmstorf said, however, that the rise would eventually exceed three feet — the only question is how long it will take. The recent climate agreement negotiated in Paris, if acted upon, will bring emissions down enough to slow the rate of sea-level rise in coming centuries, but scientists say the deal was not remotely ambitious enough to forestall a significant melting of the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets.不过,拉姆斯托夫称,上升幅度最终会超过3英尺——唯一的问题是这需要多长的时间。如果按照最近在巴黎达成的气候协议采取行动,把排放量降至足够低的程度,那么未来几个世纪的海平面上升速率就会放缓。但科学家们表示,这份协议远不足以阻止南极和格陵兰冰盖融化。On a geologic time scale, the recent, human-induced planetary warming has been quite sudden, and the huge ice sheets have only just started to respond.从地质时间的尺度来看,近来人类活动引起的地球变暖现象是相当突然的,巨大的冰盖这才刚刚开始有所反应。The upper estimate of three to four feet of sea-level rise in the 21st century rules out any large contribution from Antarctica in the near term, but that finding is tentative, given that the ice covering the western part of that continent is aly showing signs of instability. And recent studies suggest that the destruction of large parts of the Antarctic ice sheet may have become inevitable, even though that could take hundreds or thousands of years to play out.在估计21世纪海平面的上升上限为3到4英尺时,科学家排除了南极冰会在近期大幅融化的情景。但这只是个假设,覆盖在南极大陆西部的冰已经显示了不稳定迹象。近期的研究表明,南极大片地区的冰盖遭到破坏或许已经成为必然,尽管这一过程可能要延续数百或数千年的时间。“Sea level is going to continue going up for many centuries,” Dr. Rahmstorf said.“海平面将持续上升很多个世纪,”拉姆斯托夫说。 /201602/428247

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